Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Drug resistance

Efficacy of herbal extracts on drug-resistant dermatophytes isolated from clinical samples

Uma Arasu T, Arjunan S, Thirunavukkarasu D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6648-6663

Introduction: Superficial mycoses are common skin diseases affecting millions of people worldwide.
Objectives: This study aimed at examining the drug-resistant dermatophytes from clinical samples and the efficacy of herbal extracts on them.
Materials and methods: 150 clinical samples (skin, hair, and nail) were collected from suspected cases in Government Hospital, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India for a period of one year. Overall 112 (74.67%) positive cultures were identified. The dermatophytes isolates include Trichophyton species (34.82%), Epidermophyton species (13.39%), Microsporum species (37.5%) and Aspergillus species(14.28%).Age and sex-wise perspectives of dermatophytes infections indicated that females (64%) and adults between 15-30 years were highly infected by superficial mycoses.
Results: The overall percentage of multidrug resistance was higher than 98%. The efficiency of herbal extracts revealed that Aloevera gel, leaf extracts of Annona reticulata and Acalyphaindica were found to be an effective while, Achyranthusaspera, Azadiractaindica and pine were ineffective.
Conclusion: Medicinal plants are good sources of new pharmaceuticals. From these findings, the use of herbal medicines will reduce the side effects of synthetic antifungal drugs and the development of drug resistance.

The burden of Staphylococcus aureus infections at medicine department, IMS and SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar

Sarada Prasad Sahu, Asish Malla, Dr. Debasmita Tripathy, Rajesh Kumar Lenka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1940-1944

Background: Staphylococcus aureus infections are one of the major infections in hospitals and the drug-resistant strain of S. aureus caused mortality and morbidity throughout the globe. In this study, we evaluated the S. aureus infection and their drug sensitivity patterns at Medicine department for 5 years.
Methods: The patients admitted at medicine word were participated in this study. All clinical samples were taken for bacteriological study. After identification of bacteria, the drug sensitivity patterns were carried out by disc diffusion methods.
Results: A total of 944 S. aureus isolates were analyzed. High sensitivity of S. aureus was observed for quinupristin/dalfopristin (100%), tigecycline (98.2), imipenem (98%), nitrofurantoin (97.6%), linezolid (97.3%), teicoplanin (97.1%) and vancomycin (95.1%). High resistance was recorded against penicillin G (91.9%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (56.9%) and tetracycline (33.2%). MRSA prevalence among the patients at IMS and SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar was 27.8%. Highest proportion (80%) of MRSA was in burns unit.
Conclusions: Both MRSA and MSSA were highly susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin, tigecycline, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, ampicillin/sulbactam and vancomycin and showed high resistance to commonly used antibiotics such as gentamycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin and tetracycline. A majority of isolates were from pus specimen (68%).

Surveillance of microorganisms and their drug sensitivity patterns in diabetic UTI patient at a tertiary care teaching hospital

Santosh Singh, Rajashree Panigrahi, Ishwara Chandra Behera, Dr. Debasmita Dubey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1952-1966

Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the common infections affecting people, both from the community and hospital. The causative pathogens for UTI and their drug sensitivity patterns vary from region to region. Changes in their genetic constituents with time might be the reason.
Aim: In this study, we aimed investigate the profile of common uropathogens and assess their antibiotic sensitivity patterns with commonly used drugs for UTI patients.
Materials and methods: In this study, 153 urine samples were analyzed with routine microscopy, culture and sensitivity for a period of six months at Institute of Medical Science and SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Both bacteria and fungi were used for drug sensitivity test.
Result: A total no. of 54Gram positive bacteria and 40 Gram Negative bacteria were isolated. S. aureus was the most common GPC isolated and P. aeruginosa was the most common GNB. E. coli was the second most GNB which showed resistance to Cephalosporins and Aminocoumarin group. 4 Candida species were isolated, to which Clotrimazole was the most susceptible antifungal agent. Staphylococcus sp. showed resistance to β-lactams and Macrolides group of antibiotics. Shigella sp. showed resistance to β-lactams. C. albicans was found to be the common Fungi isolated, followed by C. krusei.
Conclusion: Since the drug sensitivity pattern changes from place to place and varies from time to time. The culture sensitivity therapy should be practiced before empirical administration of antibiotics.

Performance Of The Interferon Gamma Release Assays In Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients In An Urban Metropolis

Ms.Anusha Murali , Dr. Anand Thirupathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2915-2923

Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) were developed for the indirect or immunologic diagnosis of tuberculosis infection; however, they have also been used to assist in difficult to diagnose cases of tuberculosis disease in adults, and to a lesser extent, in children, especially in those under 5 years old. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)-positive rates and false-positive rates among the five age groups examined. Both rates were significantly different among age groups (all p-values <0.001). p-values were obtained by chi-square tests for trend. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)-positive rates among the four anatomic types of uveitis and between patients with and without retinal vasculitis. The IGRA-positive rates were significantly different among the four anatomic groups (p = 0.001). Patients with retinal vasculitis had higher positive IGRA rate (p < 0.001) than those without retinal vasculitis. p-values were obtained using chi-square tests.

Nasal Carriage And Antibiogram Of Staphylococcus Aureus Amidst Healthcare Personnel From A Teaching Hospital In Coastal Karnataka, India.

Fathimath Raseena; Sevitha Bhat; Archana Bhat; Radhakrishna M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4820-4826

Background: S.aureus is an increasing cause of infections in both immunities and hospitals. It is also a frequent colonizer of the skin and nose. The incidence of hospital-acquired and community-acquired S.aureus infection has risen associated with the simultaneous increase of drug-resistant strains called methicillin resistance S.aureus.Aims and objectives: To determine S. aureus and MRSA's nasal carriage rate among healthcare workers of a teaching hospital, detect the mecA gene, MIC of Vancomycin, and Mupirocin in MRSA isolates.Materials and methods: A total of 285 health care workers from a teaching hospital of coastal Karnataka has participated in this study. Both anterior nares were swabbed and processed in the microbiology laboratory. Standard bacteriological methods identified isolates. PCR confirmed MRSA strains. Results: A total of 285 healthcare workers in a teaching hospital were screened for nasal carriage of S.aureus. Out of 285, 45 (15.8 %) healthcare workers were screened positive for S.aureus. Fifteen (5.3%) were Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA). All the MRSA strains were confirmed by mecA gene detection by PCR.Conclusion: The rate of prevalence of MRSA carriage (5.3°/c) in healthcare workers was relatively low. There was no vancomycin-resistant S.umum.t, and MIC creep to vancomycin to MRSA was not observed. Two mupirocin- resistant .S. aureus and significant numbers of Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS) were identified. These findings highlight the urgency for application to infection control measures that aim to decrease M RSA transmission.

Drug Resistance Patterns Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis From Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients In An Urban Metropolis

Ms.Anusha Murali , Dr. Anand Thirupathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 6064-6074

Tuberculosis is a matter of concern for all countries. Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the major global health threats leading to morbidity and mortality. One in three persons across the world representing 2–3 billion individuals are known to be infected with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M. Tuberculosis) of which 5–15% are likely to develop active TB disease during their lifetime.Information of the pattern of drug resistant among the tuberculosis is crucial in developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to assess the drug resistance pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and associated factors among the patients. This study selected 934 culture-positive sputum samples referred to the National Reference Laboratory of the Research Institute for Pulmonology in Thanjavur from January 2015 to January 2018 were analysed; 40% of these samples were obtained from Tb Sanatorium, Sengipattipatients (hospitalized in `Sengipatti) and 60% from other regions (hospitalized in Minsk and other regions) equal to patient’s population in the regions.All 934 cases were subjected to a drug-resistance test. The anti-microbial drug susceptibility tests (DST) were performed using the WHO standard conventional proportional method. The Preferable First Line Drugs were INH 1mcg/ml, RIF40 mcg/ml, Ethambutol (EMB) 2 mcg/ml, and Streptomycin (SM) 10 mcg/ml on slants with the H37Rv strain of MTB as the positive control. Furthermore, MDR isolates were tested for resistance to fluoroquinolones and three injectable drugs (Amikacin 8 mcg/ml, Kanamycin 30 mcg/ml, and Capreomycin 8mcg/ml) for detection of XDR isolates.