Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : periodontitis


Dharahaas Chinthagumpala; Dr. R.V. Geetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1763-1770

Aim: This study aims to determine the changes caused by microbes in patients with periodontitis
Background: Periodontitis is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. The disease is a consequence of destructive host immune responses to pathogenic bacterial species resulting from the dysbiosis of oral microbiota
Objective: To comparatively analyze the oral microbial flora of healthy individual and patients with periodontitis
Materials & Method: Salivary samples of healthy individual and patients with periodontitis will be collected and will be analyzed in the Microbiology Laboratory for presence of any microorganisms. The findings will be compared to arrive at a conclusion on the diversity of the microbial profile between the two groups.
Results: The oral microbes included Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Candida Albicans, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus.
Conclusion: Knowledge of the difference in the microbial flora of healthy individual and patients with periodontitis can help aid in more specific treatment options and prevent recurrence of the disease.

Comparison of amnion membrane and bone graft with bone graft alone in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: A case study

Dr. Chandni; Dr. Vinit Kumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2344-2352

Background: Combination guided tissue regeneration for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects is an accepted treatment modality for many years and has undergone a number of changes. Human amniotic membrane allografts have been used for a variety of reconstructive surgical procedures since the early 1900s. The purpose of this study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate the efficacy of amniotic membrane as a guided tissue regenerative material in the treatment of human periodontal intrabony defects.
Method: Thirty six intrabony defects in eighteen systemically healthy subjects having moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to control group (treatment with hydroxyapatite bone graft) and test group(treatment with  hydroxyapatite and amnion membrane). The plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival recession (REC) were recorded at baseline, and were reevaluated at 3 and 6 months. In addition to this, radiographic bone fill was assessed using radiovisiograph. At the test site, hydroxyapatite bone graft and amnion membrane was placed, whereas at the control site, only hydroxyapatite bone graft was placed. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were made at baseline, at 3 and 6 months following surgery.
Results: In the control group, the mean reduction of PPD was 3.11 mm and the mean CAL gain was 3.78 mm. In the test group, the mean PPD reduction was 4.33 mm and mean gain in CAL was 5.55 mm after 6 months which was statistically significant. The mean gain in radiographic defect fill was 53.87% in the test and 50.76% in the control group after 6 months which was statistically significant. A significant decrease in mobility and gingival index was observed. .
Conclusion: Amnion membrane is an effective treatment option for the reconstruction of periodontal intrabony defects as it led to statistically significant improvements in the clinical and radiographic parameters.

“A Dual and Correlate bone Mineral Density and Periodontitis Among Post-Menopausal Women”

Dr. Girish Suragimath Prof, Dr. Nikhil Awale, Dr. Vaishali Mashalkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4851-4880

Both periodontitis and osteoporosis represent major health problems, with increased incidence and severity with advancing age, all over the world. Osteoporosis, though not being the initial cause of periodontitis, has been shown to be risk indicator that may contribute to the progression of periodontal disease. Some interventions that improve systemic BMD also improve measures of periodontal disease. Improvement of the two conditions by the same therapies suggests an underlying connection.
The three classes of therapy that have been implicated in this regard are
1)          Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
2)          Diet supplementation with calcium and vitamin D
3)          Bisphosphonates
A bone mineral density (BMD) test is used to measure an individual’s bone mass. BMD is measured using a DEXA scan. Most common cause is involutional bone loss in postmenopausal age group. Osteoporosis may be a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases or conditions. Primary osteoporosis includes idiopathic and involutional form. Idiopathic forms of osteoporosis are rare and affect men and women equally. Involutional osteoporosis includes two patterns type I (postmenopausal) and type II (age related) osteoporosis.
The present study was designed to assess and correlate bone mineral density and periodontitis among post-menopausal women

“Impact Of “Non- Surgical Periodontal Therapyon Plasma Homocysteine Levels In Patients With Chronic Periodontitis”

Dr. Sameer Zope Dr. Apurva Ashok Pisal Dr. Keshava Abbayya Dr. Siddharth Varma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4299-4336

Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and their chronic, inflammatory and infectious nature necessitates recognizing the possibility that these infections may have effects somewhere in the body. The concept that oral diseases and systemic diseases influence each other goes back to the theory of “focal infection”. In 1891, Miller published his theory regarding focal infection in which he indicated that microorganisms and their products are able to access parts of the body that are adjacent to or distant from the mouth. The proponents of this concept assume that microorganisms present in dental plaque and their metabolic products may enter the bloodstream, thereby causing many systemic diseases and sometimes resulting in degenerative conditions. Associations have been reported between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, diabetes, preterm low birth-weight babies, respiratory infections and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Clinical evaluation of ER, CR: YSGG laser therapy used as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment of periodontitis- An original research

Dr. Amit Kumar; Dr. Shiwangi Singh; Dr. Sumedh Lone; Dr. Kedar Nath Nayak; Dr. Panuganti Santhosh; Dr Fatru Rahman; Dr Nivedita Biswas .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8713-8717

Aim: Purpose of the present research was to assess the effectiveness of Er,Cr:YSGG laser in comparison or as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment for periodontitis.
Methodology: In a randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial, 27 patients were recruited. Using a split-mouth design, two quadrants were randomly allocated into either a test group or a control group. The test quadrants received Er,Cr:YSGG laser (ERL) (100 mJ/pulse;15 Hz to hard tissue and 50 mJ/pulse; 30 Hz to soft tissue) plus SRP treatment, while the control quadrants received SRP only. We evaluated periodontal indexes, including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding index (BI), and plaque index (PLI) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.
Results: The PD and CAL means in the ERL+SRP group were significantly lower than those in the SRP group at 3-month follow-up (PD: 2.98±0.38 mm vs. 3.09±0.35 mm; CAL: 4.51±0.69 mm vs. 4.72±0.67 mm) and 6-month follow-up (PD: 2.91±0.31 mm vs. 3.02±0.30 mm; CAL: 4.52±0.65 mm vs. 4.72±0.66 mm) (p=0.03 for both PD and CAL). There were no significant differences in BI and PLI between two groups.
Conclusion: The Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment combined with conventional SRP significantly improved PD and CAL compared to SRP therapy alone; however, these differences were very small and, as a result, the adjunctive effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser is likely to be minimal clinically important.

Exploring the correlation between covid-19 and periodontal diseases-An original research

Dr.Dnyaneshwari Gujar; Dr. Chaitrali Joshi; Dr. Devarshi J Pandya; Dr. Kedar Nath Nayak; Dr.Mohammad Baba Shafiuddin; Dr. Sheik Sameerudeen; Dr. Akriti Mahajan .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8707-8712

Aim: Purpose of the present research was to assess the co-relation between covid-19 and periodontal disease.
Methodology: A case-control study was conducted amongst 150 participants. Patients who had positive real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were included in the case group (n = 79), and patients with negative results were included in the control group (n = 71). The periodontal examination involved recording the plaque scores, calculus scores, tooth mobility, gingival bleeding, probing depth, recession, and clinical attachment level (CAL).
Results: Logistic regression analysis showed significant associations of mean plaque scores ≥ 1 (odds ratio (OR), 7.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.83 to 26.94), gingivitis (OR, 17.65; 95% CI, 5.95 to 52.37), mean CAL ≥ 2 mm (OR, 8.46; 95% CI, 3.47 to 20.63), and severe periodontitis (OR, 11.75; 95% CI, 3.89 to 35.49) with COVID-19; these findings were more prevalent in the case group.
Conclusion: Based on the above mentioned observations, it can be concluded that there is an association between periodontitis severity and COVID-19. Gingival bleeding and dental plaque accumulation are also more frequent among COVID-19 patients. Hence, it is essential to maintain periodontal health and good oral hygiene as an important measure for COVID-19 prevention and management.

Study of oral manifestations in chronic kidney disease in vindhya Region

Karuna Jindwani , Keshav Singh , Ayush Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2336-2347

Background: Normal kidney secretes nitrogenous waste product, regulate volume and
acid /base balance of plasma and synthesize erythropoietin, 25-(OH)2- cholecalciferol
and renin. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is caused by a progressive and irreversible
decline in the number of nephrons. A wide variety of oral manifestations occurs in CKD
patients. Determination and identification of these manifestations will improve the
quality of life in these patients.
Methods: Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of
Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital (SGMH), associated with Shyam Shah
Medical College (SSMC), Rewa, in the Vindhya region between February 2019 and
August 2020.
Results: Out of 127 patients, maximum prevalence of oral manifestations occurring was
pallor (93.70%), xerostomia (84.25%), halitosis (72.44%), sore throat (64.56%), lip
pigmentation (63.77%), periodontitis (48.81%). High Urea levels were found to be
highly significant when correlated with halitosis (p<0.00052). Xerostomia was found
significant when correlated with duration of dialysis (<1 year) with p<0.032.
Conclusions: Manifestations of CKD are common during the progression of uremia. In
the patients studied, the impact of CKD on the oral cavity was evidenced by significant
changes, which pointed to an inter-relationship between oral health and CKD.


Selvakumar Jayaraman; Jaideep Mahendra; Little Mahendra; Shruthi Chandrasekaran; Revathi Kasturi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1045-1052
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.107

Geriodontology refers to the field of dentistry that mainly encompasses diagnosis, treatment and prevention of oral diseases and conditions in the elderly individuals. With increasing life expectancy attributed to the developments in the field of medicine, there is concomitant increase in the comorbidities and complications in the older population. In the dental perspective, increased attrition of teeth, xerostomia induced dental caries, chronic periodontal diseases and partial edentulousness are the most frequently encountered problems. The management in these instances requires additional considerations, keeping in mind the presence or absence of other systemic diseases, age and the social and environmental factors. In order to provide efficient treatment and also to encourage their constant maintenance protocols,a multimodal treatment planning has to be designed and dentists must be specifically educated and specialised in dealing with the geriatric patients. This review paper highlights the various aspects on periodontal management of geriatric patients with few futuristic suggestions in order to improve their oral healthcare in this phase of life.


M. Bhuvaneswari; Preetha Chaly Elizabeth; J. E. Nijesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1133-1140
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.118

Aim:To assess the effectiveness of Triphala against gingivitis and periodontitis. Triphala is a mixture of three myrobalans known as Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), Terminalia bellerica (Bibhitaki), Terminalia chebula (Haritaki)
Methods: A search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus database was conducted.
Results: Triphala possess varying therapeutic potentials. Particularly antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, anti collagenase and anti oxidant properties are of greater importance in dentistry. Various studies show that Triphala is equally as effective as a standard chemotherapeutic agent that is chlorhexidine in treatment and prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis respectively.
Conclusion: Triphala can be a promising therapeutic agent in treatment of gingivitis and peridontitis with no side effects on long term use.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2135-2146

Chronic periodontitis (CP), the most common periodontal disease, is an inflammatory disease leading to the destruction of connective tissue and loss of the adjacent supporting bone and is multifactorial in etiology. Periodontal therapy including either surgical and/or non-surgical methods usually results in improvements in periodontal health. In some cases, scaling and root planing (SRP) is insufficient to solve periodontal infection. SRP combined with local antibiotics has been shown to yield better results than SRP only. Recently, minocycline, a broad spectrum antibiotic is found to be effective against periodontal pathogenic micro-organisms.
The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of locally delivered minocycline in the treatment of electronic search was carried out using the keywords, “minocycline”. “periodontal” and “periodontitis” via the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published from 1949 to February 2019. The addressed focused question was: To review current literature, to analyse the efficacy of minocycline as a local adjunct to SRP in the treatment of periodontitis. Following the removal of duplicate results, the primary search resulted in articles and articles were excluded based on title and abstract. Hence, articles were read completely for eligibility. After exclusion of irrelevant studies,6 articles were included. All of them were RCT’s, all of them were human studies, were clinical and were microbial analysis.


Dr. Preethi; Rabiathul Adhira M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1965-1977

Nonsurgical therapy aims to eliminate bacteria within the microbial biofilm and calcified biofilm microorganisms from the tooth surface and adjacent soft tissues. Complete elimination of such pathogenic microorganisms is probably over-ambitious. However, absence of inflammation in the periodontium results in beneficial clinical changes.In addition, nonsurgical therapy aims to form an environment during which the host can more effectively prevent pathogenic microbial recolonization using personal oral hygiene methods..The various methods utilized in nonsurgical therapy, like hand instrumentation, ultrasonic and sonic scalers, and ablative laser therapy

Comparative Evaluation Of Glycemic Status, Levels Of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Lipid Peroxidase And Osteocalcin In Gcf In Type-Ii Diabetes Patients With Chronic Periodontitis Under Ayurvedic Treatment.

Dr. Nubesh Khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3192-3199

Background: Nishamalaki or Nisha Amalaki representing various combination formulations of Turmeric and Indian gooseberry is recommended in Ayurveda, proven efficacious and widely practiced in the management and prevention of complications of Madhumeha (Diabetes).
Aims: To assess the effectiveness of scaling and root planing on the glycemic status and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of Malondialdehyde, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Osteocalcin in Type II diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis under systemic administration of Nishamalaki, an ayurvedic hypoglycemic formulation.
Material and methods: The study included 90 newly diagnosed Type II diabetic patients in the age group between 30 to 50 years with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis and was randomly divided into 45 patients of two groups each. Group A were Type II diabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis taking supplements of Nishamalaki 1 gram twice daily for 3 months and Group B were Type II diabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis undergoing scaling and root planing and receiving supplements of Nishamalaki 1 gram twice daily for 3 months.
Results: Independent t-test has been applied to compare the two groups. It has been observed there is no significant difference exists between the two groups. However administration of Nishamalaki and scaling has been all effective in group B parameters.
Conclusion: Nishamalaki showed protective effect and appeared to be useful in reducing the glycemic status, levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid peroxidase and osteocalcin in GCF in type-2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis.


M. Rakesh mohan; Shivani D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1951-1955

Dental implants are commonly used in situations for replacement of natural teeth. Despite many advances, techniques, and implant-design, implant failure is a significantconcern for the patient and dentist. The dental implants are designed that best suits the various types of bone. Different etiology for the implant failure and their contributing factors has been discussed in this review article. The purpose of this concise review is to discuss the etiology of implant failure by highlighting the various classification put forth by different authors

Evaluation of the relationship between obesity and severity of periodontal diseases in rural population: A Study Protocol

Ms. Gauri , Bendre; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal; Dr. Diksha Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2034-2037

Abstract: Background- Excessive accumulation of fat results into obesity. Obesity further
have an adverse effect on health as it has been seen to be associated with diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, heart disease like coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease such as
hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, metabolic syndrome like insulin resistance, some
cancers such as cancer of esophagus, thyroid, kidney, uterus, colon and breast, and
psychosocial problems. Also, obesity is considered to be a risk factor for periodontitis
which is an inflammation of supporting periodontal structures around the tooth which
results from the complex interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune
response. However, the impact of obesity on different severity of periodontal disease is not
evaluated in rural population. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between obesity and the
severity of periodontal disease in Rural population. Methodology: A total 400 obese
subjects will be included in the study. Biometric parameters like age, weight, height, waist
and neck circumference, subcutaneous skin fold will be evaluated. Also periodontal
parameters like Plaque index (PI), Papillary bleeding index (PBI), Probing pocket depth
(PPD), Clinical attachment level (CAL) and Gingival recession (REC) will be evaluated
and co-relation between these parameters will be carried out. Results: A statistically
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis. A positive co-relation will be observed
between biometric parameters and periodontal status of obese individual. Conclusion: A
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis in rural population.


Suvonov K.J .; Adilov U.X .; Kuryazov A.K.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2863-2870

The aim was to study the prevalence and risk factors of dental disease development in
pregnant women living in different Uzbekistan regions. The prevalence and intensity of dental
caries among pregnant women are 1.3 times higher in the Urgenchdistrict of the Khorezm
region compared to the Kibray district of the Tashkent region. These figures increase with
each subsequent pregnancy. The same pattern is observed for periodontal and oral mucosa
diseases. The most significant medical and biological factors contributing to the development
of dental diseases in pregnant women were age, several pregnancies, intergenerational period,
course and terms of pregnancy, the presence of extragenital diseases. Among medical and
social risk factors, the most significant were education, living conditions, oral hygiene,
sanitary culture, and medical activity of pregnant women.

Association Of Stress, Peer Pressure And Performance Pressure On Oral Hygiene: An Original Research

Dr.Mathew J Maliyil; Dr. Rohinjeev Ghotra; Dr. Aseem Bhatia; Dr. Preeti Lath; Dr. Nikhitha Raigir; Dr. Kommuri Baji Babu; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3155-3160

Aim: Aim of our research was to evaluate the amount of stress as well as performance pressure on the oral hygiene in our study participants.
Methodology: Survey was conducted in 200 patients who had reported to various private clinics over a period of 6 months. Questionnaire was given having 12 questions, which helped us assess their stress levels related to their oral hygiene status. Descriptive analysis was carried out with the data received from the study participants.
Results: Maximum participants had moderate stress levels (47%), whereas around 34 % experienced oral health problems. 67% were conscious about their appearance, and their smile. Only 14 % went for regular dental check-ups, which further shows less awareness for preventive care.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that individuals with greater perceived stress also report poorer oral health. These findings may warrant greater attention be paid to the role of psychological stress in the development of oral disease.

Hygienic Condition Of The Oral Cavity And The Level Of Hygienic Knowledge Of Silk Motor Workers

Nodira. I. Qurbonova; Nazira. N. Khabibova; Gulchekhra A. Ikhtiyarova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3027-3033

The article presents information about the hygienic state of the oral cavity, the state of periodontal tissues, the level of hygienic knowledge and measures of therapeutic and prophylactic measures among workers of silk-winding production. The object of study was 97 workers of the alkaline-winding industry "Bukhara Brilliant Silk", who are exposed to industrial noise, as one of the harmful production factors, also the dustiness of the air in working rooms in various workshops and, in terms of importance, harmful, production factors are microclimatic conditions, at the age of 29 59 years. The control group consisted of 44 employees of the administrative and managerial apparatus, whose work process excludes the impact of factors of the working environment. The results of the research revealed the total prevalence of diseases of hard tissues of teeth (99.1%) and periodontal disease (100%) among workers of the alkaline industry "Bukhara Brilliant Silk", a high prevalence of diseases of the oral mucosa - 58.7%, a low level of oral hygiene and hygiene knowledge. There is an obvious need to develop a targeted prevention program, including a comprehensive - individual, professional oral hygiene and health education.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2024-2029

Nonsurgical therapy for the control of periodontitis consists of sub-gingival debridement, with oral hygiene instructions. Sub-gingival debridement without oral hygiene measures results in a limited healing response. Instruction on oral hygiene in the absence of sub-gingival debridement results in a suboptimal response clinically. The basic approach to periodontal infection has always been the removal of supra & sub-gingival bacterial deposits by scaling & root planning. Certain other aids such as the irrigants which are used by home or professional methods are also there other than mouth washes and systemic antibiotics. Newer advancements such as the local drug delivery the vector system and the probiotics also help in improving the maintenance of the oral hygiene status.


Niveda Rajeshwaran; GurumoorthyKaarthikeyan .; Priyalochana Gajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1427-1439

The aim of the present study is to assess the current trends in antibiotic prescription for various periodontal flap surgical procedures among periodontists in Chennai. Retrospective data collection was conducted from June 2019 to March 2020 on patients who visited the outpatient department of Periodontics for multitude of flap surgical procedures. The type of flap surgery done and the antibiotic regimen prescribed were recorded. The data was tabulated using excel and SPSS software version 23.0 (Statistical Package For The Social Sciences) was used for descriptive statistics.The distribution of antibiotics after flap surgical procedure among the above mentioned groups were expressed in terms of percentage. Chi square test was done to assess the association between the study variables.Based on this hospital based assessment, it was found that the most commonly prescribed antibiotic was amoxicillin 500mg, followed by a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole for flap surgical procedures like Open flap debridement, Resective osseous surgery and regenerative osseous surgery. The least preferred antibiotics were azithromycin and doxycycline.There was statistically significant association between gender and type of antibiotic given, with a higher percentage of males receiving a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole than females. There was no significant difference between the antibiotics prescribed for patients who underwent Resective or regenerative flap surgery. Thus Amoxicillin is the most preferred, cost-effective and less toxic drug which acts against both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. However care must be taken in administering antibiotics in order to avoid misuse and overuse of antibiotics.


Subasree .Soundarajan; Sankari Malaippan; Priyalochana Gajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1933-1942

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between haemoglobin level & severity of chronic periodontitis. This retrospective study was carried out by analysing the patient records from June 2019 to March 2020 at Saveetha Institute of Medical & Technical sciences (SIMATS).Two forty four patients were included in the study. Parameters assessed were a)Demographic details – Patient name, Patient identity number, Age & Sex; b)Periodontal parameters – Probing pocket depth (PDD), Loss of attachment (LOA), Bleeding on probing (BOP), Severity of Periodontitis (mild, moderate & severe);c) Blood parameters - Haemoglobin levels (g/dl). Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Bivariate Pearson correlation of Haemoglobin with mean PPD, mean LOA & mean BOP score were calculated. Mean Hb was compared with severity of periodontitis using ANOVA. A total of 244 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the study sample was 40.42 (±11.38). Females constituted about 58.06%, whereas males constituted 41.4% of the study sample. Majority of the population had severe periodontitis (64.76%), followed by mild periodontitis (18.03%) & moderate periodontitis (17.21%). The mean haemoglobin level in severe periodontitis (13.35g/dl) is higher when compared to moderate and mild periodontitis (13.30g/dl & 13.18g/dl respectively). Mean PPD was 5.24 mm, mean LOA was 4.6 mm & mean BOP score was 0.98. Association between mean CAL and mean haemoglobin levels was positive and statistically significant with a p value of 0.012. Mean Hb level was not significantly different with varying severity of periodontitis


Kiruthika Patturaja; Arvina Rajasekar; Iffat Nasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1099-1104

Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults. It is an inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. It is associated with various risk factors. Tobacco is one of the potent risk factors for periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to find the impact of smoking on periodontal health. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 200 male patients (Group 1: 100 smokers; Group 2: 100 non-smokers) were recruited. Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. The present study showed that smokers had a high prevalence of periodontitis (37.5%) when compared to non-smokers (8.5%). Whereas, non-smokers had a high prevalence of gingivitis (41.5%) when compared to smokers (12.5%). Also, there was a statistically significant association between smoking and periodontal health (p=0.000). The findings of the present study showed that smokers had increased risk of periodontitis than non-smokers.


Thanish Ahamed. S; Nivethigaa B; Mebin George Mathew

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1820-1826

Of the several pathologies that affect the oral cavity, malocclusion is the third most important problem in the world population. It not only affects the appearance but also affects the periodontal health. The aim of the study was to assess the association between periodontal health and different angle’s malocclusion. This retrospective study was conducted among outpatients reported to Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019 to March 2020. The study consisted of 300 patients (50 patients in each group). Patients were segregated into six groups based on Angle’s classification (Group 1: Class I; Group 2: Class II division 1; Group 3: Class II division 2; Group 4: Class II subdivision; Group 5: Class III; Group 6: Class III subdivision). The type of molar relationship was then correlated with the periodontal status. Out of 300 patients, the prevalence of gingivitis (92%) was higher among Class II subdivision patients and the prevalence of periodontitis (22%) was higher among Class II division patients. Also, the correlation between different types of malocclusion and periodontal health was assessed and found to be statistically not significant (p=0.306).


Cinthura. C; Arvina Rajasekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1113-1120

Smoking is a highly prevalent addiction present worldwide, especially in India. It not only affects the pulmonary system but also has a major impact on oral health. Periodontal disease comprises a range of polymicrobial infectious diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis that affect the tooth-supporting structures. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for periodontal disease progression and can also alter treatment response. This study aims at associating the type of tobacco use and periodontal disease progression. This retrospective study was conducted among 500 patients using their records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019-April 2020 and patients who had smoking habits were identified. Data regarding their age, gender, type of tobacco use and periodontal status were collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Microsoft Excel 2016 data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (SPSS version 20.0,IL,Chicago,USA) for analysis. The results of the study showed that among the patients with smoking habits, individuals within the age group of 25-35 years (31.4%) showed the highest prevalence of tobacco use whereas people among 65-75 years (1.2%) had the least. Majority of the smokers were diagnosed with periodontitis (84.4%), followed by gingivitis (12.4%) but diagnosis of healthy gingiva was very rare (3.2%). Smokeless form of tobacco was commonly used (61.2%). There was a male predominance (94.2%). Smoking, especially the type of tobacco used and severity of periodontal disease was found to have a strong association (p=0.000). The study draws attention to the fact that tobacco usage has a negative impact on oral health and can lead to periodontitis.


Bharathi R; Arvina Rajasekar; Senthil Murugan P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 292-298

Background: Trauma from occlusion has been defined as injury to the periodontium resulting from occlusal forces that exceeds the reparative capacity of the attachment apparatus. It refers to tissue injury due to distorted occlusion. Gingival recession is the exposure of root surfaces due to apical migration of the gingival tissue margins.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of trauma from occlusion with gingival recession in mandibular anterior teeth.
Materials And Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2019 to April 2020 using the patient records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. 200 patients with trauma from occlusion were recruited. Presence or absence of gingival recession in mandibular anteriors were studied. Data was tabulated in excel and statistically analysed.
Results: Among 200 patients with trauma from occlusion, 89 patients had gingival recession in relation to mandibular anteriors. There was no significant association between trauma from occlusion and gingival recession in mandibular anterior teeth (chi-square test; p= 0.120, not significant).
Conclusion: The present study showed no significant association between trauma from occlusion and gingival recession in mandibular anterior teeth.


Reishy V; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayatri Devi R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1346-1352

Smoking is recognised as a risk factor for human health. It is related to many problems like respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, cancer, etc. Smoking is associated with incidence of gingivitis, periodontitis, epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. It increases the number and depth of periodontal patients. Loss of tissue strength caused due to harmful compounds like tobacco, increase gingival recession and changes to the oral cavity. Prevalence of moderate and severe diseases are higher in smokers than non-smokers. Smoking affects both gingival epithelium and connective tissue. Density of blood vessels is decreased in smokers. Effect of smoking on vascular status is caused by nicotine compounds. This review was done based on the articles obtained from various platforms like PubMed, PubMed central and Google Scholar. They were collected with a restriction in time basis from 2000-2020. The inclusion criteria were original research papers. In vitro, studied among various conditions and articles that contain pros and cons. Exclusion criteria came into account for review articles, retracted articles and articles of other languages. All the articles are selected based on the effect of smoking on gingival health. Thus, smoking results in various oral health problems like incidence of gingivitis, periodontitis, epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. It affects gingival recession and changes to the oral mucosa. This review article gives knowledge about the correlation between smoking and health of gingival treatment with various dental problems.