Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : risk factor

To study the elevated resting heart rate (RHR) represents a separate risk factor for mortality or only a sign of physical fitness

Dr Prabhjot Singh, Dr Manoranjan Kumar, Dr.Gowtham Raj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3572-3578

Aim: To study the elevated resting heart rate (RHR) represents a separate risk factor for mortality or only a sign of physical fitness.
Material and methods: The sample size for this research was 410 males. All men were given a clinical examination by a doctor (FG) that included a discussion of their responses to a questionnaire and a test of their aerobic capacity (VO2Max) on a bicycle ergometer. Heart rate and labour load data from a bicycle ergometer were used to calculate estimates of physical fitness using the strand nomogram. Using a manometer created by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, BP was taken on the right arm of sitting subjects after at least 10 minutes of rest. The survey's questions on hypertension care led to the collection of useful data.
Results: An elevated resting heart rate has been linked to decreased fitness, hypertension, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and body mass index. Everyone got along, regardless of age or status. Smoking prevalence was greater among participants with lower resting heart rates than among those with higher resting heart rates. The VO2Max and HR at rest correlated extremely significantly (R=0.29, p0.001). Higher fitness levels were associated with decreased resting heart rates. Using heart rate as a continuous variable in an adjusted model, we find that for every 10 bpm beyond 60, the chance of death rises by 16%. Resting heart rate, smoking, and mortality all interacted to a nearly statistically significant degree. Resting heart rate was included as a continuous variable in the final model, and an increase of 10 beats per minute was associated with a 25% increase in risk for smokers and a 15% increase in risk for non-smokers.
Conclusion: Resting heart rate was shown to be an independent risk factor for death in this research of 410 healthy middle-aged and older people, regardless of physical fitness (VO2Max) as measured by a bicycle ergometer, recreational physical activity, or other traditional risk factors.

A Hospital Based Prospective Study to Assess the Risk Factors Contributing to Increased Mortality in Children Admitted with Shock in PICU

Mamta Meena, Ramesh Chand Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10502-10506

Background: Shock is one of the most dramatic, dynamic and life-threatening problems
faced by the physician in critical care setting.The mortality rate of shock in pediatric
patients has declined as a consequence of educational efforts (pediatric advance life
support), which emphasize early recognition and intervention and rapid transfer of
critically ill patients to a PICU via a transport service. To know about the risk factors in
a critically ill child with shock and its association with outcome, will give us an early
clue in identifying and prioritizing management strategies.
Material & Methods: A descriptive study done on 100 children in the age group of one
month to 12 years presenting with shock (or) who later develop shock during PICU stay
at RUHS College of Medical Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India during one year period.
Children who had received inpatient treatment prior to admission in PICU, post
cardiac arrest shock and traumatic shock / Burns were excluded in our study. During
the PICU stay periodic vital signs and other measures like urine output and oxygen
saturation were recorded. IV fluid therapy, rate and duration of inotrope and other
organ support like ventilatory support were documented.
Results: In present study the frequency of shock was found to be 1.64%.Undernutrition,
decompensated shock, cardiogenic shock, duration of shock more than 6 hours,
leucopenia, hypocalcemia, inotrope requirement, ventilator support & MODS was
present in higher proportion of children who died(36.11%, 69.44%, 27.77%, 72.22%,
22.22%, 38.88%, 94.44%, 97.23% & 69.45 respectively) when compared to those who
had survived (20.32%, 14.06%, 9.37%, 26.56%, 4.68%, 10.93%, 57.82%, 47.25% &
15.62% respectively). Oddsof different variables were measure among the children who
died, when compared tothose who had survived (2.17, 13.78, 3.56, 7.45, 5.89, 5.11, 13.87,
104.2 & 12.78 respectively.
Conclusion: We concluded that under nutrition, decompensated shock, inotrope
requirement, MODS, leucopenia and ventilatory support are independently associated
with poor outcome.

A cross sectional study to assess sensitivity of Indian diabetes risk score as a screening test tool of diabetes mellitus among adult population in Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Dr. Naval Kishor Jangir, Dr. Archana Dubey, Dr. Gunvi Ohari, Dr. Khushant

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1492-1498

Objective: To find out the sensitivity of Indian diabetes risk score as a screening test tool of diabetes mellitus among adult population by comparing the result of IDRS with ADA diabetes diagnostic criteria (fasting blood glucose/postprandial blood glucose).As adult population is at risk for developing diabetes mellitus. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality.
Methodology: The study was conducted on 600 patients of Dr. Sampurnanand Medical College and Associated Hospital, Jodhpur included all individuals > 20 years of age, a verbal consent taken from all individuals entering in to the study. IDRS will be applied to all individuals, then all subjects will tested for fasting (8 hours fasting) blood glucose level and, or 2 hours postprandial blood glucose level population attending the outdoor clinics, indoor wards and general population (attendants, accompanying peoples) using venous blood sample in fluoride vial.
Conclusion: In our study it can be concluded that IDRS can be applied as a screening test in our country regardless of the demographic variation in the prevalence of diabetes. Thus IDRS is a simple, reliable and easy to use tool for mass screening of the high risk individual of Diabetes mellitus.

Risk factors of Acute Kidney Injury and outcome of children affected with AKI

Rekha Arer ,Jitendra L Chukkanakal ,Jayaraj Patil ,Venkatesh G .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3096-3104

Background: The etiology of AKI in children varies in developed and developing countries. in the former, AKI follows major surgeries, complications associated with malignancies, and the use of nephrotoxic drugs. Objectives: to identify the risk factors of AKI and to see the outcome of children affected with AKI.
Material & Methods: This Prospective, observational study was conducted among 250 children aged between 1 month-12 years, admitted in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Government General Hospital; Siddhartha Medical College; Vijayawada Results: The minimum age at enrollment was one month to 12 years of age. The comparison between the two groups based on gender was not significant (P=0.1873). None of the patients in the non-AKI group required dialysis, but in the AKI group, of the 44cases, nine case needed dialysis. The number of dialysis is highly significant, with P

Assessing risk factors of 1 year mortality in patients with hip fractures: A hospital-based retrospective cohort study from a developing level 1 trauma centre in Northern India

Dr. Chethan MH,Dr.Himanshu Agrahari,Dr. Arvind Kumar Yadav, Dr.Bhaskar Sarkar, Dr.Siddharth Dubey, Dr. MD Quamar Azam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 308-313

Purpose: Proximal femoral fracture is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in
elderly group patientswith 11-23% of mortality is reported to occur at 6 months and 22-29%
at 1 year. Despite the huge burden of osteoporosis, there is paucity of data regarding
epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of fragility hip fractures in Indian population. As
most of the published literature are from western world, we conducted the study to look for
risk factors for early-mortality in hip fracture in Indian sub-continent and compare the same
with published literature.
Methods: Total of 174 patients were available for final evaluation. Primary outcome was to
see the mortality in elderly patients undergoing operative treatment and the secondary
outcome measures were predictors of mortality in this age group with regard to age, sex,
Charlson comorbidity index, injury severity score, pre-operative ASA grading, injury-surgery
duration and length of hospital stay. Cox proportional regression hazards regression
modelling was performed to assess the effect of different variables on time of mortality.
Results: Mean age of the patients was 70.56 (± 8.05) years. Mean Charlson Comorbidity
Score was 1.68 (± 1.54; 2SD). Mean time from injury to operation time was 35.59 (±19.02; 2
SD) hours and the mean length of hospital stay was 4.78 (± 1.68; 2 SD) days. Mortality at
one-year after surgery was 18.4%.On univariate and multivariate regression analysis variables
significantly associated (p<0.05) with ‘Mortality’ are: Age, Charlson Index, Charlson Index
Category, Injury to operation time(Hours), Length of hospital stay and pre-operative ASA
Conclusion: We suggest that, without a dedicated hip-fracture protocol in a resource-poor
set-up, early aggressive management to optimize patients for surgery and surgical
intervention as soon as feasible lead to early return to pre-fracture status and reduces early

A Study to assess the prevalence of Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas in association with tobacco consumption in a tertiary care hospital

Dr. Durgadevi; Dr. Jayaganesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 879-885

Head and neck cancers are the sixth most common type of cancers and has a steady rise in
India, predominantly in males .The most common etiological factor contributing for the
cancer development is Tobacco consumption in various forms. This was a laboratory based
,retrospective study to assess the prevalence and association of HNSCC in a subset of
population of tobacco consumers A total of 50 positive cases of Head and neck squamous
cell carcinomas were collected at our hospital for a period of two years and history collected
in view of age , sex and tobacco consumption . In this study, 64% affected cases are males
and 48% of the cases had the history of tobacco consumption. Tobacco consumption prevails
as the sole risk factor for the development of Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Prevention of complicationsand several other relevant risk factors of Type 2 Diabetes(T2D)at a hospital in Vietnam

N. V. Chinh; P. H. T. Kiet; P. B. Diep; N. T. B. Yen; Dong Wang; L. D. P. Cuong; P. D. Trung; L. M. N. Uyen; N. H. Tu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 266-279

Diabetes has a significant incidence of illness, health care effects and lead to a high mortality rate due to its complications in both developed and developing countries so far. Diabetes can be divided into three main types: Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes and Gestational diabetes, the most common type is Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our work focuses on researching the relationship of complications and their cost of treatment in order to make the treatment plan and minimize its costs in at the Thanh Nhan hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. Therefore, the research results show that there are many different types and rates of complications of T2D depending on key factors such as: age and duration of the disease, by determining the complication rate and analyzing multivariate logistic regression models to find the risk factors associated with an increase in the number of complications of the disease from the Social Science Package Statistics (SPSS) software and other.


Yakutkhon Madjidova; Durdona Mukhammadzhanova; Nodira Azimova; Gulchekhra Isakova; Aziza Dzhurabekova; Shavkat Kabilov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3112-3117

The article presents the results of a study of 52 children with various forms
of cerebral palsy. The analysis of risk factors for the development of cerebral palsy. The
diagnosis of cognitive impairment, including memory impairment in children with cerebral
palsy, is one of most significant tasks, since it determines the characteristics and prognosis of
both medical and social rehabilitation, while the differentiation of retardation of mental
retardation and marked retardation is extremely significant.

C-reactive protein and periodontal disease – A Review

Mohana Kondapally; Ramesh KSV; NVS Sruthima; Gautami S Penmetsa; P. Mohan kumar; G. Meghana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1664-1670

C- reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein observed in increased quantities in plasma during the infections and presence of any inflammation, which could be a further possible risk factor in systemic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. CRP molecules help as a biological marker for the determination of the inflammatory process when obtained from the gingival crevicular fluid and there is association between periodontitis and CRP levels. These levels are found to be reduced after the non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment. Therefore, the levels of CRP would play a major role in determination of the inflammatory process.

Analysis Of Risk Factors For Pulmonary Tuberculosis Incidence In Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Hari Setiawan; Harun Iskandar; Himawan Sanusi; Syakib Bakri; Makbul Aman; Hasyim Kasim; Haerani Rasyid; Nur Ahmad Tabri; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1495-1499

Background:Incidence of pulmonary TB in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients is still high. Gender, age, nutritional status, duration of diabetes, blood glucose control, smoking habit, and HbA1c, are among risk factors that influence its occurrence. This study aims to analyze the risk factors that contribute to the incidence of pulmonary TB in type-2 DM patients in Makassar.
Methods:A survey analysis study at Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital. Hasanuddin University Hospital. and educational network hospital.on December 2019 until the desired sample reached. Sample collection using consecutive sampling. Data analysis using SPSS verse 22. Statistical analysis using pearson’s correlation. chi square test. and multiple logistic regression (backward method). Significant result if p value <0.05.
Results:Study included 225 type-2 DM patients. From study shows distribution of pulmonary TB in type-2 DM patients is 13.3%. Incidence of pulmonary TB was high in patient with underweight (OR=6.7 and p<0.05), duration of DM>5 years (OR=3.8 and p<0.05), and uncontrolled blood glucose (OR=2.7 and p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between gender (female 19 from 135, male 11 from 90 with p>0.05), age (age >60yo 15 from 92, age ≤60yo 15 from 133 with p>0.05), smoking habit (yes 10 from 84, no 20 from 141 with p>0.05) and HbA1c (A1c <7 was 0 from 7 and A1c ≥7 was 30 from 165 with p>0.05) with pulmonary TB incidence.
Discussions:Incidence pulmonary TB in type-2 DM patients according to BMI was significant (p<0.05) because condition of malnutrition can lowering the immune status by decreased the limphocytes production and immune proliferation also decreased of IFN-gamma and IL-2 level, and increased of TGF-beta. Incidence according to duration of DM was significant (p<0.05). Incidence according to blood glucose control was significant (p<0.05), DM and uncontrolled blood glucose can lead to an immune compromise condition, some of risk factors that also can contribute to infection disease.
Conclusion:There was significant correlation between underweight, duration of DM >5 years, and uncontrolled blood glucose with pulmonary TB incidence.

Obesity As A Major Risk Factor In N- Cov Disease.

J. Dhivyadharshini; A.S.Smiline Girija; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2562-2571

The review gives an overview on the relation between obesity and n-CoV disease. A review has been done to understand the correlation of obesity with the n-CoV disease by retrieving a maximum of related articles from various search engines like PubMed, Google Scholar, MeSH, Core, Cochrane, bioRxiv, Semantic scholar and so on published from 2000 to 2020 (till date). Obesity is associated with SARS- CoV-2 which enhances inflammatory response in obese people compared to actual standard BMIs. Obesity is often specifically related to producing inflammation by triggering a cytokine storm in the lungs, which raises the likelihood of ARDS, thereby requiring respiratory assistance for the main issue. Obesity can hinder breathing by hampering the excursion of the diaphragm, inhibit immune responses to critical infection, it is pro-inflammatory and triggers diabetes and even oxidizing tension to worsen cardiovascular activity. This study indicates that obese people through respiratory viruses COVID19 are more likely to be hospitalized comparatively. The implementation of novel ideas on obesity control of ailments will certainly bring about a massive change. Constraining less dependence on recent literature in this area and also upgrading numerous research to increase consciousness among the general public so that they may take measures not to be vulnerable to COVID 19. The current research has shown a strong incidence of obesity in patients participating in medical treatment with SARS-CoV-2. Obesity can be hazard factored to SARS-CoV-2 severity which needs increased attention in susceptible individuals to take preventive measures