Keywords : Cancer cells
Gold Nanoparticles In Diagnosis & Management Of Oral Cancer & Pre-Cancerous Lesions.
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9263-9267
Gold is one of the first metals to have been discovered; the history of its study and application spans at least several thousand years. In particular, the optical properties of GNP are determined by their plasmon resonance, which is associated with the collective excitation of conduction electrons and localized in the broad region. The application of nanotechnology for the treatment of cancer is mostly based on early tumor detection and diagnosis by nanodevices capable of selective targeting and delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the specific tumor site. The nanotechnology‑based detection and diagnostic methods used are Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Optical coherence tomography (OCT), Photoacoustic imaging, Surface plasmon resonance scattering, Surface‑enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Diffusion reflection imaging, Quantum dots imaging, and Nano‑based ultrasensitive biomarker detection. Due to the remarkable properties of gold nanoparticles, they have long been considered a potential tool for the diagnosis of various cancers and for drug delivery applications. Recent advances in nanomedicine make it auspicious for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The attractive properties of gold nanomaterials, particularly, anti-angiogenic properties, are highly useful in a variety of cancer studies. In addition, they can bind many proteins and drugs and can be actively targeted to cancer cells by over-expressing cell surface receptors and they are biocompatible in nature with a high atomic number, which directs to greater absorption of kilovoltage X-rays and provides greater contrast than standard agents. Nano-based contrast agents for MRI, OCT, and photoacoustic imaging have lower toxicity, prolonged blood circulation half-life, and the ability to target unique cell surface molecules. The nano agents exhibit better image contrast properties and improved penetration depth than routine contrast agents. They can provide molecular-targeted imaging, analyze biomarkers at the nano-scale, enable intraoperative identification of surgical resection margins, and monitor oral cancer prognosis after treatment. Using nano-based techniques can help clinicians to detect and better monitor diseases during different phases of oral malignancy. This review will focus on such current modalities in the diagnosis & management of oral cancer and pre-cancerous lesions using gold nanoparticles.