Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Volume 4, Issue 1

Volume 4, Issue 1, Winter 2017


PSO-ANN based diagnostic model for the early detection of dengue disease

Shalini Gambhira; Sanjay Kumar Malika; Yugal Kumarb

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

Large numbers of machine learning approaches have been developed for analysis of medical data in recent years. These approaches have also proved their significance through accurate and earlier diagnosis of diseases. The objective of this work is to develop a diagnostic model for earlier diagnosis of dengue disease. Dengue fever is spread through the bite of the female mosquito (Aedes aegypti). The symptoms of this fever are similar to other fever such as that of Viral influenza, Chikungunya, Zika fever, and so on. However, in this fever, human life can be at risk due to severe depletion of blood platelets. Therefore, early diagnosis of dengue disease can help in protecting human lives by making a preventive move before it turns into an infectious disease. In this work, an effort is made to develop a PSO-ANN based diagnostic model for earlier diagnosis of dengue fever. In the proposed model, PSO technique is applied to optimize the weight and bias parameters of ANN method. Further, PSO optimized ANN approach is used to detect dengue patients. The effectiveness of the proposed model is evaluated based on accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, error rate and AUC parameters. The results of the proposed model have been compared with other existing approaches like ANN, DT, NB, and PSO. It is observed that the proposed diagnostic model is a proficient and powerful model for more accurate and earlier detection of dengue fever

Pros, cons and future of antibiotics

Elroy P. Weledji; Elizabeth K Weledji; Jules C. Assob; Dickson S. Nsagha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 9-14

The advantages of antibiotics have been most clearly seen in those acute bacterial infections which had a high mortality before the introduction of antibiotics. The reality of the potential harmful effects of antibiotics, both short term in individual patients and long term in favoring emergent resistance and opportunistic pathogens are discussed. Bacterial resistance makes the standard treatments ineffective, and increases the risk of infection spreading. The shortage of novel antibiotics has strengthened the efforts of genome sequencing to control bacterial resistance. The future would include novel approaches, based on a re-conceptualization of the nature of resistance, disease and prevention.

Safety study of autologous adult bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - Pilot data

Lakshmi Kiran Chelluria; Upasna Upadhyaya; Ravindra Nallagondab; Sudhir Prasadb; Mohammad Samiuddinb; Rajat Mohantyb; Chandrashekar Mallarpua; Meenakshi Ponnanaa; Sindhoora Rawulc; Eswara Prasad Chelluric

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 15-22

Background: Lung transplantation is the choice of therapy in severe cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) but is compounded with post-transplant complications. The paucity of deceased organ donations underlines the need for alternate approaches that improves the quality of life. Herein, we attempted to develop an autologous adult bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BMSC) therapy via central line access, and evaluated the safety of a single dose (~13 × 106 cells/mL), in treating “no option” IPF. Method: The study included severe IPF subjects (n = 6) both male and female, aged 40–70 years of age with a forced vital capacity < 50%, diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLco) < 35% of predicted, and/or oxygen (SpO2) saturation < 88% on 6 min walk distance (6 MWD). BMSCs at passage 2 were suspended in 30.0 mL normal saline and dispensed through the central line route in a respiratory intensive care unit of Gleneagles Global Hospitals. The subjects were monitored for the first 24 h for serious adverse events and hemodynamic parameters. They were followed up periodically at intervals of 1, 4, and 9 months for safety and monitoring of adverse events, including secondary objectives of changes in pulmonary function test, DLco, 6 MWD, and quality of life as per the study protocol. Results: It was observed that central line infusions were well tolerated by all subjects. Furthermore, there was an improved quality of life. Conclusions: BMSC central line infusion in “no option” IPF cases provided an insight into the strategies in improving the quality of life for patient and thereby increasing the therapeutic window period for lung transplantation.

Synthesis of a series of new 6-nitrobenzofuran-2-carbohydrazide derivatives with cytotoxic and antioxidant activity

Muhammad Taha; Sadia Sultan; Mohamad Azlan; Syed Adnan Ali Shah; Waqas Jamil; Swee Keong Yeap; Syahrul Imranb; Muhammad Nadeem Akhtar; Seema Zareenf; Nor Hadiani Ismailb; Muhammad Alih

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 23-30

6-nitrobenzofuran-2-carbohydrazide Schiff base derivatives have been synthesized and their structure has been confirmed via H1NMR, Mass spectrometry and elemental (CHN/S) analysis. These synthesized analogs showed significant cytotoxic and antioxidant activity. Doxorubicin (IC50 = 0.94 ± 0.20 μM) and n-propyl gallate (IC50 = 30.30 ± 0.40 μM) were used as standard in cytotoxic and antioxidant activities, respectively. Compound 1 (IC50 = 3.30 ± 0.90 μM), 2 (IC50 = 2.70 ± 0.25 μM), 3 (IC50 = 2.70 ± 0.25 μM), 10 (IC50 = 2.70 ± 1.10 μM), 11 (IC50 = 1.00 ± 1.20 μM), and 17 (IC50 = 3.75 ± 0.90 μM) showed excellent while 21 (IC50 = 7.50 ± 0.60 μM) and 28 (IC50 = 7.50 ± 0.66 μM) showed moderate anti cancer activity. Furthermore, compound 10 (IC50 = 17.50 ± 0.85 μM), 11 (IC50 = 24.20 ± 0.55 μM), 12 (IC50 = 21.10 ± 1.58 μM), 13 (IC50 = 14.60 ± 0.32 μM), 14 (IC50 = 29.20 ± 0.75 μM) and 15 (IC50 = 9.26 ± 0.15 μM) showed better antioxidant activity than the standard n-propyl gallate. This study will be useful to develop potential lead molecules with cytotoxic and antioxidant potential.

Improving disease diagnosis by a new hybrid model

Bikash Kanti Sarkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 31-47

Knowledge extraction is an important part of e-Health system. However, datasets in health domain are highly imbalanced, voluminous, conflicting and complex in nature, and these can lead to erroneous diagnosis of diseases. So, designing accurate and robust clinical diagnosis models for such datasets is a challenging task in data mining. In literature, numerous standard intelligent models have been proposed for this purpose but they usually suffer from several drawbacks like lack of understandability, incapability of operating rare cases, inefficiency in making quick and correct decision, etc. In fact, specific health application using standard intelligent methods may not satisfy multiple criteria. However, recent research indicates that hybrid intelligent methods (integrating several standard ones, can achieve better performance for health applications. Addressing the limitations of the existing approaches, the present research introduces a new hybrid predictive model (integrating C4.5 and PRISM learners) for diagnosing effectively the diseases (instead of any specific disease) in comprehensible way by the practitioners with better prediction results in comparison to the traditional approaches. The empirical results (in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and false positive rate) obtained over fourteen benchmark datasets demonstrate that the model outperforms the base learners in almost all cases. The performance of the model also claims that it can be good alternative to the specialized learners (each designed for specific disease) published in the literature. After all, the presented intelligent system is effective in undertaking medical data classification task.

Abstracts: 5th Annual Congress of the European Society for Translational Medicine (EUSTM-2017), 20–22 October 2017, Berlin, Germany

Aamir Shahzad; Randall J. Cohrs

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 48-98

Regenerative medicine is a promising field with the potential to overcome the increasing need for donor organs either by stopping disease progression (e.g. with cells, genes or biologics) or by providing novel organ options. Furthermore, regenerative medicine strategies are unlike other treatments in that they are meant to persevere and treat the underlying injury rather than symptoms. This requires a level of persistence and safety and long term efficacy not always previously required for new therapies. In the past decade, clinicians have been able to utilize cell and gene therapies in unprecedented numbers, but with mixed results. At the same time, scientists have engineered organs (bladder, esophagus and blood vessels) that are considered simple structurally and functionally. However, regenerative medicine is yet to fully succeed with cells or genes or to fabricate fully functional solid organs such as kidneys, livers, lungs, and hearts. Yet, development of organs in the laboratory is proceeding both via 3D printing and use of decellularized scaffolds

RISK OF RESPIRATORY MORTALITY OR MORBIDITY IS HIGH WITH CHRONIC TOBACCO SMOKING IN INDIANS

M. Kaja Lakshmy, E. Prabhakar Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 99-103

Tobacco smoking is widely prevalent all over the world and it continues to rise in
developing countries. Smoking has a deleterious effect on pulmonary functions. Smoking
is the single most significant risk factor contributing to the development of Chronic
obstructive airway diseases (COPD). Spirometry by a trained health professional gives an
indication of lung health by measuring airway abnormality. Objectives were to study
pulmonary function test (PFT) in smokers and non-smokers Tobacco smoking, in the form
of cigarettes, has a deleterious effect on the health, mainly on the pulmonary functions.
Smoking is highly associated with an abnormal PFT. Cessation of smoking should be
encouraged and PFTs from time to time in asymptomatic adults both smokers and nonsmokers
will be useful for early identification of abnormalities.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone oxime: Removal of heavy metals from water bodies based on binding properties

Sushila Singhal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 104-113

Metals like cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and plum (Pb) may be exceedingly risky for humans and animals. These metals affect human health, including renal failure, bone smoothing, prostate cancer, liver damage, infant central nervous system damage, and reproductive organ harm. These metals constitute a potential human health concern, owing to their hazards and their broad environmental exposure, including their bioaccumulation and bioamplification. In this paper we will be covering the methods and the analysis of removal of heavy metals from wastewater bybusingbthe properties of PVP.
Keywords: Heavy metals, wastewater, polyvinylpyrrolidone oxime, PVP.
 
Introduction
The U.S. Agency for Environmental Protection (USEPA), the largest concentration of contamination in drinking water, is found in 5.6 0.005 mg L1 for Cd, 0.1 mg L1 for Cr, 0.1 mg L1 for Ni, and 0.015 mg L1 for Pb. 7 In the City of Flint, Michigan, lead contamination has recently resulted in serious environmental health effects (Pb levels were between 13–800 times higher than the maximum contaminant threshold of the EPA). One of the studies in soil exposure showed that MCLs are not protective enough due to high levels of arsenic in the soil. In this investigation, we found that the low-birth-weight threshold in soils is about 130.5 mg/ kg Pb, less than the harmful 400 mg/ kg EPA standard. 10 Many various technologies have been utilised for cleaning metal contaminated areas including stabilisation, solidification, soil spills, chemical reduction/oxidation, electrical kinetics, thermal desorption at low temperatures, incineration, excavation/reclamation, disposal, and waste disposal. On the other hand, these technologies are often costly and harmful.
Phytoremediation can in some situations be a better solution, because it is less disruptive; however, it can take some time and it can be hard to dispose of the plant polluted with metal. All known procedures therefore offer both advantages and problems, and it becomes increasingly necessary to use creative solutions. Recently, the possibility of low cost and effective alternatives for environmental clean-ups in nanotechnology has been established.13 Reactive nano-materials such nanoscale zeolites, metal oxides, carbon nanotubes and bimetallic nanoparticles were used for metal cleanup, among other purposes. Built to be non-toxic and easy to remove from the water media, iron oxide nanoparticles are commonly utilised in metals restoration. Moreover, where the NP consists of magnetite, the NP and any related impurities can be simply magnetically separated. While nanoparticles with bare magnetite are stable in aqueous solutions, they assemble quickly and are very vulnerable to changes under a wide range of environmental conditions which require the application of capping agents to inhibit the aggregation. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with poly(1-vinylimidazole) oligomer were utilised to extract mercury (II) from water, and nanoparticles enclosed with carbon were employed for the recovery of metallic elements from acidic solutions. Nanoparticles Ferromagnetic carbon coated Fe have been utilised to remove approximately 95% CR(VI) from water solution20; magnetic core nanoparticles with porous carbon shell have been employed for the elimination via electrostatic attraction and adsorption of metals from acidic suspensions with excellent efficiency.
The research by the authors indicates that nanoparticles covered with polyvinyl pyrrolidone have an excellent stability and are not primarily hazardous to the environment under relevant environmental conditions.