Keywords : severe anemia
Study of fetomaternal outcome in pregnant women with severe anemia at a tertiary hospital
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 604-609
Background: Anemia in pregnancy is defined as hemoglobin levels less than 11gm/dL. Severe anaemia is responsible for 20-40% of direct and indirect maternal deaths because of increased susceptibility to cardiac failure, sepsis and association with preeclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage, postpartum haemorrhage and thrombo-embolism. Present study was carried out to fetomaternal outcome in pregnant women with severe anemia at a tertiary hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, prospective, observational study, conducted in pregnant women with Hb < 7gm/dL, with gestational age > 28 weeks, delivered at our hospital.
Results: Total 72 women with severe anemia were studied, majority were from 19-25 years age group (52.78 %), mean age was 25.4 ± 3.5 years, had completed primary education (70.83 %), from lower Socio-economic status (84.72 %). Though Un-booked (13.89 %) pregnancies were less than booked cases (86.11 %), majority had less than 4 antenatal visits (75 %). Majority of patients were Para 2 (34.72 %), Para > 2 (31.94 %), had spacing between pregnancy was < 2 years (71.93 %). Vaginal (70.83 %) was most common Mode of delivery, followed by LSCS (26.39 %) & Instrument delivery (2.78 %). In present study, maternal complication/ high risk factors noted were premature delivery (52.78 %), postpartum hemorrhage (34.72 %), preeclampsia (20.83 %), prolonged labor (19.44 %), congestive cardiac failure (16.67 %), puerperal pyrexia (15.28 %). One maternal mortality (1.39 %) was noted. We noted total 7 deaths (3 Intrauterine fetal death/ Stillbirth & 4 Early neonatal deaths), while Low birth weight (<2500 gm) (65.28 %), NICU admission (48.61 %), Apgar score <7 (at 5 minute) (8.33 %).
Conclusion: Anemia in pregnancy is a major health problem in developing countries. Severe anemia during pregnancy is associated with maternal and fetal health outcomes fetomaternal morbidity and mortality.