Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Acute respiratory infections

Assessment of risk factors of acute respiratory tract infection in children less than 5 years of age

Dr. Jalinder M Pawar, Dr. Radhika Kadam .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8877-8881

Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess acute respiratory tract infection in children less than 5 years of age.
Materials & Methods: 105 children aged less than 5 years of age of both genders diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infection were enrolled. Type of ARTi was recorded. Risk factors such as mother age, nutrition, breast feeding, family size, immunization, residence, use of biofuel etc. were recorded.
Results: Out of 105 children, boys were 65 and girls were 40. Type of ARTi was rhinitis in 25, pharyngitis in 30, tonsillitis in 40 and bronchopneumonia in 10 patients. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05). Birth weight was normal in 20, low weight in 55 and overweight in 30. Mother age was <20 years in 65 and >20 years in 40. Mother education was none in 22, primary in 54 and secondary and above in 29. Smoking was seen in 45 and no in 60. Immunization was adequate in 35 and inadequate in 70. Residence was urban in 48 and rural in 57. Nutrition was adequate in 32 and inadequate in 73. Breast-feeding was seen in 42. Biofuel used was wood in 74 and kerosene in 31. Family size was small in 54 and large in 51. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Common risk factors foun ARTi in children were low weight, young mother age, low mother education, smoking, inadequate immunization, inadequate nutrition, inadequate breast-feeding and use of wood biofuel.


Dr. Sanjay Kumar, Dr. Nirmal Kumar Mandal, Dr. Pankaj Kumar, Dr. Hemkant Jha, Dr. D.K. Sharma, Dr. Vikash Chandra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3434-3439

Introduction: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally in children under five years of age. Many risk factors for these infections have been reported which include mostly the climatic conditions and also the poverty, poor nutrition, poor housing conditions, indoor air pollution such as parental smoking, absence of ventilation, overcrowding etc.
Materials and Methodology: A sample of 450 children was included in the study population after calculated using the formula. The slums were selected using simple random sampling procedure (Lottery method). Personal visits were made to the houses of all the subjects, children were examined and the parent/care-taker was personally interviewed using the pre-tested questionnaire. A p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: The present study was undertaken by selecting 450 children. The areas selected for the present study were characterized by a high rate of illiteracy, poor socioeconomic conditions and delayed utilization of medical facilities. ARI was detected among 122 children. Therefore, the incidence rate of ARI in our study was 27.25%. URTI was found in 19.25% of the cases, and LRTI was diagnosed in the remaining 8%.
Conclusion: ARI is reported to be a public health concern killing millions of our future citizens across the country. The study would be an eye-opener for further research in those areas with poor health care settings due to fewer resources.