Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Malocclusion

Evaluation Of Palatal Rugae Patterns And Gender Determination With Malocclusion In Indian Population

Tahoora Taskeen .L; Lavanya Prathap

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 694-705

Introduction: Palatal Rugae Is The Array Of Transverse Ridges Which Is Present On Anterior Region Of Hard Palate, Either Side Of Median Palatal Raphe. Rugoscopy Which Promotes Sex Determination And Identification Of Individual Due To Its Perenity And Stability As It Is Not Altered During Growth. Thus, The Study Aimed To Analyze The Association Of Rugoscopy And Dental Malocclusion Along With Gender Determination. Materials And Methods: The Study Setting Was  Organized  In A Dental College, 17 Dental Casts Were Collected And Segregated As Malocclusion And Normal Occlusion And The Rugae Patterns Were Determined Based On Classification Of Kapali And Thomas And Kotze And The Collected Data Was Calculated In Spss Version 23.0. Results: The Results Suggest That In Individuals The Maximum Number Of Rugae Were Seen Among Men With Mean Value 70. Based On The Occlusion, The Dominating Pattern Was Fragmented Rugae (20%) And Curve( 25%) Whereas In Malocclusion The More Predominant Pattern Was Primary And Wavy. Based On Gender Wavy (Mean-27) And Secondary Rugae (Mean- 32) Was Predominantly Found For Females Whereas In Males Primary Rugae (Mean-28) And Wavy (Mean- 31) Was Found Predominant. Accordingly The Most Predominant Pattern Observed Among The Individuals Was Secondary Rugae (Mean- 55) And Wavy (Mean- 58). Conclusion: Thus The Predominant Pattern Among Individuals Was Secondary Rugae And Wavy And Based On Gender Females Had Predominant Secondary Rugae And Males Had Primary Rugae And Wavy Pattern.

Osteopathy in Dentistry – Review of the Literature

Sarah A. Alfaqeeh, Sarah I. Alzaidy, Samar A. Bin Jadeed, Wejdan A. Aljammaz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7910-7930

Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) is often defined as “the
therapeutic application of manually guided forces by an Osteopathic Physician to boost
physiologic function and/or support homeostasis that has been altered by somatic
dysfunction.” The purpose of this paper was to provide an update of the current status of
OMT, to shed light on potential areas of dentistry where application of OMT is effective
and to supplement the Literature Review with a list of available centers that deliver OMT
in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature about
the efficacy of OMT in addressing dental problems was carried between August and
December 2020. Result: Osteopathy can manage various dental conditions, such as, pain
following root canal treatment (RCT) and extraction, temporomandibular disorders
(TMDs), malocclusion and neck and back pain frequently encountered by dentists through
mobilization of soft tissues like fascia, ligaments and muscles.


Bharat B Chavan; Seema S Salve; Razvi N A; Mohan K Doibale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1137-1141

: A pleasant smile not only increases the face value but is also important for improving the quality of life of a person in a variety of spheres. Facial appearance has a long lasting implication on an individual. An unacceptable dental appearance has often been associated with a negative effect on self-image, career advancement and peer-group acceptance. The third most frequent oral disorders, alongside tooth decay and periodontal disease, are dental malocclusions. To confer a treatment plan and to work out on the treatment needs of a community group, it is obligatory to know the trends of occurrence of various malocclusions. With this background the study was planned to determine the prevalence and various preventive and treatment procedures of malocclusion in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2151 subjects in Aurangabad district, being the capital of Marathwada region by Rural Health Training Center, Paithan under Govt. Medical College, Aurangabad. The standard pro-forma was designed and house to house survey was conducted over a period of 3 months i.e. from June to August 2021. Mouth mirrors, caries explorers and periodontal probes were used for oral examination with proper aseptic precautions. All the findings were recorded in the data sheet after thorough examination. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were applied using SPSS-17 version. Results: In the present study, prevalence of malocclusion was found to be 28.4%. Epidemiological studies on malocclusion not only help in orthodontic treatment needs and evaluation of dental health services but also offer a valid research tool for assessing distinct environmental and genetic factors in the aetiology of malocclusion. Conclusion: Drastic efforts are being taken by developing countries like India to eradicate many medical and dental diseases. Extensive multi centric studies are required to obtain a countrywide representative data.

An Overview of Frequency Malocclusion in Cases of Down Syndrome Children: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Eriska Riyanti; Risti Saptarini Primarti; Monica Imanuelly Pagala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1641-1649

health in Indonesia. Dental and oral health in children is an important factor that must be considered as early as possible. Therefore, knowledge of children, especially knowledge of malocclusion, must be considered more because if a children experiences malocclusion it can affect tooth grow that a laterage. Down Syndromeis a chromosomal disorder thatresults in mental retardation. Mental retardationis a worldwide problem with major implications, especially for developing countries. It is estimated that the incidence of severe mental retardationisabout 0.3% ofthe total population, andnearly 3% havean IQ below 70%. As human resources, ofcourse they cannot be utilized, because 0.1% of these children need care, guidanceandsupervisionthroughouttheirliving.Objective: To review the frequency of malocclusion in DownSyndromechildren. Methods: Scientific evidence and clinical cases were drawn from the literature to support this review and information on the frequency of malocclusion in childrenwith Down Syndromewascollected.Result/Discussion: There are several types of malocclusion that often occur in children with DownSyndrome. Some of them are associated with class III Anglemalocclusion, crowding, and anterior open bite. Conclusion:Down Syndrome is one of the most studied genetic syndromes because of its frequency in our population and its medical significance. Malocclusion was observed in 92% of subjects with Downsyndrome. The incidence of malocclusion is higher in children/adolescents with Down Syndrome than in individuals without the syndrome. Class III malocclusion is most frequently observed.


Oviya M; Jayanth Kumar V; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 460-472

The aim of this study is to determine the understanding regarding the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. The purpose of this study is to create awareness and determine the understanding of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called Survey Monkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students who are currently practicing in Chennai participated in the study. As an overall result, most of the participants are aware of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems. As a conclusion, awareness on the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students in Chennai is adequate but certain knowledge has to be brushed up among them for a higher level. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treat their patients with more consent and awareness.


Ratih Cahyaning Puri; Sindy Cornelia Nelwan; Tania Saskianti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 778-782

Background: The prevalence of malocclusion in Indonesia is very high, which is around 80% of the total population. Orthodontic treatment in the mixed dentition stage is the right time to minimize the occurrence of malocclusion, and it requires space analysis in advance. To predict the space required in space analysis, prediction methods can be applied, such as Moyers method, Tanaka- Johnston method, and Sitepu method. These three methods are obtained from studies with different races.
Objective: This research was conducted to determine the differences in the results of space analysis with the three methods.
Methods: Seventy-three (73) dental casts were obtained from children aged 8-12 years at SD Negeri Gubeng 1. The space available and space required was measured by these three methods. The discrepancy of these methods was calculated based on the space available and the space required. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis.
Results: By Kruskall-Wallis test, the space analysis measurement method in maxillary arch showed no significant differences (p> 0.05), while in mandibular arch showed significant differences (p< 0.05).Mann-Whitney Utest on the maxillary arch showed no significant differences (p> 0.05), while in mandibular arch was (p< 0.05). This means that there was a significant difference between the Moyers method in mandibular arch and the Sitepu method in mandibular arch, and also between the Tanaka-Johnston method in mandibular arch and the Sitepu method in mandibular arch.
Conclusion: By using these three methods, the results of space analysis on mandibular arch showed a significant difference, while on maxillary arch showed no significant differences.

Comparative Analysis For The Presence And Intensity Of TMD Symptoms In Skeletal Class I Malocclusion, Skeletal Class II Horizontal Malocclusion & Skeletal Class II Vertical Malocclusion Using Helkimo And Craniomandibular Index. A Study Protocol


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2113-2118

Abstract: Background: Healthy dentition is a pre requisite for good esthestic, phonectics
and self-esteemed of an individual. In India 40-80% of population have one or the other
class of malocclusion with varying severity. There are various methods used of evaluation
of TMJ dysfunction like tomogram, MRI, but Helkimo is a pioneer in developing indices
by which severity can be clinical evaluated Temporomandibular disorder is a multifactorial
disease. Awareness regarding this is an important aspect in today’s scenario. In
Orthodontic practice awareness regarding TMD is utmost important. A parallel group trial
study is to analyze & compare presence and intensity of TMD symptoms in skeletal class I,
class II (vertical & horizontal) using Helkimo and Craniomandibular index. This study
will help us in day to day Orthodontic practice.
Objective: Evaluation of presence & intensity of TMD symptoms in skeletal class I, class II
(vertical & horizontal) cases using Helkimo index & Craniomandibular index.
Evaluation of presence & intensity of TMD symptoms in skeletal class I, class II (vertical
& horizontal) cases using Craniomandibular index
Material and methods: Total 90 patients (Class I, Class II (vertical & horizontal)), in age
range of 14-25 years, will be selected.
For every patient, Helkimo and craniomandibular index will be taken. Scores will be
recorded and will be compared. The results compared will give us which skeletal pattern is
prone for TMD.


Kirana .; Mustaqbal .; Syafiri .; Retno Palupi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 681-690

Background: The main physical appearance that can be seen from the face is inseparable from the appearance of the teeth and mouth. The teenagers realize that the first impression is greatly influenced by appearance. Purpose: Determine the relationship between the perception of young adults using fixed orthodontic appliance and interest towards of malocclusion treatment inclass of 2019 undergraduate students of Faculty of Dental Medicine Universitas Airlangga Surabaya. Methods: This research was an analytic cross-sectional study design and the sampling technique used purposive sampling. The amount of sample which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was 87 students. Data collected by giving questionnaires to 87 students. Cross-tabulation between perception and interests showed that the most interests of the respondent were seen in the moderate category in the perception of both functional and aesthetic aspects. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test with α = 0,05. Results: The relationship between the perception of late adolescence using fixed orthodontic appliance and interest towards of malocclusion treatment did not show a significant result with p = 0,351. Conclusions: There is no relationship between the perception of young adults using fixed orthodontic appliance and interest towards ofmalocclusion treatment in class of 2019 undergraduate students of Faculty of Dental Medicine Universitas Airlangga Surabaya

Clinical Characteristics Of The Dentition In Young Men, The Role Of Metalloproteinases And Connective Tissue Markers In The Development Of Temporomandibular Joint Pathology And Their Correction

Gafforov Sunnatullo Amrulloevich; Saidov Akbar Ahadovich; Bulycheva Elena Anatolyevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3804-3814

The most controversial issue in the study of the pathology of the temporomandibular system (TMJ) in childhood and adolescence is caused by etiopathogenetic aspects. Some researchers attribute the occurrence of this group of diseases to malocclusion [10,12, 20], while other authors focus more on age-related features of the growing organism, more precisely on a number of morphological and psychomotor processes that occur and end in the puberty and cause physiological abnormalities in a growing organism [7.19]. The third group of scientists approaches this issue with more modern views, that is, they put forward the role of metalloproteinases and markers of connective tissue for the formation of organs and tissues of the maxillofacial region (MFR).

Assessment Of Malocclusion And Orthodontic Treatment Needs Among 13- 15 Years Old School Children Of Andaman And Nicobar Islands

Prafful Kumar; VP Hariharavel; Ajay Verma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4675-4679

Background: The present study was conducted to assess malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 13 to 15 years old school going children of Andaman and Nicobar islands.
Materials & Methods: 126 school children age ranged 13-15 years of both genders was involved. Orthodontic treatment needs was calculated using Dental esthetic index (DAI).
Results: 13 years had 48 males and 52 females, 14 years had 72 males and 140 females and 15 years had 80 males and 112 females. DAI score <25 was seen in 40 males and 72 females, 26-20 in 56 males and 80 females, 31-35 in 44 males and 96 females and >36 in 60 males and 56 females. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05).
Conclusion: Maximum patients had severe malocclusion with dental esthetic index 31-35.

Malocclusion And Deleterious Oral Habits In South Indian Adolscent Population: A Correlation Study

Dr. Suneetha. M; Dr. Ramya Alla; Dr Suraj Potdar; Dr. Tanya Anand; Dr. Nasir Khan; Dr. Afreen Kauser; Dr. Heena Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6552-6557

Aim: Purpose of the study was to judge the prevalence of malocclusion and associated predisposing deleterious oral habits in South Indian teen population. Methodology: Prevalence of malocclusion and treatment need was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) among a sample of 1000, 12 and 15-year-old school children in prominent South Indian cities, who received no treatment before or during the study. Subjects were also assessed for deleterious oral habits. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test was wont to test the correlation of habits with mean DAI score and malocclusion traits. Results: Mean DAI score was 26.81±5.25. Nearly 52% of the study sample presented with malocclusion, starting from ‘definite’ to ‘handicapping’ supported the DAI scores. The prevalence of varied deleterious oral habits was 21.2%. About 35% of youngsters with any oral habit developed malocclusion as compared to those with none habit (P value=0.014). Tongue thrusting, mouth breathing and thumb sucking habits had a major impact on malocclusion.Conclusion: It was evident from the results of our study that presence of malocclusion directly depends upon the presence of deleterious oral habits in general.


P. Deeksheetha; Arvind S; Nashra kareem

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1105-1112

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of class I,II, III malocclusions in patients with bilateral
cleft lip and palate. Cleft lip and palate are the most common congenital defects. Cleft lip and cleft palate
can be divided into bilateral cleft lip and palate and unilateral cleft lip and palate. In patients with cleft lip
and palate the prevalence of other dental anomalies is very common. Cleft lip and palate patients require a
multidisciplinary treatment approach, to correct the cleft and other other associated defects. This study
was done in a university based setting on the bilateral cleft lip and palate patients who reported to our
hospital. The data was obtained by reviewing case sheets from June 2019 to March 2020 of Saveetha
dental college and hospitals. The data was collected and tabulated in the excel sheets and exported to the
SPSS software for statistical analysis. The prevalence of Class I was 52%, class III was 28% and Class II
had 20% prevalence in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients. There was a difference between the incidence
of different types of malocclusions among different genders, with more male predilection, however it was
statistically insignificant. The prevalence of Class I malocclusion was more in our Bilateral cleft lip and
palate population.


Nur Liyana Hannah Binti Izham Akmal; Ravindra Kumar Jain M.D.S .; Revathi Duraisamy M.D.S .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1952-1963

Malocclusion is one of the common dental problems reported in children that refers to the malalignment of the teeth or improper relationship of the dental arches due to altered developmental systems of the orofacial complex. Several studies have reported on the relationship between malocclusion and dental caries in which the presence of malocclusion such as crowding and spacing may act as predisposing factors in the development of dental caries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries among 12-16 years old school children with malocclusion. It is a retrospective study conducted by reviewing 86,000 patient case records of the Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. A total of 313 consecutive case records of patients for a period of June 2019 to March 2020 with signed informed consent were retrieved and analysed. Patient’s name, patient’s identification number (PID), age, gender, malocclusion and dmft score were collected from the patients’ case records. Data collection and analysis were done using the SPSS version 23.0. Descriptive analysis was done for the assessment of age, gender, malocclusion and dental caries. Chi square test was used to evaluate the association of dmft score with malocclusion. A total of 134 children with malocclusion were affected by dental caries (42.81%). The overall dmft score was 1.5. Most of the children present with dental caries were within the 12-14 years age group (60.45%), followed by those within the 15-16 years age group (39.55%). High prevalence of dental caries was seen in males (52.24%) as compared to females (47.76%). Most of the children had Class I malocclusion (70.93%), followed by Class II malocclusion (29.07%). In terms of crowding, mandibular crowding (57.19%) was more common among the children when compared to maxillary crowding (38.98%). There is a statistically significant association between maxillary crowding and dental caries. No association of dental caries with mandibular crowding and dental malocclusion. Within the limits of the present study, dental caries is seen in 134 of the patients with an average dmft score of 1.5. There is a positive association between maxillary crowding and dental caries but no significant association of dental caries with dental malocclusion and mandibular crowding.


Anubhav Das; Ravindra Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1851-1857

The dental arch form is defined as the shape formed by the configuration of the bony ridge of the jaw. Arch form dimension and variations have been studied by several authors. Consideration of the arch form is of utmost importance, because it is crucial that the arch form should be examined before starting upon the treatment as this gives valuable information about the position into which teeth can be moved if they are to be stable following treatment. Different methods have been developed to describe the dental arch morphology ranging from simple classification of arch shape through combinations of linear dimensions to complex mathematical equations.This study is a cross sectional retrospective study which has been undertaken in a university setting. Case records of 300 class II division 1 malocclusion patients in the age group of 12- 40years were included for the study and an analysis was done on different dental arch forms prevalent in class II division 1 malocclusion. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed for association of arch form with gender, age group of the included records in SPSS software by IBM. Chi- square test was performed,frequency distribution was performed. No significant statistical association between gender and arch form , age group and arch form in class II div 1 malocclusion was seen.


Ilankizhai RJ; Dr. Ravindra Kumar Jain; Dr. Madhulaxmi M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 216-223

Numerous studies in the past have been conducted to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in different populations. These show extreme variations and it is only right to determine the prevalence in a referred population. Class III malocclusion even though it is the least common, treatment planning and treatment is quite difficult, thus characteristics of class III malocclusion need to be studied in detail.The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of crowding among patients with class III malocclusion visiting Saveetha dental college and hospitals. A retrospective study was done using case sheets of patients visiting the university hospital from June 2019- February 2020. About 100 case sheets of patients visiting the department of orthodontics containing information on malocclusion type and crowding was retrieved and analysed using SPSS 20.0. The study included 100 patients out of which 74% were males and 26% were females.Crowding was observed in 51% of the patients with class III malocclusion. Out of which 62.75% of the patients were reported to have minimal crowding ,31.37% had moderate crowding and 5.88% had severe crowding of the mandibular incisors. There was no statistically significant association between age, gender, and severity of crowding as determined by pearson's chi-square tests.Within the limits of the study, it can be concluded that mild mandibular crowding was the most common finding in class III malocclusion patients.


Thanish Ahamed. S; Nivethigaa B; Mebin George Mathew

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1820-1826

Of the several pathologies that affect the oral cavity, malocclusion is the third most important problem in the world population. It not only affects the appearance but also affects the periodontal health. The aim of the study was to assess the association between periodontal health and different angle’s malocclusion. This retrospective study was conducted among outpatients reported to Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019 to March 2020. The study consisted of 300 patients (50 patients in each group). Patients were segregated into six groups based on Angle’s classification (Group 1: Class I; Group 2: Class II division 1; Group 3: Class II division 2; Group 4: Class II subdivision; Group 5: Class III; Group 6: Class III subdivision). The type of molar relationship was then correlated with the periodontal status. Out of 300 patients, the prevalence of gingivitis (92%) was higher among Class II subdivision patients and the prevalence of periodontitis (22%) was higher among Class II division patients. Also, the correlation between different types of malocclusion and periodontal health was assessed and found to be statistically not significant (p=0.306).


Harini Kumaran; Nivethigaa B; Nivedhitha M.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1808-1813

Oral habits such as finger and thumb sucking, lip sucking, mouth breathing when used excessively or continuously can lead to poor dental health or malocclusion.The use of habit breaking appliances will restrict oral habits and prevent malocclusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, gender and age distribution of usage of habit breaking appliances in the management of parafunctional oral habits. 44,100 patient records were reviewed from June 2019 to March 2020. Patients who had undergone treatment with habit breaking appliances were selected and their treatment details were obtained from the patient records to obtain the prevalence. Details on habits and habit breaking appliances were also noted and tabulated in excel and imported to SPSS. Descriptive statistics and chi square test were done. There was a statistical significance between age and habits breaking appliances (p<0.05). No statistical significance was noted between gender and appliance usage. Treatment with habit breaking appliances was more prevalent in males. Thumb sucking was the most prevalent habit among the studied population and tongue crib was the preferred choice of appliance.