Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : control


Sakshi Singh; Mrs. Deepa Reddy; Dr. Rita Lakhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1246-1257

Background& Aim of the study: Indian data regarding current trends in childhood obesity are emerging. Lifestyle changes and worldwide nutrition transition are important factors for the obesity epidemic. Current eating habits include the consumption of fast foods, sugary drinks, baked food, soft drinks, etc. These eating habits with decreased physical activity, lack of sleep, and lack of social leisure activities will lead to childhood obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the selected contributing factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity among school children aged between 13 to 16 years, in Navi Mumbai.Material and Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 300 school children in that 74 cases (overweight/obese) and 74 control (non -obese children) aged from 13 to 16 years were selected by using purposive sampling technique. For the present study, two different schools were selected in Navi Mumbai such as NMMC School and Swami Vivekanand School. The conceptual framework of the present study was based on web of causation theory. D. Y. Patil school of Nursing ethical committee approval was taken for this study. Observational tool (weighing machine & measuring tape) was used to measure the weight and height of the school children and interview tool of risk assessment tool was used to analyse the selected contributing factors such as food habits, physical activities, sleeping patterns, medical history & social leisure activities.  The tool was modified based on validity and reliability. The collected data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by SPSS version. Frequency percentage distribution, odds ratio and chi-square test was used in this study. Results: Result revealed that out of 300 school children, 22% were overweight,3% school children were obese, 10% wereunderweight,and 65% were healthy. It was observed that nutritional factors like Bake food (OR=10.8, CI: 95%), Fast Food (OR=6, CI: 95%), Sugary drinks (OR=10.5, CI: 95%), soft drinks (OR=5, CI: 95%) were more likelihood of causing obesity & were significant factors. Physical factors like muscle & bone strengthening exercises (OR=0.092, CI: 95%), and aerobic activity (OR=0.11, CI: 95%) were less likelihood of causing overweight. In leisure factors, Students played outdoor games (OR=0.2, CI: 95%), and performed their hobbies (OR=0.15, CI: 95%) were less likelihood of causing obesity. Conclusion:Since school children obesity is rising at an alarming rate, the selected contributing factors determinants of obesity need to be addressed among school children. Eating fast food, soft drinks, baked food, and untimely meal were associated as risk factors for overweight/ obesity. While very less physical activity-exercise, lack of sleep & social leisure activities was also associated with overweight/ obesity. In order to prevent overweight and obesity, it is necessary to create awareness among schoolchildren about healthy eating practices and desirable lifestyles.

Ensuring Balance Among Branches of Public Power During the Development of Civil Society in Uzbekistan

Almagul Bayrieva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2233-2239

Abstract. The article analyzes the balance of power between sectors of the political system
in Uzbekistan in the context of democratic reforms. This analysis is considered from the
point of view of the development of civil society, and implies a correlation between regional
and central bodies of representative power. In the article, particular attention is drawn to
the value orientations of both government representatives and civil society actors in the
perception of civic activism and civic participation. The article allows us to understand
deeply such institutions as the state, rule of law, and democratic accountability during the


N. Naveenaa; Leslie Rani; M.P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 324-333

The facemask is a personal protective equipment which is used to prevent the droplet or aerosol spread. Due to the pandemic spread like SARS, COVID-19 the mask is recommended to be worn by all the people to prevent the infection. It is one of the non-pharmaceutical ways of prevention, it helps in controlling the spread but not in complete eradication of the disease.This is a widely used way of prevention, which is cheap, non-invasive and has capacity to reduce the mortality rate due to respiratory infection. The major problem associated with these equipment are, they are commonly misused and they go out of stock even before the health care sector receives these equipment. So proper selection of masks is required to prevent the infection and also to reduce the demand of masks in the health sector. The aim of this review is to understand the importance of masks and needs of the personal protective equipment during the onset of any pandemic conditions. A systematic search strategy was done and the articles were found using keywords. Literature was taken from databases like PubMed and Google Scholar. The articles which discussed face masks were included and other articles which had the different types, advantages and disadvantages were also included. The review summarises the needs and the urge to use a face mask at the onset of pandemic condition. Selection of proper mask is emphasised to reduce the demand of masks.


Abdullah Ahmad Abdullah ALZAHRANI, Thuraya Ahmad Rumbo Mishal Saad Al nofaie, Massad Jumah Al Khattabi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 114-124

Health care associated infections (HCAI) are one of the most serious and complex worldwide health problems. Commitment to standard precautions (SPs) and infection control (IC) measures are important to all healthcare providers (HCP) to prevent occupational exposure to hazardous materials. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are particularly more prone to blood-borne pathogens through contact with infected blood and body fluids during their work. It is based on the presumption that every person is infected or colonized with an organism that could be transmitted in the healthcare setting and thus health care workers need to apply infection control practices during the delivery of health care.Health care worker at risk of health associated infection (HAIs) due to their exposure to the patients during carrying out their duties. Health care workers in primary health care centers are the first to detect and to prevent the spread of infection. Standard precautions are regarded as an effective means for protecting health care worker, patients and community.
 Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the level of Knowledge and practices of infection control standard among health care workers at the primary healthcare level in Makkah City.
Method:  A cross sectional study enrolled HCWs (doctors, nurses, lab workers) from 10 primary healthcare (PHC) centers in in Makkah, during the April to June, 2021, Our total participants were (200)
.Results:the knowledge regarding standard precautions of infection control study results show the majority of participant had average information were(55.0%) while weak knowledge were(21.0%) the data ranged from(5-18) by mean ±SD(12.15±3.11), also the Nationality is a significant relation between knowledge and Practices increase in the non-Saudi healthcare workers were mean+ SD respectively (12.980±2.606, 6.603±1.510), compared to the Saudis had adequate level of knowledge Practices where (T=-5.33, T=-6.152) and P-value=<0.001.
Conclusion: There was a gap between the actual and desired Knowledge and practices of Healthcare providers regarding IC. Continuing education programs are needed to improve their Knowledge and practices scores towards SPs and IC measures in order to reduce HCAI, inadequate knowledge particularly concerning the disposal of sharp instruments and hand hygiene were also detected. The studies highlighted the necessity of the provision of a comprehensive training program to ensure compliance with infection control measures by HCWs.