Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Cholesterol


Dr Ramaswami B,Dr Natarajkumar, Dr Rakesh Shaganti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 331-335

To study the incident of gallstone stone in different age and sex.
Cross-sectional observational study,
Place and duration of study:
Mamata Medical College and General Hospital, Khammam from October 2018 to September 2020.
RESULTS: In the present study, among 50 cases, 41 (82%) were females and 9 (18%) were males
with male to female ratio of 1:4.5. Representing the majority of the study population were females.
Out of these 3 cases two were pigmented, one was cholesterol stone. But Chi-square statistic at 0.866
with P value of 0.64. Out of 41 female patients in the present study, 10 had a history of OCP use at
some point in their life. Among them 5, 4, 1 patients had pigment, cholesterol and mixed stones.
Mean serum bilirubin value was more among pigmented stone group (1.069 mg/dl) as compared to
mixed (0.850 mg/dl) and cholesterol group (0.6 mg/dl). Mean serum cholesterol group (3.382 mg/dl).
CONCLUSION: On the basis of the above observations, it is possible to say that pigment gallstone
patients have high serum bilirubin, calcium and phosphate levels and the type of gallstone doesn’t
depend on age, sex, BMI status and OCP usage.

A Cross-sectional study on Coronary risk factors among students of a medical college in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka, India

Dr.Nanjesh Kumar S,Diwakar Kumar Singh, Animesh Gupta, Shahul Hameed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 707-714

Background:Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) like ischaemic heart disease,
cerebrovascular diseases account for 17.7 million deaths and are the leading causes.
CVDs occurs in Indians a decade earlier than the western population.Lifestyle-related
behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for the increased burden of CHD, and
research related to these risk factors among medical students is essential, considering
their role as future healers and role models in public health intervention programs.
Objective: Study the prevalence of coronary risk factors among students of a Medical
college in Mangalore.
Methodology: A cross sectional study was done among M.B.B.S students of a Medical
College from November 2017 to March 2018. The study comprised of 500 students. A
pre-tested semi structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Data was
collected by interview cum, clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations.
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software.
Results: Out of 500 subjects 293 were females and 207 were males. 380 (76%) subjects
were consuming transfattyacid food items. 150 (30%) subjects had overweight and 40
(8%) subjects had Obesity. 80 (16%) subjects had Truncal obesity, 135 (27%) subjects
were consuming alcohol and smoking was seen in 58 (11.6%) subjects.107(21.4%)
subjects had high cholesterol. 90 (18%) subjects had lack of physical activity, 71
(14.2%) subjects had family history of CHD. 8 (1.6%) subjects had Hypertension and
10 (2%) subjects had impaired fasting blood sugar.

A Study of Serum Ferritin in Metabolic Syndrome

Gorijala Aparna, Uppalapati Ganga Prasad, Veluguri Aravind

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 6031-6044

Background:The present study was done to determine the association of serum Ferritin
in Metabolic Syndrome as well as to determine the relation between individual
component of metabolic syndrome and number of components metabolic syndrome and
plasma ferritin.
Materials and Methods: It was a Cross-sectional study. The study was carried out at
NRI Medical College & Hospital, CHINAKAKANI, GUNTUR. The study was included
Metabolic syndrome patients diagnosed as per NCEP (National Cholesterol Education
Program) ATP III (Adult Treatment Panel III) (2001) attending the NRI medical
college and Hospital during the study period from March 2021 to March 2022. It is a
Correlational clinical single group study with 102 patients.
Results: In the present study, the mean age group of the study population was 57.38
±8.05. The majority of the study participants belonged to the 51–60 years age group, i.e.,
40.2%, followed by 36.3% in 61–70 years age group. In the present study, the majority
of the study population were male, i.e., 62.7% and females were 37.3%. In the present
study, the majority of the male and female belonged to 51- 70 years age group. In the
present study, overweight was 42%, and obese was 58%. In the present study, the
majority, i.e., 98.4%, had a waist circumference of >90 cm, and among the female
majority, i.e., 94.7% had a waist circumference of >85cm. In the present study, 87.3%
had systolic Blood pressure >130 mmHg, and 84.3% had Diastolic Blood pressure >85
mmHg. In the present study, 62.7% were Hypertensives and were taking regular
medications. 78.4% of the study population were diabetics. The mean duration of
diabetes in the present study was 2.11 ± 0.84. 18.6% had a duration of diabetes <3 years,
3-6 years in 37.3%, and 22.5% had a period being >6 years. 22.5% had 1+ urine
albumin, 2.9% with 2+ urine albumin. 74.5% didn’t show any albumin in urine
analysis. 61.8% had no sugar in the urine. Trances of sugar in urine were identified in
38.2%. Based on the ATP III criteria, metabolic syndrome was classified. 20.6% had 3
components, 28.4% had 4 components, majority i.e. 51% had 5 components identified.
In the present study, a statistically significant association was observed between
metabolic syndrome components and PPBS, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL
as the p-value calculated to be <0.05. In the present study, the mean serum ferritin
levels were 126.89 ± 51.77. There was a statistically significant association observed
between components of metabolic syndrome and serum ferritin levels as the p-value
calculated to be <0.05. In the present study, a significant relation was observed between
serum ferritin and waist circumference (r=0.33, pvalue<0.05), Total Cholesterol
(r=0.310 pvalue<0.0001), and LDL (r = 0.326; p value <0.0001).

To assess the diagnostic role of pleural fluid cholesterol in categorizing type of pleural effusion

Dr. DevashishVerma, Dr. MazherMaqusood, Dr. PradeepNirala, Dr Abhishek Kumar, Dr SanchitPeriwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5099-5106

Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the diagnostic role of pleural fluid
cholesterol in categorizing type of pleural effusion.
Material and methods: The present prospective observational study was conducted on
51 patients hospitalized to the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, TMMC & RC,
TMU, Moradabad, for a period of one and a half years. Patients with definite clinical
diagnosis and pleural effusion evidenced by radiological imaging and thoracentesis
yields a sufficient good quantity of pleural fluid for examination was included in the
study. Pleural fluid cholesterol was investigated and compared according to Light’s
Results: Maximum subjects were suffering from moderate amount of pleural effusion.
Exudative pleural effusion was found in 94.1%, 86.3%, 72.5% of the subjects while
transudative pleural effusion was found in 5.9%, 13.7%, 27.5% of the subjects
according to Light’s criteria, cholesterol at cut off 45 and 60 respectively. The mean
pleural fluid cholesterol level in the exudates and transudates was 85.11±34.13 and
31±7.21 mg/dl with statistically significant difference as p=0.009. Cholesterol at cut of 45
was found to be better predictor of exudative and transudative pleural effusion
considering Light's criteria as gold standard.
Conclusion: Cholesterol effusion has the advantage of avoiding plasma protein, sLDH,
pleural fluid protein, and LDH. Cholesterol at 45 was the best cut for detecting pleural
effusion. As a result, distinguishing exudates from transudates is more efficient, easier,
and cost-effective.

Efficacy of Saroglitazarin patients with diabetic dyslipidemia

Surendra Kumar Ghintala, Pradeep Kumar, Ajeetkumar Gadhwal, Ratan Kumar Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 243-247

Background:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disorder
characterized by persistent hyperglycaemia due to relative insulin deficiency, insulin
resistance. This study assessed efficacy of Saroglitazar in patients with diabetic
Materials & Methods:120 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of both genders were
assessed for serum fasting plasma glucose, post prandial glucose, glycated hemoglobin
(HbA1c), blood urea, serum creatinine, S.G.O.T, S.G.P.T and lipid profile. Patients were
treated with Saroglitazar 4 mg once daily and the follow-up data were available for 12
Results: Out of 120 patients, males were 80 and females were 40. The mean triglyceride
level was 610.4, 208.4 and 224.4, total cholesterol was 312.2, 244.7 and 172.1, non- HDLC
was 274.8, 199.6 and 126.3, LDL- C was 165.6, 116.8 and 104.17, HDL- C was 41.4, 42.1
and 42.5, HbA1C was 8.02, 7.8 and 7.1, FPG was 156.2, 130.5 and 120.4, PPG was
234.6, 172.1 and 160.5, SGOT was 46.6, 42.3 and 40.3, SGPT was 34.2, 38.4 and 37.4, S.
Creatinine was 0.7 and CPK was 74.3, 71.6 and 68.3 at baseline, 12 wees and 52 weeks
respectively. The difference was significant (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Saroglitazar is a very effective therapeutic option in diabetic dyslipidemia with
very high triglycerides level.

Formulation and Evaluation Studies of Glimepiride Loaded Niosomes

Rohit Kumar; Shefali Srivastava; Utkarsh Verma; Nidhi Bhatt

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2315-2321

The management of infectious diseases and immunization has experienced a transformative
change in recent years. The advent in biotechnology and genetic engineering has created a
number of disease-specific biological. However the focus on successfully delivering
thesebiological is a challenge. Niosomes are vesicles made of non-ionic surfactants that are
biodegradable, non-toxic, more durable, and less costly. In the present work, Glimepirideentrapped
niosomes were produced utilizing an ether injection method with various
cholesterol (CHOL) and Span-60 ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3). In this analysis, the ether injection
approach to insert Glimepiride into niosomes was investigated. In the case of ether injection
process, the prepared niosomesranges from 0.662 to 1.713 μm in size. In-vitro release tests on
Glimepiride niosomes displayed 98.3% release for formulations prepared with CHOL: Span-
60 (1:1) and a release duration of 0 to 24 hours. It has been observed that with the increase in
concentration of Span-60, the order of encapsulation quality had improved. The impact of
varying non-ionic surfactant and cholesterol composition on properties such as zeta potential,
drug quality, vesicle scale, and drug release were tested in an assessment analysis. Based on
the findings of this study, it is possible to infer that the developed noisome formulation of
Glimepiride has considerable potential in the treatment of diabetes due to its prolonged

Monocrotophos toxicity induced hormonal and biochemical disruption in liver and ovary of Cyprinus carpio communis

Sarabjeet Kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3015-3022

The organophosphorus pesticide, monocrotophos induced toxicity in fish’s adobe has been studied to access the biochemical and hormonal disruption caused in the liver and ovary of the fish. Monocrotophos pose serious risk to biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and level of hormones in the fishes. A direct relationship between concentrations of monocrotophos, elevated cholesterol levels and depressed estradiol concentrations have been traced in the study. The elevated levels of cholesterol in the ovary apparently reflect the reduced rate of its utilization for steroid synthesis by the ovary as significant effect of pesticide. The decreased estradiol level causes decreased production of vitellogenin as well as hampers the development of oocytes in ovary of Cyprinus carpio communis which was also evident in the experiments

Prevalence Of Gallstone In Relation To Age, Sex And Body Mass Index In Tikrit City

Meqdam A. Khalaf; Abdulhadi M. Jumaa; Ammar L. Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 418-423

gallstones are common diseases in many countries of the world , and incidence rate may reach about 20 % .Most cases of gallstones occur in females , the incidence rate may reach four times to one in comparison between women and men , mainly in fatty , fertile , age of forty female , gall stones are rare before age of 20 years ,but; may occur at any age . many cases are not diagnosed because they do not cause any signs or symptoms , and thus can only be diagnosed accidently by routine abdominal ultrasound.
The aim of study is to evaluate the relationship between age,sex and body mass index as risk factors for gallstone.
a cross sectional study was conducted in Tikrit city during the period from early of May to the end of October 2019 . 468 were enrolled in present study , and only 95 patients were diagnosed as a case of gallstone (29 male , 66 female). All patients attending private ultrasound clinic with different complains, data was collected by using certain questionnaire.
The results showed that, There was highly significant statistical relationship (P – value ≤0.05) between body mass index mean in both gallstone cases(26.628±5.808) and, in cases without gallstone(22.225±1.316). In the present study there was high statistically significant relation(P- value ≤ 0.05) between body mass index measurement above 25(31.97727273± 3.747859149) and measurement below 25(21.85882353± 1.616313889) in patients with gallstone.
The present study conclude that , Body mass index more than 25 considered as an important risk factor for gallstone.

Distribution Of Metabolic Syndrome Components In Patients Younger Than 50 Years Of Age Of Indian Population

Dr. Inder pal Singh; Dr. Kamaldeep kaur; Dr. Lovleen Bhatia; Dr. Ajay pal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4786-4793

Background: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Present study aimed to assess the frequency distribution of various components of metabolic syndrome in patients younger than 50 years of age.
Materials and method: The study group consisted of 100 patients less than 50 years of age admitted at Rajindra Hospital with acute coronary disease.
Results: Most common age group was 45-50 years in both males and females, with 66% patients belongs to this age group. 37 patients of ACS with MS, most common component in males was raised blood pressure (SBP and DBP), in females most common component was impaired fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Waist circumference was statistically significantly raised in patients of ACS with MetS as compared to patients of ACS without MetS. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was statistically significantly raised in patients of ACS with MS as compared to patients of ACS without MS. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was statistically significantly raised in patients of ACS with MetS as compared to patients of ACS without MetS. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) Serum triglycerides(TGc) and Serum high density lipoproteins (LDL) was statistically significantly raised in patients of ACS
Conclusion: All the five components of metabolic syndrome i.e. waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, serum high density lipoproteins were significantly associated with patients of acute coronary syndrome with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients of acute coronary syndrome without metabolic syndrome.

Preparation Of Prophylactic And Therapeutic Dietary Preserves On The Basis Of Caper Fruits

Ergashev Oybek Karimovich; Abdulaziz Eshonturaev Abdulatib ugli; Ochilov Golibjon Mamayunusovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1541-1547

Capparis Spinosa L. is a medicinal plant and is used in the treatment of various diseases from canned products prepared in combination with its processed fruit buds, processed fruits and other ingredients considered dietary. The technology of dietary canned food made on the basis of caper fruit, which has therapeutic and prophylactic properties, has been developed, the chemical composition has been determined, and safety has been ensured. On the basis of theoretical studies, regimes of complete killing of microorganisms that spoil the caper and make it unfit for consumption have been found, optimal parameters of the sterilization process have been recommended. The optimal technology of canning capers is proposed.