Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Thyroid disorders


The profile of thyroid disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients above age of 40 years

Dr. Monika MP, Dr. Prajwal Kumar US

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 414-418

Type 2 DM hyperthyroidism is reported to be more common as compared to normal people. In many patients, uncontrolled hyperthyroidism may be the reason for poor glycemic control and recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis. In response to hyperthyroidism gut absorption of glucose is increased along with endogenous glucose production. Randomly selected 100 patients, both male and female with type 2 diabetes mellitus above age of 40 years including newly diagnosed diabetics attending hospital were included in this study. Among the study group of 100 patients 2 patients had high T4 value, 8 patients had high TSH values and 4 patients were low TSH values.

Assessment of thyroid functions in early pregnancy

Dr Ramakant Rawat, Dr Vijay Kumar Verma, Dr Rajani Rawat, Dr. Amit Varshney, Dr Anima Dayal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2090-2095

Background: Measurement of serum free T4 concentrations and TSH is helpful in
assessing thyroid function. During the first trimester of pregnancy, free T4 levels
measured by analog immunoassays may be unreliable, as measurements using 2
different assays were not reproducible. The present study was conducted to assess
thyroid functions in early pregnancy.
Materials & Methods:
Results: Age group 18- 21 years had 28, 22-25 years had 25, 26- 29 years had 20 and 30-
33 years had 7 patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism was seen in 20, euthyroidism in 4,
overt hypothyroidismin 8, subclinical hyperthyroidism in 45 and overt hyperthyroidism
in 3. The mean TSH (mIU/l) in subclinical hypothyroidism was 4.31, in euthyroidism
was 1.48, in overt hypothyroidism was 10.32, in subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.016
and in overt hyperthyroidism was 0.06. The mean FT3(pg/ml) level in subclinical
hypothyroidism, euthyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism and
overt hyperthyroidism was 4.08, 3.94, 1.54, 4.2 and 7.52 respectively. The mean
S.FT4(ng/dl) level in subclinical hypothyroidism, euthyroidism, overt hypothyroidism,
subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism was 1.20, 1.28, 0.48, 1.6 and 4.2
respectively.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of thyroid disorders in pregnant women makes it
necessary to screen all the pregnant women in early pregnancy.

Study of thyroid disorders in relation to bone biochemical parameters

Sangeeta Kapoor, Biswajit Das, Shikha Saxena, Umme Afifa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1263-1269

Background: Thyroid hormones are essential for normal skeletal development and normal bone metabolism in adults but can have detrimental effects on bone structures in states of thyroid dysfunction. Present study was aimed to study thyroid disorders in relation to bone biochemical parameters (Serum calcium, Serum phosphorus, serum ALP & vitamin D) at a tertiary care hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, cross sectional, observational study, conducted in patients with thyroid disorders, 18-70 years age, visiting Medicine OPD for their regular thyroid check-up, underwent estimation of thyroid hormones profile (TSH, T4, T3, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, serum ALP & vitamin D.
Results: In present study 300 patients, majority were from 36-45 years (47.67 %), female (71 %) and had co-morbidities as diabetes mellites (18 %), hypertension (29.67 %). Majority were euthyroid (38 %) while others were Hypothyroid (28 %), Subclinical Hypothyroid (20 %) & Hyperthyroid (14 %). Serum calcium levels in euthyroid patients (8.634 ± 0.711mg/dl) were more than that of hypothyroid patients (8.125 ± 0.838 mg/dl ), Subclinical Hypothyroid patients (7.760 ± 00.81mg /dl) & Hyperthyroid patients (8.10 ± 1.213 mg/ dl ), difference was statistically highly significant (p- 0.001). Serum phosphorus levels in euthyroid patients (3.634 ± 0.421 mg/dl) were less than that in Hypothyroid patients (3.80 ± 0.854 mg /dl), Subclinical Hypothyroid patients (3.690 ± 0.422 mg/ dl ) & Hyperthyroid patients (4.021 ± 0.698g /dl), difference was statistically significant (p- 0.004). Serum ALP levels in euthyroid patients (112 ± 39.806 mg/dl) were less than that of hypothyroid patients (138.143 ± 86.695 mg /dl) & more than levels in Subclinical Hypothyroid patients (94.90 ± 15.442 mg/dl) & Hyperthyroid patients (106.143 ± 31.749 mg/dl), difference was statistically highly significant (p- 0.001). Conclusion: All patients with various thyroid disorders should be periodically evaluated for bone biochemical parameters (Serum calcium, Serum phosphorus, serum ALP & vitamin D) for early diagnosis of bone related disorders and0 to decide treatment protocol.

Diagnosis and Pathology Characterization of Thyroid Gland Using Different Radiological Techniques

Mohamad Nour M.Nael Ammaneh, Hussameddin Hasan Alali, Fisal Haritani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 284-294

The normal endocrine function is primarily for the quality of life of people, irrespective of
age, sex, and race. Detrimental thyroid function leads to multiple disorders, including
cardiovascular, renal, neurologic, foetal development, and sexual drive. Moreover, if left
untreated may aggravate the formation of thyroid nodules and subsequently to cancer.
Therefore, periodic assessment of thyroid glandfunction may eliminate these complications
and improve the patients' quality of life. In this review, we have discussed the different
thyroid disorders, their complications, radiological techniques, and invasive procedures for
assessing the thyroid gland.

A study on thyroid dysfunction in postmenopausal women

Dr.Lalitha R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 625-629

Background:Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population, especially among
older women. The present study was conducted to assess thyroid function in postmenopausal
women.
Materials & Methods:56 post- menopausal women and equal number of pre- menopausal
women were recruited and classified into group I and II respectively. All were subjected to
TSH estimation in RIA centre with Immunoradiometric assay kit. T3 and T4 were also
estimated if TSH level was abnormal. The sensitivity of TSH estimation was 0.05μIU/ml.
Normal level of TSH was taken as 0.5-4.5μIU/ml.
Results: There were 2 subjects in group I and 4 in group II with TSH level <0.5 μIU/ml, 50
in group I and 46 in group II had between 0.5-4.5 μIU/ml and 4 in group I and 6 in group
II had >4.5 μIU/ml. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was seen in 2 in group I
and 4 in group II and overt hypothyroidism in 1 in group I and 2 in group II. The
difference was significant (P< 0.05). The mean TSH level in group I was 3.02 μIU/ml and
in group II was 3.86 μIU/ml. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05).
Conclusion: The prevalence of thyroid disorders especially hypothyroidism is more in
postmenopausal women than premenopausal women