Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Awareness


Dr. Kavitha BS,Dr. Shashiraj HK, Dr. Shomi Anand

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1685-1688

Introduction: The spread of COVID-19 pandemic globally has left us with many unanswered questions about the spread, modality of treatment and preventive measures to be taken to reduce its spread. Lack of sufficient knowledge about the virus and the lack of clarity about preventive measures has led to lot of confusion about healthcare practices. First year medical students although not involved in treatment of COVID-19 patients they can act as information providers and sensitize the community about the pandemic. Hence the present study was taken up among first year medical students.
Aim: To assess the basic knowledge about Novel Corona virus disease and its spread and clear the myths among them regarding COVID-19.
Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among first year medical students belonging to 2019-20 batch. Data was tabulated using Microsoft office excel sheet and the response were expressed as total count and percentages distribution. Data was analyzed using EPI INFO (Version 7).
Results: Majority of the study participants have good knowledge about the virus, origin of the first case and mode of spread.92.25% of the study participants knew that elderly and people with comorbidities were more prone for coronavirus disease. 100% of the study participants knew that RT-PCR test has the diagnostic test for COVID-19. The entire study participants knew about non availability of a vaccine to prevent COVID-19 infection and some vaccines were in different stages of clinical trials.
Conclusion: The students of first year MBBS have good background knowledge and awareness about coronavirus disease which will help us to use them as the information providers to sensitize community people about various preventive measures one has to take to prevent the spread of COVID-19 pandemic.

Evaluation of Public awareness, Knowledge and Approval of Oral Implant Treatment in South Indian Population: A cross sectional study

Nayana Prabhu; Saumya Kapoor; Sushma Yadav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 833-840

Background - Presently, dental implants are favourable treatment alternatives for
completely or partially edentulous patients. Research has reported substantial improvement
in attitude of patients toward dental implants, however in developing nations with poorer
access to dental care, acceptance of this treatment alternative isn’t yet completely known.
Objective: A survey from a representative sample of Indian population was made to assess
the level of public awareness, sources of information, need for information and
expectations from dental implants in semi urban southern part of India.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 377 adult patients was
conducted via systematic multi-choice questionnaire at a tertiary care medical university in
southern part of India. The data collected was interpreted using SPSS version 20. A pvalue
of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Reshmi B; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 521-530

Coronavirus disease caused by SARS-COV2, a potentially fatal disease has become a global public health concern. As the understanding of this novel disease is evolving, dental students and professionals should have an in-depth knowledge and understanding and should be updated with the practices that have to be adapted to identify a possible COVID-19 infection .Not only knowledge but also an update on diagnostics, treatment ,variant ,side effects will be required to survive the infection on the upper hand .Knowledge of diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still evolving, and a clear understanding of the nature of the tests and interpretation of their findings is important.The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of diagnostic tests for COVID-19 among dental students.This questionnaire containing 10 questions regarding awareness about the diagnostic test were given to 100 students including interns , final year students ,and third year students through google forms and responses were collected and results were tabulated using SPSS software.In this survey 79.8% were females and 20.2% were males. 16.2% were third years, 12.2% were final years , 34.3 % were interns and 37.4% were post graduates. 66.6% of the students know PCR is used for diagnosing and detecting viruses responsible for COVID 19 and 33.4% don't know that PCR is a key test for diagnosing COVID and detecting viruses.7-11 The study concluded the respondents had moderate awareness about the diagnostic tests for COVID-19.

Comparative evaluation of awareness of link between oral and systemic health among undergraduate dental and medical students

Dr. Anupama Desai; Dr. Harish Kumar; Dr. Roquaiya Nishat; Dr. Shivanand Aspalli; Dr. Nagappa. G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 602-609

Background: Oral health maintenance is indispensable for the upkeep of overall health, and a close association has been found between oral diseases and several systemic conditions.
Aims and objectives: To assess the status of awareness of link between oral health and systemic health among undergraduate dental and medical students.
Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was performed using a standardized questionnaire, wherein 20 questions were asked related to oral hygiene care, practice done and association of potential link between oral and various other systemic diseases like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, myocardial infarction, respiratory diseases, osteoporosis. A total of 300 subjects were randomly selected for the study, wherein 150 were third and final year medical students and the other 150 third and final year dental students.
Results: Dental students had more number of mean positive responses and less negative responses in comparison to their medical counterparts, and this difference was found to be statistically significant. Thereby, it is perceptible that dental students had more awareness with respect to the link between oral and systemic health. Moreover, it was also noted from the responses of the first six questions that dental students had better oral health behavior, knowledge and status than the medical students.
Conclusion: Our study shed some light on the lacunae that exists in the inter-field (medical and dental) training from the undergraduate level which can be rectified by modifying the regulations.


Oviya M; Jayanth Kumar V; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 460-472

The aim of this study is to determine the understanding regarding the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. The purpose of this study is to create awareness and determine the understanding of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called Survey Monkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students who are currently practicing in Chennai participated in the study. As an overall result, most of the participants are aware of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems. As a conclusion, awareness on the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students in Chennai is adequate but certain knowledge has to be brushed up among them for a higher level. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treat their patients with more consent and awareness.

Awareness of Precision Attachment in Fixed Partial Denture among dental students

Ajrish George; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 485-490

Background Precision attachment is one of the attachment, usually used in long-span fixed partial denture. It has historic value of advantage. It is the combination of cast-partial(removable partial denture) and fixed partial denture. It is usually used in ares of cantilever as precision attachment provide equal and balanced force distribution to the retainers. The precision attachment needs more sound practical and theoretical knowledge by the professional. So this is a technique sensitive procedure. This study involves accessing the awareness about the use of precision attachment in fixed partial denture among the dental students. Aim: To access the awareness about precision attachment among dental students Materials and Methods 206 students across different institution in and around Chennai were accessed. Survey plant an online live survey software was used in the survey. Series of questions were computed and was shared among students across different dental institutions. The percentage of each category(first year, second year, third year, final year, intern, postgraduate students) of students was accessed separately. Results The results were obtained using the survey planet software.In the present study there were of 206 participants. Of which 12% were 1 year, 22% were second year, 32% were third year, 23.3% were final year, 18.6% were postgraduates.68% of the students were aware about use of precision attachments in fixed partial dentures. Conclusion The students were moderately aware of precision attachment use in Fixed partial dentures. In the era of developing implantology students should also know about the other prosthetic replacement. This will enable the students to do a perfect treatment plan.


Hala Mohamed Sanad; Gayathri Priya; Jameela Jassim Mukhaimer; Govindaraj V. Asokan; Safia Belal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 180-191

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem in many countries, including Bahrain. However, little data exists about the awareness and the level of knowledge of vitamin D among Arab Gulf populations. Method: A cross-sectional study design was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to an adult sample of 335 participants seeking information on their knowledge about vitamin D. Findings: 81.2% of the study participants had unsatisfactory total knowledge score of vitamin D. Level of education and the sources of information about vitamin D were the main significant factors that appear to influence the participants’ vitamin D awareness status. Most the participants recognized that exposure to sunlight encourages the production of vitamin D, however, only a small proportion of participants were aware of the sources of vitamin D in daily food intake and health consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: There is inadequate knowledge and awareness regarding vitamin D deficiency among adult Bahrain population. Health campaigns are urgently needed in order to improve the community’s knowledge about the benefits and sources of vitamin D

Awareness towards radiation protection safety among the dental health workers in Odisha: A poll study

Dr. Sanat Kumar Bhuyan; Dr. Ruchi Bhuyan; Siddhant Bhuyan; Akankshya Sahu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1208-1220

Objective: This study focused on the evaluation of the knowledge and x-rays of specific dental professionals with highlight in view of education on these regularradiographic practices.
Materials and methods: A poll was conveyed among 500 dentists of Odisha, India, which were based demographic details including the use of radiographic intraoperative devices.
Results: All private experts were utilizing conventional X-ray machines. 85% said that dental X- ray beams were hurtful. 92% knew about NCRP/ICRP , 71% aware of ALARA principle, while just 56% knew about AERB rules. Yet, certain radiation protective estimates like utilizing lead apron, lead barriers and position distance rule were not followed by the greater part of the private specialists.
Conclusions: The current study shows that majority of dentists in Odisha didn’t practice rehearse Methods for radiation safety to restrict patients' excessive contact to radiation. To improve the overall dentists' radioactive knowledge-dose control procedure, efforts must be made and technical education.

Patron-Musicians: A Socio- Imperialism In Sikkim

Dr. Kumar Sargam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6449-6454

Patrons – Musicians’ relations has been discussed in a variety of context over the years in different disciplines. There are a wide range of study on patrons- musicians’ relations in Sikkim. The studies dwell on economic interaction with music between upper caste and the lower caste. In Sikkim there are mainly three musicians caste the Damai, the Badi and Gaine who directly or indirectly provide auspicious music to other castes. However, these auspicious music makers are untouchable from whom the food and water may not be accepted. The musician caste Damai are the musicians cum tailor with whom traditional way of patronage is still alive in the countryside. This study oriented on the social and traditional way of patronage among the Dalit Caste the Damai Musicians. This study is important to understand the social interaction and social transformation of Damai musician in Sikkim. Researcher visited to the remote village of Dalits in Sikkim and study the distinct culture of musician and the way of patronage. After the peasantry become weak and the influence of modern music become strong, the loop of traditional way of patronage become feeble. Because of urbanism and modern influence in music, Damai musicians change the traditional way of patronize and become the professional. The instruments like Damaha, Temko, Sahanai, Narsingha and Jhyali they only used to play for the patrons’ in all rituals accordingly in traditional way but after the education empowerment, and the caste system and untouchable means is in declining position, the Damai musicians get more opportunity to spread away. Thus, the so-called impure caste is surviving by means of music in modern ways of patronage. The lifestyle in which they are still living in remote countryside is below than the average and they are suffering from hand to mouth. Dalits or untouchable caste, from whom water may not be accepted but, plays auspicious and pure music in most of the Hindu religious festival and rituals. The orthodox society and the musician caste are still in loop, however the way of patronizing is changing, and the relation between the patron castes and the musician caste is still surviving because of auspicious and pure music among the impurity.


Supriyanto Eddo; Gumilang Saindra Arsa; Dinata Vialyne; Retno Palupi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 675-680

Background: Dental practice has risks to occupational health for the body in terms of ergonomics. Broadly speaking, ergonomics is the study of humans to create work systems that are healthier, safer, and more comfortable. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are disorders of the muscles, tendons, joints, vertebrae, peripheral nerves, and vascular system that can be caused by various factors, including occupational factors such as posture distortion, too long a static posture, and repetitive movements. Pupose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the level of awareness about ergonomics to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the dental profession students of Universitas Airlangga. Methods: Data were collected through online questionnaires and analyzed using the Pearson Chi-Square technique. Results: Out of 55 students, 100% (55) dentistry profession students were aware of the importance of ergonomics. Then 84.9% (45) students experienced symptoms of musculoskeletal abnormalities and another 15.1% (8) students did not experience musculoskeletal symptoms. Statistically, there is no significant relationship between the level of awareness about ergonomics towards Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the dental profession students of Universitas Airlangga. Conclusion: The level of awareness about ergonomics is not significantly related to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the dental profession students of Universitas Airlangga.

Self-Reported Multicultural Competency among Moral Education and History Education Pre-service Teachers in an educational Institution in Malaysia

Grace Amanda Basianak Kumbong; Tan Bee Piang

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5983-5996

Moral Education and History Education are both part of a student's social and political socialisation in Malaysia. These two curriculum programmes aim to help each student behave in accordance with the social norms expected in Malaysia, including respecting and obeying the values of democracy and rule of law. However, teachers may have their own value judgments, so how to prepare teachers to deal with students' different value systems in a diverse classroom is a challenge for teacher programmes. Teachers with high multicultural competency feel confidence and comfortable when confronted with diverse student needs. This study aims to identify the status of multicultural competency among the Moral Education and History Education pre-service teacher in an educational institution in Malaysia. Multicultural competency among these teachers is identified based on a tripartite model comprised of three aspects: ‘Awareness’, ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Acting’. The data collection methods used in this study are from the quantitative approach. 90 respondents were asked to answer a questionnaire adapted from the ‘Munroe Multicultural Attitude Scale Questionnaire’ (MASQUE) and ‘Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey’ (TMAS). The results of this study present that the Moral Education and History Education pre-service teacher shows a higher level of multicultural awareness and knowledge; however, the results also note that these pre-service teachers acting on injustice or inequalities to be relatively low. This study suggests that the development of multicultural competency in teacher education programmes should more strongly emphasise the components of skill or demonstrating multicultural competence in future.


Dr. Lokesh Mukut Vaishnav; Dr. Ashok Mehendale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2066-2074

Background : A serious threat to both general and medical community is the proper collection and proper dumping of the Bio-medical Waste. In India, 1.87 lakh healthcare facilities with 17.01 lakh beds generates 519 tonnes of biomedical waste every day, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). There are Healthcare Facilities (HCF) that still handle and accumulate such wastes inappropriately without understanding its hazardous repercussions on environment and human society. Study is attributed to awareness and negligence related issues. It covers a wide spectrum of information required for Healthcare Facilities (HCF) in regards to modifications in Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016’ (BMWM2016) from year 2016 till November 2019 and rules amended in view of the COVID-19 pandemic. Aim : Effectiveness of Training Program on awareness among Nursing Staff, Lab Technicians and Sanitary Workers regarding Bio-medical Waste management at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India.
Methodology : Interventional Study will be implicated from September 2020 to December 2022 in Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital (AVBRH) Tertiary Care Hospital, Sawangi, Wardha, Central India by the Post Graduate Student. Assessment of awareness will be 
done by distributing a set of questionnaires and then training the Healthcare Personnel (HCP), regarding Bio-Medical Waste Management based upon direct observation in the workplace. A total of 422 Nurses, Lab Technicians and Sanitary Workers will be enrolled as study participants. The Study participants will be demonstrated regarding proper standards of Bio-Medical Waste management.
Expected Outcomes/Results and Conclusion : Data will be analyzed and appropriate statistical tests will contemplate the results of stud

Understanding, Attitudes and Precautions with Corona Virus Amongst Communal of Eastren India, India: an Opinion Poll Survey

Dr RuchiBhuyan; Dr Sanat Kumar Bhuyan; Sidhant Bhuyan; Akankshya Sahu; Gautam Rath

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1126-1135

Aim: This research sought to raise information among the general population in Odisha, India regarding COVID-19.
Materials and methods: In March-April 2020, the cross-section study of 440 participants from diverse locations and backgrounds in Odisha included socio-demographic processes including protective steps against COVID-19 information results, which included strong and accurate queries.
Results: Most respondents received excellent COVID-19 knowledge and intelligence. Much of the respondents (46,10%) were 18-30 years old including 36,80% graduated from postgraduated, 30,20% did graduate, 23,06% passed 12th, so 5,09% participated 10th. Near to 98.40% of COVID-19 and 73.30% of COVID-19 have recorded a pandemic. The sources of a corona virus throughout China was identified as an infectious illness by 93.60% to 90.70%. Around 65.90 percent recorded an incubation time of 14 days with respect to signs and indications. Participant records of serious conditions such as sickle coughing (84.30%), fever (85.20%), nasal congestion (64.5%) and headaches (59.80%). About 90.70% stated that this can spreads via outlets and 78.40% stated that it can transmit via exposure to infected items. 88% stated they regularly wash their hands, while 85% has said social distinction is the main determinant of security. 79.80% reported staying home & calling helpline, while you notice COVID-19 signs.
Conclusions: Healthcare and also the Govt. of India and also the Govt. of Odisha are making huge efforts to address COVID-19 and also to aware the community and to raising understanding regarding COVID-19.


Dr. Niha Naveed; Dr. Thailavathy; Dr. Kannan Sabapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1620-1625

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) is a global public-health emergency. Dental professionals are considered to be at high risk, as most dental treatment procedures can lead to the spread of infection due to the direct proximity with saliva, blood and generation of aerosols.
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices regarding COVID-19 among dental students in Chennai, India during these critical times.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered, structured, close-ended 15-point questionnaire was distributed among the undergraduate and postgraduate dental students in Chennai. A total of 198 participants completed the questionnaire. Convenience sampling method was used for data collection and the distribution of responses was presented as percentages. RESULTS: Among the 198 participants a total of 54 (27.2%) exhibited high level of knowledge while 67 (33.8%) demonstrated moderate knowledge and 77 (38.8%) demonstrated low level of knowledge. Mean knowledge score was 8.5, minimum and maximum scores were 4 and 15 respectively among the dental students.
CONCLUSION: Most the participants seemed to have inadequate knowledge about COVID19 and precautionary measures taken to prevent COVID19 from spreading. These show vulnerabilities in the knowledge of dental students to deal with the current scenario and thus, there is a need to improve the knowledge of dental students through health education and training programmes. After the condition is normalised, further research on the subject are also required.

Neonatal Danger Signs: Knowledge Inmothers Of Children Aged Less Than 1 Year In Uae.

Raagapriya Madhan Kumar; Dr. Koushik. M; Dr.B. Charumathi; Dr.Timsi Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3451-3459

Introduction:The neonatal period comprising the first 4 weeks (28 days) of a child's life after birth is critical and dangerous events might occur. Structural, functional changes occur rapidly in this period. It is very important for mothers to be aware of the danger signs in neonates during this period. This study was done to find the prevalence of knowledge and awareness of danger signs among mothers of children aged less than 1 year.
Methods: A Community based cross-sectional study was carried out in United Arab Emirates from June 2020 to August 2020. Simple random sampling method was used and the sample size was calculated as 150. Mothers of children aged below 1 year were included in the study. A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used in this study for interview purposes. Informed oral consent in common languages- English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam was obtained.
Results: The prevalence of good knowledge of danger signs among mothers of children aged less than 1 year in this study was found out to be 28.6%. 91.2% of the mothers have reported having sought medical care when any of the mentioned Danger signs occurred whereas 8.7% of them had opted to treat at home.
Conclusion:In spite of extensive coverage of maternal and child health services, the knowledge and awareness of the danger signs in neonates are fairly low in the mothers. Therefore more awareness and health education campaigns need to be implemented.

Awareness And Practice Of Infection Control Protocol During Covid-19 Pandemic In Dental Clinics In Southern India- An Original Research

Dr. Abhishek Pandey; Dr. Smita Dutta; Dr. Rahul Maria; Dr Ambika K Nandini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6527-6539

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has forced dentists to prepare themselves by updating their knowledge and receive training to face the present and after effects of COVID-19. The present survey was thus conducted to assess the knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and preparedness of the dentists in India about COVID-19.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among registered dentists in south India. A self-administered, anonymous, questionnaire comprising of 25 close- ended questions was circulated to gather the relevant information. A total of 1120 dentists submitted a response, out of which 1000 complete responses were included in the statistical analysis. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used for inter-group statistical comparison.
Results: 80% of the dentists had a fair knowledge about the characteristics of COVID-19. 61% and 50% of the dentists had taken infection control training and special training for COVID-19, respectively. 52% of the dentists had the perception that COVID-19 is very dangerous. Only 42% of the dentists were willing to provide emergency services to patients. Most of the dentists had an opinion that there is a need to enhance personal protective measures.
Conclusion: In the present study, South Indian dentists have presented satisfactory knowledge with adequate awareness as the majority of them had a fair level of knowledge with significantly higher knowledge among female respondents and those with post-graduation studies. As we are going through an evolutionary phase where new advances are expected to evolve, dentists will definitely emerge successfully out from the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Insights Of Medical-Legal Problems Among Dental Practitioners

Murtaza S Hussain; Shravani G. Deolia; Himanshu Shende; Jenish Patel; Rutuj N. Waghmare; Gargi Nimbulkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1675-1683

BACKGROUND- Practicing medicine in India has revolutionized during the last five decades affecting the healthcare delivery in both positive and negative directions. The doctor-patient relationship has undergone a transition throughout the ages. The perception has been changing due to some malpractices of doctors; people started looking at doctor's community with distrust. Thus a health care professional must know about medico-legal problems to protect oneself from legal issues. OBJECTIVES- To evaluate the knowledge attitude and practice of medico-legal problems among dentist practitioners residing in Vidharbha region. METHODS- The cross sectional study was done in a Private Dental College and were assessed through a self-administered, pretested, validated, close ended, unstructured questionnaire. It was made available to all levels of dentistry being under graduates, post graduates, staff and interns. Data was collected , entered in excel sheet and analyzed using SPSS-21 version. RESULTS- A total of 180 of 181 dentists participated in this study. A total of 92 respondents were males and 88 were females. Lack of knowledge among dental professionals was highlighted in this present study having a poor result of 53.3% regarding the medico legal issues. It was found that only 45.5% of the dental practitioners had knowledge regarding the importance of dental record keeping, which was unsatisfactory. The overall grading showed that majority participants had poor knowledge with fair attitude and practices. CONCLUSION- It was found that majority of the respondents had poor knowledge about medico legal issues. Therefore, it is recommended that Continuing Dental Education and Continuing Medical Education programs should be conducted frequently to create awareness and reinforce practice to safeguard against medico legal issues in dentistry


Shreejha M. V; Kavitha. S; Vishnu Priya. V; Gayathri. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 311-323

Introduction: There has been a global rise in the use of natural products and natural medicine among
people. Proper regulation of natural medicine and products ensure good quality to control standards,
enhance the consumers safety that facilitate their modern healthcare system, mainly because of their lack
of side effects.
Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge, awareness and attitude, towards natural
medicine and products among adults.
Materials and methods :A cross sectional study was conducted among the adults [101people]. The
questionnaire was circulated online through google forms and the collected data were analysed using SPSS
software. The Pearson Chi square test was done in association with the gender of the respondents.
Results: The survey results showed that 79.2% of the people have knowledge about natural medicine.
90.1% of the participants believe natural medicines are effective, 75% of the participants use natural
medicine products in their regular life, 61.4% said natural medicine is more effective than pills.
Conclusion: The present study showed that the awareness and knowledge on natural medicine among
adults is quite good.


Ashinie. C; M. Jeevitha; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 869-882

Adolescence is an important period of transition from girlhood to womanhood. Menstruation is the physiological process that indicates the onset of puberty. The practice of menstrual hygiene also depends on socioeconomic, cultural and religious differences. Menstrual hygiene plays an important role in the overall health of women. The aim of the study is to analyse the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in the Chennai population. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 102 girls of Chennai population to analyse their knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene through an online survey. A self administered questionnaire was prepared with 10 closed ended questions and circulated among the parents through online survey forms “Google forms”. The responses were collected and statistically analysed by SPSS using chi square test. The results were represented by bar charts and frequency tables.Among the 102 participants 98.8% of them are aware of menstrual hygiene 96.1% of the girls use sanitary pads as the absorbent, and about 99% of them dispose of their used absorbents in dustbins. 94.1% have knowledge on the effect of not following good menstrual hygiene. The study concludes that the girls of Chennai population have adequate knowledge and good practice of menstrual hygiene


Faazila Fathima; Remmiya Mary Varghese; Dr.Senthil Murugan P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1879-1886

Orthodontic tooth movement prior to prosthetic treatment is necessary for some patients, in order to optimize both esthetic and functional aspects of dental treatment.A patient may require prosthetic orthodontic interdisciplinary treatment when he/she has missing teeth.Orthodontic treatment will help in correcting the tooth alignment such that sufficient space is available for replacement.However,even though various options are available for treatment of missing teeth, patients preference is of utmost importance. The aim of the study is to assess the frequency of adolescents with missing teeth willing to undergo orthodontic correction before prosthetic replacement.It is a university setting study. 322 adolescent patients reporting to the orthodontic department in Saveetha dental college were included in the study. These patients were assessed for missing teeth and their willingness to undergo orthodontic correction. The data was entered in SPSS and analyzed using Chi square test. From the results, it was observed that the majority (54%) of the adolescents with missing teeth were not willing to undergo orthodontic correction before prosthetic replacement. Individuals in the age group of 16 to 20 years (65% ) showed more willingness for orthodontic treatment. Also, 58% of the females in the study population were willing for orthodontic correction while only 39% of the males preferred orthodontic correction.Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the majority of the adolescents with missing teeth were not willing for orthodontic correction before prosthetic replacement.This may be due to increased treatment time required and lack of awareness on the effectiveness of interdisciplinary treatment approach.


Divyashri S; Jothi priya A; Vishnu priya V; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2197-2209

Segregation refers to basic separation of different categories of waste generated at some source and thereby reducing the risk as well as cost of handling and disposal. Segregation is the most crucial step in biomedical waste management. There are 4 major types of waste, they are general, infectious, hazardous and radioactive. To create awareness among the college students about the segregation and disposal of medical waste.This study involved the segregation of medical waste and disposal among the age group of 18 to 25 yrs. A set of 15 questionnaires were framed and sent through the online google form link. The questionnaire is based on the knowledge,attitude and information about the segregation and disposal of medical waste. Among 100 medical students 77% were aware about the segregation of the medical waste & 23% of the students were not aware about the segregation of the medical waste. To create awareness among the college students about the segregation of medical waste. From that we can protect our health and environment.


E. Dhivya sri,; A. Jothi Priya; Hannah R; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2210-2221

To investigate the awareness about pandemic disease between both rural and Urban populations.Self - administered questions were prepared. The questions were distributed in Google forms and hundreds of participants participated. The statistical data was analysed.Present study showed that a substantial number of participants have adequate awareness regarding an infectious respiratory illness (45% close), risk of pandemic (42.3%), available vaccines (52.3%), majority of participants (82%) would pandemics cause sudden, widespread morbidity and mortality as well as social political and economic disruption.Although there is an appropriate knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of pandemic disease both Urban and rural population still, active interventions are required in all areas of pandemic not only to improve their knowledge and awareness regarding pandemic between both rural and Urban population adults also.


Jayadharani. C; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 616-625

Pandemic is a global affection which has effects on health, social and political levels,As many countries are trying to tackle the current COVID pandemic, this study aims at analysing the popular perception on the capabilities of India in managing a pandemic among the local population. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 South Indian population, The study population were asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and Data was analysed using SPSS software version 20. From the results, the majority of the study population answered positive responses regarding India’s capability of managing pandemic and also awareness of Pandemic among people of India.. 100% of the population were aware of the pandemic and its outbreaks. This study gives an insight on the popular perception toward India’s capability of managing pandemic, and creating an awareness on its spread.


Vigneshwaran Ravichandran; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Manjari Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 772-784

Sleep disturbance is one of the most commonly reported health complaints. Studies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with sleep disorders in the general population. Many studies have shown the association of active smoking with sleep disturbances . But studies examining the association between active and passive smoking with insufficient sleep are limited. A questionnaire was created with a set of 12 questions related to active smoking , passive smoking and sleep disturbances. 100 random participants of adults and aged males by random sampling method . The participants were asked to fill the questionnaire in an online forum. The results were collected and statistically analysed. Almost half of the participants (48 %) have a smoking habit. Among the participants , employers and students have a high level of smoking habit (81%). 52 % of the participants have exposure to passive smoking. 70% of the participants have sleep disturbances. 64 % of the participants have sleep related breathing problems. 67 % of the participants have awareness on passive smoking. 78 % of the participants are willing to quit smoking and to avoid passive smoking. The present study highlighted the effects of active and passive smoking in sleep insufficiency and sleep disturbances. Thus the association of active and passive smoking with insufficient sleep in the adult and aged male population is determined.


Aksha sharen Arul Edwin; Jothi Priya; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2173-2184

Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) is a cancerous disease that affects the lymph nodes within the human body. The location of the disease is how it is classified and diagnosed. The majority of the patients can be potentially cured with the use of radiotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy, a proportion of them will relapse or develop resistant disease for which treatment options are limited. The aim of the study Is to determine the knowledge awareness about recent advances in the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The objective is to study the level of awareness and knowledge about advanced treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma and associated risk factors among the Indian population. A survey was conducted from April to May among 100 people in the state of Tamil Nadu, India by preparing a set of standard questionnaires and answers were collected through online survey methods such as google forms. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS software and chi square analysis was done for correlation. The results clearly indicate that 57% percent of the population is aware about the recent advances in the treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma and 42% percent of the population not aware about the treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The conclusion of this study is that the above statistical analysis about knowledge awareness on recent advances in the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma has provided a clear view of current advanced treatment procedure and technique for the betterment of patients in future.


John Francis; Jothi priya; Lavanya prathap; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2236-2247

Everyone gets separated after a few days when they get bored due to that depression. Self quarantine reduces the economic development of the country. Everyone working has many responsibilities but due to this self quarantine in this lockdown shortage of money leads the country to drop in economic status. Due to self quarantine many are affected mentally, they usually get depressed and lose their peace. Cannot concentrate in what they are doing and change in their mood swings. Self quarantine Self quarantine is most useful during the time of spreading disease. This study is done with the help of an online survey. Many are used to this self quarantine. Many ill effects are there in self quarantine like obesity, due to obesity leads to myocardial infarction but other than these many useful things are occurring due to self quarantine like reducing usage of vehicles which reduces global warming. This study created awareness about the self quarantine and told how to spend free time properly


Raja kumar; Jothi Priya; V. Vishnu Priya; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2307-2321

Dengue is especially affecting the tropic and subtropic regions of the planet . It's mainly caused by Dengue, a member of Family Flaviviridae. Four serotypes of Dengue are DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4. 67,000 people are diagnosed by Dengue and it's been reported by NVBPCP. The aim of this study is to make awareness on risk factors and complications of Dengue virus among college students .The Survey on awareness about the danger factor and complications of Dengue virus among college students was conducted employing a google form link. We've distributed our survey among 100 college students. Then , we used a sampling method. Also, we've used statistical software as SPSS for our data. 59.05 % agreed that they're conscious of Dengue virus, 40.95% are still not aware . 58.10 % agreed that it had been transmitted by files, 27.62 % responded thanks to mosquitoes, 11.43 % responded thanks to Aedes mosquito, 2.86 % responded and still don’ t know. Awareness camps , social media , workshops , seminars could also be conducted to make awareness of risk factors and complications of Dengue virus among college students.


V.A Muralidharan; Sindhu Ramesh; Dr.Gheena. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 169-185

Endodontic infection is the infection of the root canal system and the microorganisms play a tremendous role in pulpal and periapical disease. The primary aim of endodontic treatment is to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal system. This can be achieved by a combination of local and systemic use of antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in dentistry especially in endodontics has become a practice towards inappropriate prescription and overdose leads to adverse side effects and bacterial resistance. An undergraduate student will have only limited knowledge in this regard. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and perception on usage of antibiotics among undergraduate students for endodontic therapy.This present study is a cross-sectional, descriptive questionnaire study conducted among dental undergraduate students in Chennai, India. The study was conducted from March to April 2020. A descriptive questionnaire study was conducted among 320 dental students in the city. A structured questionnaire was prepared focussing on antibiotics indication in dentistry particularly in endodontic treatment. Assessment of subjects awareness and attitude towards use of antibiotics for patients after endodontics procedures included in the questions relating to the knowledge of the basic antibiotics regime and its course. The subjects were requested to respond to each item in the specific format given. All the participants were allowed to choose one of the given three to four choices for each item in the questionnaire.A large population of students of 320 were familiar with this antibiotic resistance. Compared with the juniors, the senior students have a wider knowledge for prescribing antibiotics for various endodontic procedures.Most of the students prescribed Amoxicillin (30.82%)for any endodontic treatment for a duration of three days (26.42%) compared to other antibiotics.This study concludes that undergraduate dental students may prescribe antibiotics inappropriately and hence a proper and extensive guideline must be given to them to be followed . A thorough knowledge and awareness must be there on the antibiotic regime and its usage to all students before entering their clinics.


Roshan A; Dr.Keerthi Sasanka; Sridevi. G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1646-1657

Cancer is defined as the uncontrollable growth of cells that invade and cause damage to surrounding tissues. Oral cancer appears to be a growth or a pain in the mouth that doesn't go away. Oral cancer, including lip, tongue, cheek, mouth floor, hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx (throat), can be life- threatening if not diagnosed and treated early. Cancer that occurs inside the mouth is sometimes referred to as oral cancer or oral cancer of the cavity. Mortal cancer is one of several types of cancer in a category called head and neck cancers. Mouth cancer and other cancers of the head and neck are often treated in the same way. This study was designed to create and assess awareness on oral cancer among employees of gas agencies in Tiruppur district. A self administered questionnaire prepared and circulated via google form link. The data was manipulated, analysed and tabulated. The obtained data was represented as cumulative percentage in pie charts. Association analysis between age groups of the participants and awareness on oral cancer was done by Pearson Chi square test (SPSS version 22) and the data was depicted in a Bar graph. The results of the study revealed that the participants were aware that smoking, chewing tobacco, and pan leads to increased chance of oral cancer. The present study concludes that the people of Tirupur were aware of the incidence of oral cancer and risk factors associated with it.

How are the Understanding and Awareness of 8 family Functions with Family Participation of Growth And Development Infants and Children in West Nusa Tenggara Province? (SKAP Data 2019)

Misroh Mulianingsih; Karjono .; Zuliardi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4101-4111

Introduction. Requirements to be able to care for and raise children optimally, parents must understand and realize the importance of understanding and awareness of 8 family functions. In fact, as many as 88% of families in Indonesia have never heard the 8 family functions. The research objective was to analyze the understanding and awareness of 8 family functions with family participation of Growth and Development infants and children based on 2019 SKAP data. Method. This research used analytical research design with cross-sectional approach and logistic regression test used secondary data from SKAP 2019, namely families who have infants and children at NTB Province with total of 5885 families. Result. The results of this study found that understanding and awareness of 8 family functions and family participation in physical abnormalities of infants and children at NTB province in 2019 were both in good categories, and had a significant correlation between the two with a p-value of 0.000. After conducting the test simultaneously, the results showed that families who have an understanding and awareness of good economic function will be 2.7 times better in participating in the physical growth and development of infants and children compared to families who have less understanding and awareness of economic function. Conclusion. This research focused on relationship between understanding and awareness of 8 family functions with family participation of Growth and Development infants and children. Based on these results, it is hoped that the BKKBN will optimize the program to increase family economic resilience through UPPKS activities and the development of a Prosperous Family Service Center (PPKS).

Knowledge About Esthetic Veneer Treatment For Enhancing Smile In Undergraduate Dental Students


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3070-3096

Background: The most important feature in maintaining and improving a person’s esthetic appearance and self-esteem is only by an attractive smile. Smiling is the best method to influence people. The dynamic part of the face is the oral region, with tooth and gingival display during functional lip movement which is unique to an individual, people with ugly smiles develop a high risk of psychological problems. Esthetic dentistry was motivated by the growing accessibility of media and online information has been highly demanded by the patients and tooth color is also used for veneers. Aim: The main aim of this study is to assess the awareness about the esthetic veneer treatment for enhancing smiles in undergraduate dental students. Materials and method: A survey based questionnaire was done to assess the knowledge about the veneer treatment. A self designed 16 questions were framed and the responses were collected through google form app.Thedatas were statistically analysed by SPSS software. Results: Results were represented in the form of bar diagrams and 71% of the respondents are aware of veneer treatment. This study shows a high-level self-consciousness about the veneer treatment 76% of the students agreed that they can brush veneer, 63% were answered for porcelain veneer. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the undergraduate dental students are highly aware of the esthetic veneer treatment for enhancing smile.


Mohamed Thameemul Ansari; M.Dhanraj Ganapathy; A.K. Anjali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 785-798

Green tea is the most popular drink consumed across the world. It is made from Camellia Sinensis plant. The
dried tea leaves are processed and used to produce various types of tea products. Green tea drinking habits
have many health benefits. Health professionals like medical and dental students are undergoing high
pressure during their Study time. Green tea may benefit them from its Consumption range and knowledge
about green tea among dental students is unknown.A questionnaire-based study was conducted. 18 questions
were created about green tea drinking habits, about its uses, about its Origin, and its View on green tea. A
survey was conducted through online platforms ( Google forms ) and responses were collected. The data
Collected were Collected, analyzed and tabulated according to the Values.The knowledge and awareness
about health benefits of green tea consumption was adequate among dental students.


Bipin .; Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha .; Kiran kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1605-1621

Forensic odontology deals with legal investigations in which it primarily involves the identification of the offender by comparing dental records to a bite mark left on the victim. It is especially used for the application of the principal of law and criminal investigation.Aim of the study is to evaluate knowledge and awareness on forensic dentistry. This special brand deals with the dental evidence obtained from the victim. As the field of forensic dentistry focuses on the methods of detection, collection and analysis of bite mark remains is very helpful in crime investigations to analyse the acquired evidence. In the past decades oral pathologists had major responsibilities in developing forensic science. A cross sectional study on undergraduates was carried out using a questionnaire with close ended questions. The survey had 15 questionnaires circulated in Google forms and 100 responses were obtained from the population, representation of data was in pie chart and bar graphs. Majority of the study population answered yes as they feel forensic odontology is very much essential to deal with crime investigation. 62.7% of the study population responded positively where they are able to differentiate the work of forensic anthropologists and a forensic odontologist first. The students' knowledge on forensic odontology and what it deals with, was significant with the year of study where final year students are more aware about forensic odontology. P value = 0.00(<0.05) which is statistically significant. This study concludes that most of the participants have knowledge and awareness on the role of forensic dentistry among dental undergraduates.


Sarvasri T; Dr. L. Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 723-736

Eating a variety of foods rich in nutrients from all the food groups promotes healthy teeth and gums. This means eating a balanced diet of fruits, vegetables, protein drinks, drinks high in calcium and whole grains for a healthy smile and a healthy body. The aim of the present study is to find out whether the dental students are aware about the various diets for detoxifications and maintenance of oral health. A cross-sectional survey based study was conducted among the dental students on the various diets for detoxification and maintenance of oral health. The questionnaire was distributed through the “Google forms” website to around 100 Dental students. 79% were aware of the various diets taken for detoxification and maintenance of oral health. 83% thought that there is a link between oral health and oral health conditions. This study concludes that the dental students were aware about the various diets for detoxification and maintenance of oral health


B.V.M. Anirudh; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Nivethigaa. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 737-747

Sedentary lifestyle has become a huge concern in one's life, in which physical inactivity has become a major health problem. Prevalence of sedentary life is increasing nowadays and is seen more commonly in the student population. Sedentary lifestyle leads to obesity is an important health concern which is increasing day by day around the globe. It affects the whole body which mainly causes cardiovascular problems.The Aim of this research is to bring awareness about sedentary lifestyle, obesity and cardiovascular disease in the student population.A questionnaire of a total 15 questions were prepared and was uploaded through surveyplanet. The responses were collected and then interpreted as pie charts and bar graphs. A total of 100 undergraduate college students have taken the survey. The data was analysed by IBM-SPSS software where descriptive statistics and chi square test was done, where the results are plotted as graphs and pie charts.A total of 100 college students have taken up the survey in which 47% were male and 53% were female. In a question pertaining to how many people were following a healthy diet- 74 % have answered yes and 26% said no. The next question was about exercising everyday in which 62 % said yes while 38% said no. In which 47% males and 15% females have answered yes.97% agree that sedentary lifestyle leads to complications such as obesity. 90% of the students are aware about the increase in sedentary lifestyle among students. 69% have answered that unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity,smoking etc were the common causes of obesity. 95% agree that obesity causes respiratory problems. Almost 95 % students agree that obesity causes systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension which will ultimately lead to cardiovascular problems.Chi square test was done between gender and people who are following a healthy diet and exercising daily where p<0.05 which is statistically significant.Our study showed that almost all students were aware about sedentary lifestyle and its complications, but the females in the study have shown that they do not follow a healthy diet and do not exercise regularly which makes them prone to obesity and ultimately cardiovascular problems. To avoid these problems, awareness has to be spread in colleges about the seriousness of obesity and its harmful effects and how to prevent it.


KirthickKumaran. A.S; KeerthiSasanka. L; ArchanaSanthanam .; Kirankumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1635-1646

The aim of this study was to create awareness on fundamntals of fixed prosthodontics among dental students.It is the specialised area of dentistry involving the replacement. Missing teeth of the cast prosthesis is permanently cemented.Complete development of dental process leads to new complete virtual environment without any physical model situation.This study was a cross-sectional survey based study conducted among the dental students on the fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics. The questionnaire was distributed through the “Google forms” website to around 100 Dental students.In the present study about 56% of the population are aware of the prosthodontics and 44% of the population is not aware of the prosthodontics. Regarding the parts of fixed partial dentures 39% of the population are aware and 61% of the population are not aware of it. This concludes that the knowledge and awareness on the fixed prosthodontics is moderate among the dental students, in which among them the second year undergraduates had a higher knowledge on the fixed prosthodontics.

Knowledge, Attitude And Practise Of Dentists Towards Management Of Patients During Covid-19 Pandemic - A Questionnaire Survey

Sudarsan R; Surendar Sugumaran; Anjaneyulu K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2621-2643

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has become a growing public health challenge for countries across the world. The risk of cross infection can be high between patients and dental practitioners due to the characteristics of the dental setting. Dentists should constantly be aware of such infectious threats that challenge the routine infection control regimen. The aim of this study was to assess the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) regarding the COVID-19 pandemic among dental undergraduate students. An online questionnaire that consisted of a series of questions regarding dentists’ demoFigureic details; their knowledge about the incubation period, the symptoms, mode of transmission and infection control measures for prevention of COVID-19; and their attitude toward treating patients with COVID-19 was used. The study was conducted among undergraduate students of a private dental institute. Data was collected from filled questionnaires and analysed using SPSS software. A total of 209 undergraduate dental students participated in the online survey. A majority of students (96.7%) believe that transmission of COVID-19 can be prevented by using standard and isolation precautions given by CDC, WHO, ICMR and 73.2% were aware of the guidelines to be followed during the COVID-19 lockdown. 92.3% had not undergone any online training for management of patients during COVID-19. Study participants (62.7%) also expressed a positive attitude towards willingness to perform emergency dental procedures. Almost half the study population refused to perform their clinical rotation in a hospital without clear COVID-19 infection control isolation policy. Majority of the participants had sufficient knowledge regarding transmission and risk of spread of COVID-19 in dental settings. Students also demonstrated a positive attitude toward performing dental treatment provided adequate guidelines were followed in the hospital.