Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Volume 8, Issue 3

Volume 8, Issue 3, Winter 2021


The impact of a training program in the(repetitive) method in the development of pass skill for futsal players under the age of 19 years

Layth Ismael Ibrahim; Abduljabbar Kareem Allaw

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 30-38

The researcher addressed that the importance of the game of futsalfootball, as well as the diversity in the methods of play and its offensive and defensiverequirements, attributed this to the development and great progress that has been achieved in the field of training science and the distinguished position occupied by the game of football
and the development in the methods of playing the team in terms of the use of the best methods of training variety such ascontinuous training, repetitive, andvitreti, ring and others. The importance of the research lies in revealing the use of repetitive training exercises and their impact in the development of football passingfor the youth groupand the extent towhich the research benefits from the training of Diyala provincial clubs and youth forums in the Directorate of Youth and Sports Diyala. And the lack of attention and focus ontheperformance of the skill of passingin (last quarter) of the game time so that it is difficult for the players to perform technical duties, whichpromptedtheresearcherto enter into this problem.

Plasma mediated treatment along with Interferon β mechanism for symptomatic Covid 19/20 treatment and generation of asymptomatic conditions for Covid 19/20 with contrast to IBV Avian virus.

Pratik Nandi Dippyoman Guha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 45-54

Covid 19 virus has shown its terror by causing severe acute respiratory disorder of human being’s effects shows a type of viral pneumonia. To address the anomaly the paper caries the motive encountering the viral infection with the help of interferon type 1 β. A basic discussion of effective INFβ1 and its introduction in the effective cells by Corona virus, plasma mediated delivery system along with development of asymptomatic conditions in non-affected individual. The plasma therapy considers plasma transfusion into effected individuals to boost their immunity against Corona virus. The plasma consists of antibodies, antigens as well as interferon to mediate with the viral infection and providing high effective rate. Satisfying these 2 goals was the basic motto of the paper along with a generation of asymptomatic condition in effected individuals. IBV (infectious bronchitis virus) is a type of influenza virus which has structural, genomic as well as symptomatic similarities with corona virus. Vaccination of non-effected individuals with IBV vac may allow to address the symptomatic similarities of Corona virus such as fever and breathing troubles. The generation of active immunity may render the extent of symptoms allowing persons to remain asymptomatic against the Corona infection. The study of structural phylogenomic of IBV along with Corona virus, and a contrast of similarities to support the asymptomatic postulates of the infected individuals has been explained.

A Review on Role of Aquatic Organisms As Bioindicator on Aquatic Ecosystem Due To Lead(Pb) And Cadmium(Cd) Pollution

Dr. Suchismita Chatterjee Saha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 55-62

The biosphere is the living objects’ natural world. It includes the planet and comprises surface portions of the lithosphere, the body and the hydrosphere. For species to live in the atmosphere, a reasonably homeostatic condition is important. To track any abnormal transition due to economic advancement and consequential growth of civilization, this includes the analysis of the chemical composition of air, water, and soil. Over the last few decades, the volume of water waste worldwide has risen. One of the most important water contamination sources is the application of extremely hazardous and non-degradable heavy metals (such as Lead, Cadmium, etc.) The effect on marine ecosystems is very fantastic. These heavy metals are taken explicitly from the water by water creatures, and indirectly by other animals belonging to the food chains. Since heavy metal ingestion is involved, certain physiological modifications are happening within the heavy metals such as reduction in growth and developmental defects and reduction in survival. Some organisms such as the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are used for calculation of heavy metal emissions as bioindicators and biomonitors. The purpose of this study is to discuss the significance of this organism in observing both the volume and quality aspects in relation to heavy metals, particularly lead and cadmium, in the water bodies' surroundings and how this heavy metal exposure can be avoided or managed.

A Causal Influence Model of Innovation and Digital Marketing on the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Performance in Thailand

Wiriya Boonmalert; Chitpong Ayasanond; Bunyaporn Phoothong; Thun Chaitorn

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 63-72

The objective of this research is to (1) study the components of innovation and digital marketing that affect the small and medium enterprises (SME) performance (2) analyze the influence of innovation and digital marketing that affects the SME performance (3) study the SME performance development model. In this mixed research, there were nine key informants and 460 questionnaires were used. The statistics used were percentage, mean, standard deviation, frequency, Pearson correlation coefficient, percentage, mean, standard deviation, survey factor analysis, and analysis of structural equation model. Found that there are three components of innovation, three components of digital marketing, and SME performance has two components. The model shows that innovation has a direct influence on SME performance, innovation has a direct influence on digital marketing, digital marketing has a direct influence on SME performance, and innovation has an indirect influence on SME performance

The Quality of Life (QOL) Development for Thai Elderly in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand

Bunyaporn Phoothong; Chitpong Ayasanond; Wiriya Boonmalert; Thun Chaitorn

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 73-82

This research aims to 1) study the quality of life (QOL) level development according to characteristics of Thai elderly demography 2) study the different levels of Thai elderly QOL and 3) study the relationship between QOL development and Thai elderly QOL in Nakhon Pathom province. Mixed methods research was used in this study. The sample consisted of 400 Thai elderlyby using questionnaires and statistics used. The data analyzed were frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation. The statistical t-test, one-way ANOVA analysis, and Pearson's Correlation Coefficient were determined. Found that 1) the QOL improvement, the overall picture is at a high level, social support had the highest average, followed by environmental management, participation and health promotion 2) the elderly QOL, the environment was at a high level, followed by social, psychological, and physical relationships 3) overall QOL improvement was positively related to the elderly QOL according to the statistical significance assumptions at the level. 01 and 4) from the municipal administrators of Nakhon Pathom province interviewing, found that the QOL improvement in various areas municipality affecting the elderly QOL when the elderly are developed, they will have a better QOL

Attitude towards Teaching Profession of Graduate Levels Students in the State of West Bengal, India

Ranajit Dhara; Arup Barik; Dr. Amarnath Das; Dr. Nandini Banerjee

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 83-98

In the present study, the investigators have tried to study what kind of Attitude of Graduate Students towards Teaching Profession and to find out the Graduate Level Students concerning their level of Attitude towards Teaching Profession on the basics of Category. The investigators have applied the Descriptive Survey type method for the present study. The investigators used self-made questionnaires on Attitude towards Teaching Profession. The overall results of the study explored that the level of Attitude towards Teaching Profession is being Moderate in West Bengal, India and Female Students was comparatively more favorable attitude than the Male Graduate Students towards Teaching Profession as well as Urban Graduate Students is comparatively more positive attitude towards Teaching Profession. It is indicated that there is a no significant difference among the Graduate Level Students with respect to their level of Attitude towards Teaching Profession on the basis of Category, Streams.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAMILY SUPPORT AND COMPLIANCE IN IMPLEMENTING DIET PROGRAMS FOR ELDERLY PEOPLE WITH HYPERTENSION

Nina Sumarni; Citra WindaniMambang Sari; Dadang Purnama

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 99-106

Family support plays an essential role in understanding lifestyle changes associated with chronic illness, changes needed to help sick members. Family support for patients with hypertension can improve health, and intensive support can reduce pain and help carry out a more disciplined diet program to be maximized. Low adherence to treatment makes it difficult to control his blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between family support and commitment in implementing a diet program for elderly Hypertension in Muarasanding Village, Garut Regency.The type of correlative descriptive study that describes the relationship of family support with hypertension diet compliance. This study's population is hypertension sufferers in the Muara Sanding village located in the SiliwangiGarut Health Center working area. The sample is a total sampling of 51 respondents. The instrument used was a questionnaire. The validity test uses the product-moment correlation technique; the reliability test in GarutJayaraga Village is 20 elderly. Data analysis uses chi-square.The results of this study received as much support as 57% with a level of adherence to carrying out a diet of 55%, and categories that lacked family support 43% and who did not carry out dietary compliance 45%. Results of analysis Sig = 0.42 (a <0.05) means that HO is rejected and accepts H1. There is a relationship between family support and adherence in implementing a diet in the elderly with hypertension. The analysis also found a significant correlation value, with an equivalent odds ratio of 3,889, meaning families who support have the possibility of 3,889 times to comply with the hypertension diet program. Conclusion: There is a relationship between family support with adherence to implementing the diet.

Human Papilloma Virus, Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor as Biological Markers in Sinonasal Inverted Papilloma

Ibrahim El- Dsoky; Abdelaleem Al- Gendy; Mohamed Shams Eldin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 107-116

Sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP) has a recurrent tendency and potential for transformation into squamous cell carcinoma and is a locally aggressive benign tumor. In the progression from benign SIP to malignancy, human papillomavirus (HPV) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are suggested to play a major role. This work aims to assess their role as tumor marker in SIP. Immunohistochemical analysis for EGFR and PCR detection of HPV – DNA were estimated in nasal biopsies from 35 SIP, 35 NP and 30 control patientsv (turbinate surgery candidate). Serum SCCA1 was also assessed. HPV-DNA was detected as 63%, 8.6% and 0 % in SIP, NP, and control patients. EGFR intensity revealed statistically significant difference between SIP and other groups. Significant elevated serum SCCA level (6.14 ± 2.69 ng/ml) was found in SIP group, compared to 2.41 ± 1.12 ng/ml and 0.68 ± 0.25 ng/ml in NP and control group. There was a significant decrease of its level postoperatively. The sensitivity was 80.0 and the specificity was 93.8. These results may suggest SCCA and EGFR are possible reliable tumor markers in SIP monitoring and management. High prevalence of HPV-DNA points to its possible role as etiological factor for SIP.

The Content and Structure of Tele-physiotherapy module (i-TelePT) for the management of children with Cerebral Palsy in an inclusive educational settings: A Qualitative Study

Pardeep K. Pahwa; Shobha Sharma; Suresh Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 118-127

Background: Preliminary evidence showed that school-based therapeutic interventions as related services implemented by special educators under supervision of therapists proclaims effectiveness to prevent physical ailments in Cerebral Palsy children. Apparently,barriers addressed by special educators in delivering physiotherapy services hinder the progress of children in curricular & co-curricular activities. Assuming the barriers, special educators intercepted about substitutive technological therapeutic approach delineating content and module of novelty in terms of inclusive Telephysiotherapy (i-TelePT) to combat physical ailments in educational settings.

Significance of Complement factor and Immunoglobulin in Helicobacter pylori induced Gastric Cancer

PushpalakshmiGangadharan .; AnanthiSivagnanam .; SubekshaGovindaRajan Ravi; Chaitanya Vattem; Premkumar Karunakaran; Raja JeyaSekar R; Megala Jayaraman; Pushparaj Arunachalam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 128-142

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) still found to be the predominant cancer in Asia.There were very few reports which were focused on population specific biomarker studies with respect to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induced gastric cancer in India. Hence, we aimed to perform this biomarker study involving H. pylori positive and negative healthy serum samples in comparison with H. pylori positive gastric cancer samples.
Methods: We have adapted Proteome based approaches to identify serum biomarkers in our Indian population samples. For proteins separation and identification, 2D gel electrophoresis with tandem mass spectrometry approach was performed and thirty differentially regulated protein spots were analyzed.

Otorhinolaryngology Manifestations of Covid-19 Patients Short Title: ENT Manifestations of Covid-19

Shuaib Kayode AREMU

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 143-154

Objective: Our main aim is to review the published literature under the ENT manifestations in COVID19 positive patients having underlying causes. Materials and Methods: We have read about 45 peer-reviewed Elsevier, springer, wild pub, Jama network, British health magazine, Pub Med, Wiley's online booksellers, Karger journals, Europe PMC, new England newspaper, American Roentgen ology journal, and Nature's Public Health Emergency Series. We read about 45 peer-reviewed articles. The authors then summarized, collected, and analyzed the findings of research that met these criteria for inclusion and exclusion.

The effect on CT size-specific dose estimates of mis-positioning patientsfrom the iso-centre

Arif Jauhari; Choirul Anam; Mohd Hanafi Ali; William Ian Duncombe Rae; Siti Akbari; Tina Meilinda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 155-164

This study evaluates the effect of mis-positioning of patients in relation to the iso-centre in CT examinations on the dose received by phantoms with various diameters. Phantoms with water-equivalent diameters (Dw) ranging from 8.5 cm to 42.1 cm were scanned using a GE Optima CT scanner with exposure factors as follows: 200 mA, 120 kVp, 1.375 Pitch, 50 cm field of view (FOV), 5 mm beam collimation, and 1 s rotation time. Doses were measured using the CT dose profiler (RTI Electronics). After obtaining doses in every hole of the phantoms, weighted doses were computed. It is found that the dose decreased with an increase in the Dw. The ratio of the doses when positioned off-centre by 2 cm and 4 cm with respect to the iso-centre have p-values of 0.914 and 0.919, which shows no significant difference (p> 0.05).

Mapping of Research Output on Learning Disabilities: A Bibliometric Study

Dr.Akhtar Hussain; Mr.Mohammad Shakir Azad; Mr. Shakil Ahmad; Dr.Amrita Sahay; Dr.Nishat Fatima

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 165-185

This paper aims to analyze a bibliometric study mapping of research output on Learning Disabilities (LD). All articles relevant to LD research have been retrieved using the Web of Science (WoS) database. The journals’ impact factor was taken from the Journal Citation Report (JCR) of the 2019 edition (compiled by Clarivate Analytics) and referred to as IF2019. The Hirsch Index (h-Index) was collected from the database of the most productive writers and organizations. Bibliometric analysis and data matrixes for cocitation, linking, scientific collaboration analysis, co-word analysis, and visualizing bibliometric networks were used by many important bibliometric tools, such as Biblioshiny, ScientoPy, HistCite, BibExcel, and VOSViewer. 

ANIMAL BITE INJURIES IN MAXILLOFACIAL REGION: A REVIEW

Dr. AKSHAY DAGA BDS; Dr. Pavan Rathod

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 186-194

Facial Soft tissue and Hard tissue lacerations of the head and neck region are one of the most common consultations for oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the emergency department. Bite injuries to the aesthetic region like face , head and neck region can result in facial disfigurement with distressing physical, mental and psychological consequences of the patient. Animal bite wounds are most commonly occur on the upper extremities of the body , especially the hand, but some time large percentage are also located on the face as well as head region. The most frequently affected areas are the lips, chin, ears, and nose. It is particularly problematic if large areas of soft tissue in the head region are lost or amputated. An optimal aesthetic result sometimes can only be achieved by extensive surgery such as local flaps or microsurgical replantation. The aim of this study was to establish recommendations for treating animal bite wounds on the face and head based on analysis of our own cases and to discuss the problem of soft tissue loss. The clinical signs ad symptoms and proper management of infected animal bite wounds are vary according to the animals and causative organisms. These kinds of wounds have always been considered complex injuries contaminated with a unique bacteria. This article reviews various animal bite in maxillofacial region, incidence, bacterial implications, risk factors associated with bite injuries and their complications. Animal bite wounds are commonly located on the face, head and neck an oral and maxillofacial surgeon needs to be familiar with the treatment modalities of animal bites, and their various surgical management and educate patients on ways to avoid future bite injuries

Review of Psychosocial Risk Approach, Model and Theory

Dadan Erwandi; Fatma Lestari; Zulkifli Djunaidi; Herlina J. EL- Matury

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 195-214

Current psychosocial risk theories focus on different dimensions that it is necessary to understand each theory and approach to be able to adequately be analysed any psychosocial risk problem. Psychosocial hazards and risk, along with their relevant significant impacts, are often unrecognized by workers and management. This leads to increasing number of occupational accidents that are partly caused by psychosocial factors, in addition to physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical factors. This review aims to obtain an in-depth understanding of the approaches/theories/models that are necessary to be able to comprehensively explain how psychosocial hazards and risk occur and their related impacts against workers in a workplace.

BRAIN MRI ANALYSIS AND SEGMENTATION USING 2D-UNET ARCHITECTURE

Angelin Beulah. S; Kartikay Kaul; Daksh Chauhan; Hepsiba Mabel. V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 215-231

Deep Neural Networks have demonstrated amazingly positive execution in the field of computer vision issues - object acknowledgment, discovery, and division. These techniques have been used in the clinical picture examination area. Convolutional neural systems (CNNs), a remarkable part of profound learning applications to visual purposes, have earned significant consideration in the most recent years because of its advanced exhibitions in computer vision applications. They have accomplished tremendous growth in the areas of object acknowledgment, recognition and division challenges. Our attention is on models being utilized, information pre-handling and readiness and fittingly preparing the subsequent information or picture. The U – Nets are a very powerful CNNs which has accuracy near to humans. We have created and exploited this CNN architecture, U-Net and have done image segmentation for the brain Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The
aim of our work is to fundamentally concentrate on the pre-processing of the MRI images, perform Skull Stripping using Deep CNN architecture U-Net and to perform image
segmentation

AN IN VITRO EVALUATION OF INFLUENCE OF SALIVA DECONTAMINATION TECHNIQUE ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF FIBER REINFORCED CORE BUILD UP MATERIAL TO DENTIN USING ‘UNIVERSAL’ ADHESIVE AND ‘EIGHTH-GENERATION’ ADHESIVE.

Gade Vandana J; Gawande Rachana S; Raut Ambar W; Kale Purva P; Barapatre Pooja; Raksha Kusumbe

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 232-243

Background: Over the last decade, adhesive dentistry has been expanding at a rapid rate. Universal bonding agent and eighth-generation bonding agent are widespread in dentistry today. Saliva is the main contaminant in oral cavity which hinder the bonding. Aim: To evaluate the influence of saliva decontamination technique on the shear bond strength of fiber reinforced core build up material to dentin using ‘universal’ adhesive and ‘eighth-generation’ adhesive. Materials and Methods: Total sixty freshly extracted premolars were randomly distributed into two separate groups of adhesives. Group A- 3M Scotchbond Universal adhesive (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) and Group B - Futurabond DC (Voco, Germany). Samples were again subdivided into three subgroups (n=10): subgroup-1 Control (without contamination), subgroup-2 Contamination, subgroup-3 Decontamination. Samples were restored with short fiber reinforced composite restoration. Universal Testing machine was used to evaluate the Shear Bond Strength (SBS). Statistical analysis: The obtained data were examined statistically using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test HSD test (p<0.05)Results: Group B shown statistically higher mean shear bond strength compared to Group A  (p<0.05). In both adhesive groups, maximum mean shear bond strength was obtained in subgroup-1 whereas the lowermost mean shear bond strength was seen in subgroup-2. Conclusion: Salivary contamination significantly affects the shear bond strength (SBS) of short fiber reinforced composite to dentin using universal adhesive and eighth generation self-etch adhesive. Bond strength significantly improved after reapplication of bonding agent.

Assessment of irrigated lands in the soil climate of the Bukhara oasis

Artikova Hafiza Tuymurodovna; Sattorova Mahfuza Muhiddinnovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 244-255

The resource that grows agricultural products is the soils of this country and will
always need to be registered and evaluated. Soil quality assessment is a comparative
assessment of soil quality and natural fertility when agricultural crops are at a moderate level.
Soil valuation is carried out taking into account the soil properties and characteristics, which
in many respects are related to crop yields. The assessment of soil quality takes into account
the main properties and natural conditions of soils: genetic origin of soils, mechanical
composition, humus content, salinity, erosion, stonyness, gypsum and other natural factors.

THE IMPORTANCE OF MUSIC IN UPBRINGING MATURITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

Boychaeva N.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 256-259

This article is about the national music of harmoniously developed generations. The aim is to educate through our heritage. Music, song, study of national heritage, appreciation of values, use of classical literature in reviving national antiquity, customs, traditions, effective use of ghazals, sharia, and analysis and research of classical songs,
musical spiritual organization of events

Barriers to proper sharing of cardiovascular rehabilitation services in Egypt: cross-sectional interphysiotherapist study

Hady Atef, Ph.D., PT; Abdullah Magdy, B.Sc., PT; Said A. Mohamed; Ali Mohamed Ali Ismail, Ph.D., PT; AHMED MAMDOUH ABD AL-KADER Ph.D., PT

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 260-271

Introduction: Besides the little governmental financial support and the few scattered clinical settings of cardiovascular rehabilitation (CVR) in Egypt, there is no continuous education and/or involvement of the Egyptian physiotherapists (EPs) in the field of CVR. This cross-sectional survey aimed to determine the barriers preventing the proper implementation of EPs in the CVR program/team. Methods:Throughout 13 Egyptian cities, a soft copy of a questionnaire - developed by authors - was sent to 330 EPs who were at least in contact with cardiac patients in the different Egyptian hospitals.Results: Out of 281 respondents, 85.9 % were not familiar with the meaning and presence of an accredited CVR program from the European Society of Cardiology in Egypt, 72.9 % didn't worked before in CVR, 49.8% justified the non-engagement of EPs in CVR programs due to the disqualified and/or disvalued role of physiotherapy when compared with the medical one, and 87% recommended the need for more  education and training to be involved in the CVR team. Conclusion: Urgent institutional and organizational strategies are critically needed in the Egyptian field of physiotherapyto enhance the role of EPs in the CVR team via theoretical and practical educational programs/courses under the supervision of local and/or international experts.

The Impact of COVID-19 in the Procedure of Religious-Worship and Social Life, In Islamic View

Muhammad Fuad Zain; Hasanudin .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 272-278

This article discusses the effects of a coronavirus pandemic in social life. Coronavirus is a global problem that has yet to be resolved until now, it has changed behavior in life, especially in the procedure of religious-worship and social life. The author find that the differences in understanding and attitude related to COVID-19 was caused by knowledge and mental readiness. So the case of COVID-19 corpse will not occur if they have understood and readiness even though it is clear that the coronavirus has changed the way of worship and social life.

The Role of Oncology Pharmacists in optimizing patient care in Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia

Bedanta Bhattacharjee; Bhargab Deka; Nasima Ahmed; Bonti Sonowal; Arzoo Newar; Ashique Ahmed; Abu Md Ashif Ikbal; Amlanjyoti Rajkhowa; Alakesh Bharali; Gargi Das; Ritu Bharti; Ripon Sinha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 279-292
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.08.03.27

Immune thrombocytopenia or ITP is an autoimmune disorder in which the body creates autoantibodies against its thrombocytes or platelets that are destroyed, resulting in purpura or minor bleeding spots under the surface. It is most often found in cancer patients and is of growing concern.While the main causes of thrombocytopenia in cancer pat ients are chemotherapy and radiation, other aetiologies should also be considered in patients suffering
 from this debilitating disease. Thrombocytopenia causes a variety of complications in the treatment of cancer patients and therefore pharmacists need to be familiar with epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnostic methods, and emerging therapeutic options for chronic immune thrombocytopenia to help oncologists identify and implement realistic treatment measures for chronic immune thrombocytopenia patients undergoing cancer treatment.The objective of this review is to provide a brief overview of chronic immune thrombocytopenia and various strategies for the clinical management of the disease.

Bayesian inference and Internet of Things based plant health care

Asha G Hagargund

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 293-302

Advancements in the Internet of things (IoT) enable us to monitor and maintain a variety of devices in various sectors. Based on the literature available, we have found that there are umpteen IoT based methods proposed for plant health care involving hardware interfacing like sensors, micro-controllers, and cameras. The existing solutions also make use of mobile applications, webservers, data-base for processing of information. This paper presents a novel and simple costeffective Bayesian theorem based plant-health-care using sensors interfaced with raspberry pi. Our solution also provides users to watch and water the plant remotely, using a smart-phone via webserver. We have considered rose plant’s favourable environmental factors for maintaining its health.

QUANTITATIVE LIGHT-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE (QLF) IN ORTHODONTICS – A REVIEW

Ravi S; Ferin Fathima; Pradeep S; I.Girish kumar; Bosy Thankam Mathew

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 303-312

Oral hygiene maintenance is usually more strenuous in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy as food lodgement occurs in between bands and brackets . Within a month of treatment this can lead to loss of mineral content of enamel. Preventive measures along with reinforcement and clinical evaluation is necessary. Mineral loss can occur before a white spot becomes visible on the enamel surface. Loss of minerals usually diagnosed by the clinicianwith visual evaluation alone cannot identify the mineral loss. This article attempts to identify and evaluate QLF as a diagnostic apparatus to detect white spot lesions and as a oral hygiene reinforcement reinforcement tool. A QLF apparatus consists of a DSLR camera along with filters and lighting to produce images

“Breast cancer trends in a Tertiary Care Teaching Institute of South India”

Dr. M Bala Vikas Kumar; Dr. Venkat Rao Boinapally

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 313-318

Introduction: The Incidence of breast cancer has been found to increase gradually especially among younger women. This could be due to two reasons first is it may be reflecting the true incidence of the tendency of younger women to develop breast cancer or second could be due to increasing awareness and availability of modern screening methods which has led to the detection of cancers in early ages. Methods: We in this cross-sectional study screened n=125 women for breast cancer at RVM Institute of Medical Sciences, Mulugu, Telangana from January 2019 to Dec 2019. A total of n=120 cases were screened for breast cancer. Results: Out of n=125 women screened n=21 cases were detected with breast cancers.The incidence rate was calculated as 21%.Out of the total n=21 cases, n=7(33.33%) cases were found to malignant, n=14(66.67%) cases were benign lesions. Among the malignant lesions diagnosed the Invasive duct cell carcinoma was found in 71.43% of out of the total n = 7 cases of malignancy. In non-neoplastic lesions out of n=14 cases, fibroadenoma was diagnosed in 38.09% cases, followed by proliferative breast disease with atypia 14.28% and Phyllods in 9.52% cases. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for organized breast cancer screening programs especially in rural areas. A multidisciplinary approach is required to create awareness, screening, detection, and treatment. This can help reduce the incidence and mortality in cases of breast cancers.

Vestibular Physiology andTesting Approached

Dr. Basel Samman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 319-330

Balance disturbancesand Vestibular testingareamong of the most encountering issuesin the ENT clinic. Vertigo and balance disorders affect 30% of the general population before the age of 65 years.With the elderly it is a serious condition as fall is a major causeof death , the percentage in this age groupis higher and it is estimated that 33% of aged between 65 and 75 with no history of Vestibular dysfunction encounter a significant fall annually, comparing to 40% of the people aged over 75. Early detection and intervention in these cases can improve the quality of life, as well as decrease the disability and reduce the health care costs (1).

The Predictive Value of Oral Nicorandil on Contrast Induced Nephropathy in Patients with Renal Insufficiency Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization in Non ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

Ayman Ahmed Seleim Msc; Osama Mohamed Hassan MD; Ahmed Shawky El-serafy MD.; Ahmed Ibrahim El-Desoky MD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 331-351

CIN leads to increased morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and thereby, more health care costs. The incidence of CIN varies from 2% to 30%. Fortunately, most cases can be completely reversed within two to four weeks. The optimal therapeutics used to prevent and CIN remains unclear. The main objective of the current study is to assess the effect of oral Nicorandil on the occurrence of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac catheterization in NSTEACS

How Behavioral Change Wheel Strength Self-Control in Health Behaviors?

Saeed Hameed Aldulaimi; Marwan Mohamed Abdeldayem

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 352-367

The purpose of this study is to develop a planned intervention in the health care sector in Bahrain to improve the self-control of healthcare employees by using the Behavioral Change Wheel (BCW) anew method for characterizing and designing behavior change. Hence, the study applies a longitudinal methodology to the healthcare sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain for a sample of 64 participants from November 2019 to January 2020. The procedures of this planned change task occupy three stages, based on Kurt Lewin change field theory: Stage 1 (pre-assessment of employees’self-control using the Brief Self Control Scale (BSCS) questionnaire);Stage 2: planned intervention employing the BCW as a new method of change): and Stage 3 (post assessment by repeating the self-control measurement, and comparing the new results with the previous ones). The findings reveal that the 13Items of the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) provided different results over the three stages of the study. In Stage 1 (pre-assessment) the level of self-control level was low, but had improved in stage 3 (post-assessment). This is original research that adds to the body of knowledge by developing and validating a new model in changing human behavior, i.e. the change behavior stages(CBS) model. Practically, this study is the only one of its kind to apply the Brief Self Control Scale (BSCS) and the BCW in the health sector. The BCW has been alsoconfirmed as a “valid” and “reliable” instrument that can be used by future researchers to improve human behavior in organizations.

Innovative aspects of reforming higher education in a new stage of development of Uzbekistan

KhakimovNazarKhakimovich .; RakhimshikovaMavludaKarimzhanovna .; SadikovAnvarKarimovich .; JamalovaGulnaraGulyamovna .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 368-380

The authors of the article investigated the innovative aspects of reforming higher education in a new stage of development of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The article emphasizes the role of the process of training competitive specialists in the successful implementation of democratic reforms and the development of civil society. The authors of the article made an attempt to reveal the mission of higher education in society, the tasks of universities in training qualified personnel for bachelors and masters and the importance of specialists for the socio-economic structures of the country in the process of deepening the market economy. In the context of the country's modernization, highly qualified personnel perform an important mission in the process of socio-economic policy, ensuring the improvement of the quality of products and the country's entry into international communities. University graduates carry out a social mission in implementing democratic reforms, ensuring human rights, and educating the younger generation in society

DESMOPLASTIC AMELOBLASTOMA: A REPORT OF THREE CASES FROM A SINGLE INSTITUTE WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE.

Dr. Amitha J Lewis MDS; Dr. Shakthi Dorai MDS; Dr. Karen Boaz MDS; Dr. Srikant N MDS; Dr. Mohan Baliga MDS; Dr. Dharnappa Poojary MDS; Dr. Ankita Sharma MDS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 381-389

Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) a rare type of ameloblastoma, arises from the rests of dental lamina, developing enamel organ, epithelial lining of odontogenic cyst or from the basal cells of the oral mucosa. Clinically, DA develops as a slow growing, painless, bony hard swelling resulting in facial asymmetry. Histologically, it represents stromal collagenization or desmoplasia with small nests and strands of odontogenic epithelium. But the true biologic profile of DA is not well understood as they mimic fibro-osseous lesions clinico-radiographically. As DA is a rare entity,we aim to discuss three case reports of DA from a single institution which deserves pre-eminence owing to its distinct site, radiological and histological features, local aggressiveness and high chance of false clinical appearance. Desmoplasia is an inductive phenomenon occurring in the mesenchymal tissue of the head and neck region. The pathologist and the clinician should be aware of the concepts and the association with malignant transformation and spread of the lesion in order to deliver appropriate treatment.

Organometric, structural and substructural changes in spleen in terms of experimental colon adenocarcinonoma development

Yurii Soroka .; Iryna Andriichuk; Solomiia Kramar; Iryna Shepet; Zoia Nebesna; Petro Bodnar; Zoriana Vivchar; Yaroslav Bodnar; Oksana Shevchuk; Mykhaylo Korda; Nataliya Lisnychuk

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 404-419

Cancer immunology still has many paradoxical questions. One is of the role of the spleen in oncogenesis as well as its own structural reorganization effect on antitumor immunity. Literary data is contradictory and often radically opposite. Therefore, we conducted organometric studies and found out that at the time of pathohistological confirmation of adenocarcinoma in situ in the colon the spleen significantly decreases in size and loses weight. Histologically, deep destructive and degenerative changes in all components of the organ were found: fibrosis, degeneration and destruction of lymphoid tissue, focal zones of destruction in the red pulp. Submicroscopic analysis revealed the presence of lymphocytes with signs of apoptosis in the mantle and periarterial zones. In the white pulp, changes in part of the plasmatic cells were observed: a decrease in the size of the nuclei, damaged GER tubules and mitochondrial cristae. The severity of structural disorders of the spleen increases in the dynamics of the neoplastic lesion development.

AN IMPACT OF CUSTOMERS BRAND PREFERENCE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EXPERIENCE GOODS – A STUDY

Dr.N. MANIVANNAN; Dr.V. VIJAYALAKSHMI; Dr.V. ANDAL

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 420-425

The study is fully related for the entire product to be produced only on the basis consumer and customers. The product all are needed in his personal use and also the retail purpose, but most of the consumer must to concentrate for the personal promotion. The promotion performance is based on the experience goods in the present society. Consumer is always the important assets in the marketing field; the selling targets must to be fulfilled only by the hands of consumers/customers. The study contained the scope, objectives, and limitations of the study. The table values are prepared on the basis of Chi-Square test, and the findings, suggestions and conclusion of the study.

Quantitation of HIV1 RNA viral load and its correlation with CD4 cell count in Hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients attending RIMS hospital Imphal

Dr. Sougrakpam ratna; Dr. Ngangom lilavati; Dr. H. Rebachandra singh; Dr. Khumanthem Shailendra Singh; Dr. Arunoday Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 426-436

Background: HCV-HIV co- infection leads to more rapid progression to cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma but some literature opined that overall survival of HIV positive persons is not affected by the presence of HCV.This study was conducted with he objective to quantify HIV1 RNA viral load in HIV-AIDS coinfected individuals & its correlation with CD4 cell count.

Comparison of B lymphocyte effects of laparoscopic versus open prostatectomy in prostate cancer patients.

Paulius Bosas; Gintaras Zaleskis; Bret Andrew Hudson; Feliksas Jankevicius; Vita Pasukoniene

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 437-441

The preoperative B-cell counts (CD 19+) appeared to be more reduced by laparoscopic prostatectomy when compared with open surgery. These findings are important because accumulating evidence suggest that the B-cell subsets emerged in response to prostate cancer exhibit association with unfavorable prognosis. High per cent of B- cells infiltrating tumor were shown to be associated with more aggressive disease. The B-cell depleting therapies used with different prostatectomy settings should be closely monitored to make timely adjustments to peripheral CD19+ counts

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF METAL IONS RELEASED FROM NICKEL-TITANIUM AND TITANIUM MOLYBDENUM ALLOY ORTHODONTIC ARCH WIRES PROTOCOL FOR IN VITRO STUDY

Dr.Rashmi Jawalekar; Dr: Rana Chikhale; Dr.Eshita Jaiswal; Dr. Aman khan; Dr.Akanksha Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 442-453

INTRODUCTION: Oral environment promotes corrosion of metallic components of orthodontic appliance, which leads to release of metals from metallic component causing relevant health threat. AIM: This study is planned to evaluate and compare the release of metal ions from NiTi and Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) Orthodontic arch wire. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 10 wires each of NiTi and TMA will be incubated in simulated oral environment in artificial saliva for 90 days. After incubation, artificial saliva will be collected and subjected to analytical procedure using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Data will be subjected to statistical analysis.

LGBM Classifier based Technique for Predicting Type-2 Diabetes

B. Shamreen Ahamed; Dr. Meenakshi Sumeet Arya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 454-467

In today’s world, Diabetes Mellitus is a disease, that is considered to be an extensive noncommunicable disease which has a great effect our day to day living. In the 21st century, changes in natural life style and labor culture are some of the main reasons for India to have 62 million diabetic cases as of today. Analytical Computational Techniques can be applied on clinical immense data, the enormous quantity of data produced in the healthcare schemes, there is a option to form medicinal intelligence which will initiative medical forecast andpredicting in future. By advancing medical intelligence and with the help of development model, prediction and detection of diabetes disease can be done. With the increase in complexity to the problems, the accuracy percentage also varies. LGBM - Light Gradient Boosting Algorithm is one such algorithm that can be used as it depends on decision tree algorithms and it can be used in predicting the accuracy to attain the desired results. With the
existing PIMA Indian Dataset the accuracy is calculated as 95.20% using LGBM Algorithm . Therefore by using the LGBM classifiers, we can develop a data model for diabetes detection and prediction.

The Influence of Nurse Satisfaction and Work Stress on Turnover Intension at Mitra Medika Hospital Medan

Youlanda Sari; Ida Yustina; Sri Eka Wahyuni

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 490-494

Nurses are one of the most important assets affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of a hospital. The high intention of nurse turnover in a hospital can weaken the structure of the nursing system and hinder the proper implementation of the nursing processes and procedures itself. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of job satisfaction and stress on nurses on turnover intention. Associative and explanatory were used in this study. All of the nurses who work in Mitra Medika Hospital Medan were participants with a total sample of 126 nurses obtained using cluster sampling and random sampling techniques. The results showed that there was an influence of job satisfaction on turnover intention (p=0.000) and there was an influence of work stress on turnover intention (p=0.000). A hospital is expected to be able to manage nurses as well as possible so that nurses can increase job satisfaction to reduce turnover intentions.

Vestibular Physiology and Testing Approached

Dr. Basel Samman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 495-505

Balance disturbances and Vestibular testing are among of the most encountering issues in the ENT clinic. Vertigo and balance disorders affect 30% of the general population before the age of 65 years. With the elderly it is a serious condition as fall is a major cause of death , the percentage in this age group is higher and it is estimated that 33% of aged between 65 and 75 with no history of Vestibular dysfunction encounter a significant fall annually, comparing to 40% of the people aged over 75. Early detection and intervention in these cases can improve the quality of life, as well as decrease the disability and reduce the health care costs (1). It is important for the treating Physician to establish a systemic process for taking the history of the patient, and to implement a structured ENT and Neurologic examination, in order to administer a rational treatment.

IMPACT OF ESPORTS ON SPORTS BRANDING AND CUSTOMER AWARENESS

Shivam Kailash; Dr.Vanishree Pabalkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 506-516

Accompanying the popularity of high-performance computers, the amount of scholarly study focused on organized, competitive gaming has steadily expanded. To date, user engagement analysis has primarily concentrated on in-game variables, but external influences, including game streams and game-centered communities, affect the intention to both play the game and make in-game transactions. In particular, a new medium for customer engagement is offered by the rise of professional gaming, known as esports. Many non-endemic conventional luxury companies have, however, avoided capitalizing on prospects for esports brand creation. This paper offers a literature analysis of the past and present literature on esports and sports marketing, resulting in the development of a figure representing the history of the esports endemic and non-endemic industry of esports brand use. This study examines the ability for esports to be a powerful element in recognizing both gaming intentions and spending money on games as well as brand development

Maternal and perinatal outcomes of pandemic Covid-19 in pregnancy in Basrah

Maysoon Sharief, C.A.B.O.G.; Gufran Jaafar, C.A.B.O.G.,; Alla Hussan, M. B. Ch. B., D.O.G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 517-529

To evaluate the maternal, fetal and neonatal complications in pregnant women with Covid-19 infection. Setting and design: A prospective descriptive study was carried out in Basrah Teaching Hospital, Iraq during the period 15/3/2020 till 1/11/2020. There were 135 infected pregnant women with Covid-19. The maternal information's were obtained included Age, parity, residence, travel history, gestational age at time of diagnosis. The pregnancy measures of interest were evaluated according to the severity of the disease, medical disease, history of antepartum hemorrhage, mode of delivery, type of delivery, post-natal complication and admission to
intensive care unit and maternal death. The neonatal outcomes of interest were fetal weight, neonatal Apgar
score, admission to neonatal intensive care unit and neonatal death. Results: The mild type of the disease was common (41.48%) in comparison to severe conditions (17.77%).

Molecular Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis in Infertile Women in Basrah

Maysoon Sharief; Mayada T. Abdulrahman; Hanadi A. Jasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 530-539

ABSTRACTBackground Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram negative bacteria, which involve in sexually transmitted disease. This study was aimed to detect C. trachomatis by molecular methods and to evaluate Chlamydial infections in women suffering from primary and secondary infertility with special emphasis. Method 200 endocervical cytobrush were obtained from 200 infertile women having primary and secondary infertility. The work has been carried out at Basra Maternity and Child Hospital for molecular analysis of C. trachomatis . The primer CT1& CT4 w used to investigate the 144bp of MOMP of C. trachomatis in the endocervical brush samples. Results Out of 200 infertile women 96(48%) were positive for C. trachomatis by PCR. Conclusion The percentage of C.trachomatis in primary infertile women with blocked tubes was higher than women with patent tubes and also higher than C. trachomatis in secondary infertile women with both blocked and patent tubes.

MAIN DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AND IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY OF SHEEDING, SEPARATING, ROASTING, PRESSING, AND GRANULATED PRESS FROM SUNFLOWER SEEDS CULTIVATED IN UZBEKISTAN

Ashurov Furkat Bakhronovich; Khamroev Elmurod Ortiknazarovich; Abdurakhimov Saidakbar Abdurakhmanovich; Rakhimov Okyatbr Dustkabilovich; Ashurov Farrukh Furkatovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 540-548

Uzbekistan differs in hot climatic conditions from the Russian lands, where sunflower seeds are mainly grown. In connection with this, we studied the component compositions, the effect of moisture on the bulk density and other equally important indicators of sunflower seeds and products of its processing. It has been established that sunflower seeds cultivated in the hot climatic conditions of Uzbekistan have distinctive features in physical-mechanical and physical-chemical properties than in the Russian regions. The linear dimensions, component compositions, the effect of moisture on the bulk density of sunflower seeds have been determined. It has been established that in the hot climatic conditions of Uzbekistan, the cultivation of sunflower seeds is more efficient than in the Russian regions.

An Anthropometric Correlation Of Vertical Dimension Of Occlusion, Length Of Finger And Linear Ear Length Among Dentulous Patients-An Observational Study

Dr.Preetha Krishnamurthy; Dr.Yogitha K; Dr.N Shanmuganathan; Dr.Kapil. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 549-557

Determination of accurate vertical dimension of occlusion is extremely important in achieving a successful prosthodontic therapy. It also aids in function, aesthetics and comfort to patients. Many techniques have been put forward for assessing the vertical dimension of occlusion but a universally accepted or a completely accurate method has never been established. The method has to be both satisfactory to the dentist and patient. Thus, a  need exists for reliable methods as deviations in such dimensions can lead to joint disorders with severe physical discomfort in the jaw and neck region. This study highlights the anthropometric method to assess if any correlation exists between the dimensions of the ear and fingers with that of the vertical dimension of occlusion in both males and females.

A Practice of Loan Sales Facility: Experience and lessons from Indonesia

Agus Suprihanto; Farida Patittingi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 558-567

Syndicated loans during the credit period often emerge the practice of loan sales or sales of loan facility. The research was aimed to analyze and formulate the practice of sales of loan facility in syndicated loans that performed by the approval of Bank agent without the knowledge of the debtor. The method of research is descriptive analytical with sampling technique using literature study and interviews. The conclusion of research in the form of primary and secondary data were conducted by using qualitative juridical analytical methods. The results of research indicates that the process of sales of loan facility from PT. Bank A to PT. Bank D can be canceled due to the rechtstitle (sale and purchase agreement) underlying a cessie agreement and not based on the applicable law. Legal consequences for PT. Bank D (new creditor) for the takeover of credit receivables by making a sale and purchase agreement for credit and cessie agreements from PT. Bank A to PT. Bank D which is done only with the approval of Bank Agent without the knowledge of the debtor and bad credit occurs, then PT.
Bank D cannot execute the object of collateral, because PT. Bank D did not register with the Land Agency and Fiduciary Registration Office, so the Mortgage and Fiduciary Rights holders were still on behalf of PT. Bank A and other creditors.

STUDY OF HEART RATE INDICATORS IN UNDERWATER ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT SPECIALIZATION

Redi Elena Vladimirovna; Tolstopyatov Igor Anatolevich; Konopleva Elena Nikolaevna; Grinko Andrey Leonidovich.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 568-573

Goal. To study the heart rate (HR) indicators in divers of different specialization in 2000, 2010, and 2020. Materials and methods. The study involved three generations of submariners (divided into groups): group A-2000, group B-2010, and group B-2020. Each group consisted of 10 boys and 10 women aged 17 to 25 years. Results. Male and female submariners of group B are characterized by higher rates of increase in resting heart rate (HR), compared to athletes of group A and B. Conclusion. The cardiovascular system is sensitive to various
influences, including strenuous physical activity, but the compensatory capabilities of the heart are not unlimited and if this is not taken into account, then you can get overexertion. In our case, it was found that the heart rate, regardless of specialization, reflects the functional level of the state of the cardiovascular system in accordance with different somatotypes.

FORMATION OF HERD IMMUNITY TO SARS-CoV-2 IN THE REGIONS OF UZBEKISTAN

Rakhimov R.A.; Ibadullaeva N.S.; Khikmatullaeva A.S.; Abdukadirova M.A.; Sadirova Sh. S.; Lokteva L.M.; Rakhimov R.R.; Bayjanov A.K.; Samatova I.R.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 574-581

6 months after the start of the COVID-19 epidemic in Uzbekistan, a comparative analysis of the reported incidence of COVID-19 and the level of herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 was carried out. The registration of patients with
COVID-19 in the country was carried out on the basis of the positive results of the examination for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, using the PCR method. To study herd immunity, the WanTai SARS-CoV-2 Ab Rapid test (China) was used to detect total antibodies (IgM and IgG) in blood. In the period from August 27, 2020 to September 11,   020, in all 14 administrative-territorial regions of Uzbekistan, blood samples of 86879 people who sought medical help at an outpatient clinic at their place of residence were tested for the presence of total antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. According to official figures, 0.14% of the population were infected with COVID-19. The proportion of the population with the presence of specific protective antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus was 23.1%. This proves that the actual incidence of COVID-19, on the national average, was at least 165 times higher than officially reported. An uneven territorial distribution of the level of herd immunity was revealed. All regions were conditionally divided into 3 zones: 1) regions with a high level of herd immunity ˃ 20% (8 regions), 2) regions with an average level of herd immunity ˂ 20% and ˃ 10% (3 regions), 3) regions with a low the level of herd immunity ˂ 10% (3 regions). The degree of population affected in different regions of the county did not depend on the population density in the region, its age and gender composition. It was shown that the factors that influenced the intensity of the epidemic process and the formation of the level of herd immunity were the degree of external and internal migration.

A study to assess the determinants affecting the satisfaction level of inpatients getting admitted through the Emergency department in a tertiary care hospital, Odisha

Mrs.Rashmi Ranjita Parhi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 582-591

Evaluation of Patient satisfaction level who are getting admitted through emergency department (ED) is very necessary because it affects the performance that reflects the high quality, efficiency, and sustainability.
Aim: To assess the level of satisfaction in various points among inpatients following 48 hours of their admission through the emergency department. To find out the quality indicators of patient care through emergency department care Methods: This quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in the emergency department. The target population was who have been admitted through the emergency department. The data was collected after 48 hours of admission in to the hospital. Result: Total of 98 patients were participated in this study and shared their experiences through a standard questionnaire. Total percentage of highly satisfied patients was 60.2% (n=59) for the services given by the emergency department. Total percentages of satisfied patients were 22.4 %(n=22) and Similarly each of both highly dissatisfied and dissatisfied patients were 2, and neutrals are 13.3 %(n=13). Conclusion: Satisfaction level of patient carries the total image of the hospital. It is also a good quality indicator which enables the contact points of improvement in ED so that the hospital can provide better care and services to the patients.

BONE DENSITY ASSESSMENT OF MIDPALATAL SUTURE USING GRAYSCALE VALUES-A CBCT STUDY

Akshay Mohan; Shanthasundari K K; Ashwin George Mathew; Arthi Balasubramaniam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 592-606

Objective
To assess the predictability of grayscale values in a CBCT scan to assess the level of
maturation of midpalatal suture density using CBCT modality
Materials and Methods:
The 58 CBCT images of maxillary arch of subjects belonging to the age group 5-32 years were
evaluated to assess morphologic stages of the midpalatal suture maturation stages A to E
based on the Angeliere classification using the grayscale values. One-way ANOVA test was
used to check the variation of grayscale in different groups of mid palatal suture
classification. Pearson's correlation test was used to determine the correlation between the age
of the subjects and grayscale values. An arithmetic calculation was done to convert the
grayscale values into Hounsfield units to assess bone density according to the Misch’s
Classification.
Results- Mean and standard deviation of the grayscale value corresponding to the palatal
maturation stage were assessed and its Hounsfield units (HU) were obtained by using the
mathematicalformula. There was a statistically significant difference among the stages. No
significant difference was observed between stage D and E (p-value >0.05). There was a
significant correlation between the age of the patient and the corresponding grayscale value (r
=0.599, p=0.00).
Conclusion- A statistically significant difference between the ossification stages of the mid
palatine suture and grayscale values was obtained from CBCT and can be hence used as an
alternate method for checking bone density. There is an increase in grayscale value observed
as the age of the subjects increases.

Coagulation and Fibrinolysis Profiles of Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia: Preliminary Assessment of Hypercoagulability

Edward Kurnia Setiawan Limijadi; Imam Budiwijono; Indranila Kustarini Samsuria; Purwanto Adhipireno; Wivina Riza Devi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 607-615

Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia is an abnormality of haematological malignancy that often causes bleeding and death. Coagulation and fibrinolysis examinations are screening parameters that need to be reviewed related to the incidence of bleeding events in AML patients in a hypercoagulability assessment.This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Ulin Regional Hospital Banjarmasin on patients with a recent diagnosis of AML patients for the first time using a consecutive sampling method. The measurement of PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels were done at the Diponegoro National Hospital using Coalab-1000 tool. The analysis of the correlation between the
 ncidence of bleeding events with coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters used Fisher's exact test.The significance of the correlation test of the incidence of bleeding events with PT, aPTT, Fibrinogen, and D-dimer were 0.731; 0.086; 0.617; 0.587, and 0.731, respectively.The parameters of PT, aPTT, Fibrinogen and D-dimer were not associated with the incidence of bleeding events. The extension of PT and aPTT in most AML patients is suspected due to the deficiency of coagulation factors. Screening tests of PT, aPTT, fibrinogen and D-dimer levels should be performed in AML patients, although the results do not always show abnormalities

The Effect of the Combination of Chest Physiotherapy and Active Cycle Breathing Technique on Respiratory Rate and Ability to Expend Sputum in Chronic Exacerbation Obstructive Lung Disease Patients at Haji Adam Malik Hospital Medan

RotuaElvina Pakpahan; Amira Permatasari Tarigan; NurAsnahSitohang .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 616-623

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the world but is projected to be the third leading cause of death in 2020. This study aimed to examine the effect of combined chest physiotherapy and Active Cycle Breathing Technique (ACBT) on oxygen saturation and respiratory rate. The research method used was a quasiexperimental approach with pre -test and post-test control group design. The sampling technique used by the researcher was purposive sampling with 60 responde nts, divided into 30 intervention groups and 30 control groups. The results obtained were there were significant differences in the respiratory rate in the control group and the intervention group after being treated with a value of p=0.001 (p <0.05). The difference in the proportion of the ability to excrete sputum in the intervention group was 7 times more productive than the control group. It is hoped that nursing practice and nursing education will increase knowledge and skills in providing chest physiotherapy and ACBT so that they can apply these actions to patients who have sputum retention problems in the airway, especially COPD patients.

INTRUSION MECHANICS IN ORTHODONTICS: A REVIEW

Dr. HarishAtram; Dr.Kalyani Chaudhari; Dr.DamyantiAtram .; Dr. Shantanu Kalokhe; Dr.Nandini Jaiswal; Dr.MohiniDharmadhikari .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 624-632

Intrusion is a common orthodontic tooth movement which is employed in the cases of deep
bite where anteriors are intruded for correction, or in anterior open bite where posteriors
are intruded to close the bite for correction. The article includes the biomechanics of
Intrusion in Orthodontic treatment and various methods to achieve the Intrusion tooth
movement successfully without causing any deleterious effect to the tooth. It also
containthe types of Intrusion, their indications and contraindications. Use of various fixed
appliances and their modifications to achieve intrusion mechanics is discussed and
reviewed in the article.

HIGHER MORTALITY OF DIABETIC PATIENTS IN HEART FAILURE: ROLE OF DIGOXIN

Kulkarni Avdhoot, Pandit V.A, Magdum Ashish, Patil Ravikant, Udgaonkar Abhijit

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 633-642

Background:  Digitalis glycosides have been in clinical use in the treatment of congestive heart failure for more than 200 years. Heart failure has a great physical, social and economic impact on patient’s life. Diabetes adds to adverse effects of heart failure.
Aim &objective: Study was aimed to assess the role of digoxin in patients with heart failure with and without type 2 diabetes and to, access the role of digoxin to reverses NYHA class of patients and number of hospitalization in a year . The outcome of patients of heart failure with and without type 2 Diabetes mellitus was also observed.
Methodology: This prospective study has undertaken 70 patients visiting to department of medicine/cardiology at a tertiary health care centre.  Patients with heart failure were studied for one year. Data collected with pre-tested questionnaire. Clinical history (specially h/o diabetes meillitus), clinical examination were examined. Patients are treated with drugs like digoxin, beta blockers, ACE inhibiters etc depending upon etiology and symptoms of the patients. Which is followed for upto 1 year and finally the outcomes was measured in terms of reversal of NYHA class, and mortality.
Results & discussion: Mean age of the patients was 62.31±3.1 years. Out of 70 patients 36 were male and 34 were female. Diabetic patients were having significantly higher mortality than non-diabetic patients with heart failure. (p<0.05). Digoxin therapy reverses the NYHA class but it is statistically not significant. (p<0.05). In diabetic patients receiving digoxin number of hospitalizations (9/12) were more than that of non-diabetic patients (8/26).
Conclusion: Diabetic patients have more adverse effects in heart failure than in non-diabetic patients.
 
KEYWORDS : Cardiovascular diseases, Heart failure, Digitalis, Digoxin, Diabetes.

Identification of cultivable and non-cultivable organisms causing intraarticular and bone infections using molecular diagnostic techniques

Deepali J Shetty; Dr Shalini Shenoy Mulki; Dr B N Jagannath Kamath; Dr Sevitha Bhat; Dr Archana Bhat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 643-651

Introduction: Osteomyelitis is pathologically defined as inflammation of bone and bone marrow due to infection with a microbial pathogen. Septic arthritis is pyogenic infection of the joint either due to direct extension from local tissue infection or more commonly as a result of bacteremia. Microbiological diagnosis in these cases can be made by culture on enriched media and PCR. As PCR detects bacterial DNA, it does not rely on the presence of viable bacteria in the sample for identification. The rapidity of PCR along with its higher sensitivity and specificity enables faster and more accurate diagnosis and treatment

Generalized Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in Pregnancy: Case Report

Dr. Gardenia Akhyar; Dr. IrdawatyIzrul; Dr. SherlyBirawati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 652-656

GENERALIZED DLE: Patients with generalized discoid lupus erythematosus are at a higher risk of progressing to systemic disease than those with a localized variant. Pregnancy is one of the factors that can trigger lupus erythematosus. There are only one case report published in online search that presented generalized discoid lupus erythematosus in pregnancy. We report a case of 24 year old female patient with 31-32 weeks of gestational age complained blackreddish patches accompanied by fine scales, slightly itchy and a little painful on the forehead,
cheeks, bridge of the nose, chin, ears, neck, chest, stomach, back, upper and lower extremities since ± 2 months before. ANA profile with positive result. The results of histopathologicaland dermoscopyexamination suitable with discoid lupus erythematosus. Results of the internal medicine department revealed a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. CONCLUSION:Management of DLE aims to improve general condition of patient, control the lesions, prevent of the development of further lesions; fetal growth abnormalities; preterm birth; neonatal lupus and fetal death.

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION TOWARD THE SEVERITY LEVEL OF COVID-19 IN BENGKULU, INDONESIA

Dessy Triana; Riry Ambarsarie; Utari Hartati Suryani; Nikki Aldi Massardi; Mardhatillah Sariyanti; Enny Nugraheni; Debbie Rizqoh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 657-663

The pandemic caused by Covid-19 has had a huge effect in various parts of the world. The
global situation of COVID-19 as of January 20th, 2021 were 99.864.391 cases with a death rate of 2.2%
with 183 countries infected by local transmission. The COVID-19 situation in Indonesia as of January
27th, 2021 were 1.024.298 cases with a death rate of 2.8%, occurred within 182 regions by local
transmission. Bengkulu Province is one of the areas experiencing local transmission of Covid-19 since
March 31st, 2020 and this condition continues to develop. This study aimed to determine the regional
vulnerability and temporal distribution of Covid-19 in Bengkulu. There were 956 confirmed cases of
Covid-19 within the period of July-October 2020. The overlay results between clustering analysis and
population density were gathered by using the Kernel Density Estimation method and ArcGIS software
version 10.3. The area that has a high risk of contracting the Covid-19 disease is Bengkulu City. The
use of technology-based information systems is indispensable in the digital era, including spatiotemporal
analysis, disease and health mapping, geographic dimensions which can be the basis for
decision making in an area.

DON’T STRESS ON YOUR BRUSH-A CASE SERIES

Dr. Harshitha Nadimpalli; Dr. Sangeeta Umesh Nayak; Dr. Valliammai Rajendran; Dr.Swati Pralhad; Dr. Divya Kadali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 664-670

Regular tooth brushing is widely accepted as an oral hygiene measure of great importance for
the prevention of dental diseases. Unfortunately, a variety of disorders may result from oral
hygiene procedures that are improperly applied.Literature shows that horizontal brushing
method with tooth pastes was capable of tooth loss at cervical areas. The present case series
brings about the effect of psychological stress on toothbrushing behavior and its effect on the
teeth and the periodontium.Dentists play a significant role regarding the well-being of
thepatients by early detection of existing oral manifestationsand appropriate treatment of the
patient.

MORPHOMETRIC FOETALMEASUREMENT IN IInd AND IIIrd TRIMESTER OF GRAVID FEMALES AROUND FH MEDICAL COLLEGE

TEJENDRA SINGH; CHETNA THAKUR; BHUMIJA SHARMA; BHAWANI SHANKAR MODI; LOKESH KUMAR; SHIKHA SHARMA

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 671-679

Introduction: Ultrasonographic determination of foetal size to estimate the gestational age is very important in the present day obstetric practice as a significant proportion of pregnant women are unsure of their last menstrual period. Aims & objectives: This study is an attempt to measure various parameters of the foetus for the prediction of gestational age in the IInd and IIIrd trimester of pregnancy by USG. Place and Duration of Study: FH Medical College with effect from Aug 2015- March 2017. Materials and methods: This is an observational study. Healthy pregnant ladies with a single live foetus were selected for the study. 328 cases were selected and they were examined for BPD, HC, AC, FL by a single observer on a single machine. Results: All parameters were measured in 328 pregnant females from 18 years to 35 years age for BPD, HC, AC, FL. A significant positive correlation was observed between the gestational age and all the parameters.

Use of Solar Cell for Solar Energy Conversion in Electrical

Mahesh Chandra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 680-686

It is expected that in the year 2050, all together the consumption of the energy is going to rise up to 22Gtoe every year from 10Gtoe every year which is energy consumption of the present time. Nearly 70% of this total energy is contributed by the fossil fuels that include coal and oil each of 26% and also the natural gas which contributes about 18% and the non fossil sources (equally divided between renewable and nuclear energy) contributes 30% of this total energy that is consumed every year at present. In the developing regions of the globe, the demand of the energy is growing rapidly where the basic requirement of the energy is not fulfilled satisfactorily. After the year 2010, in the developing countries the energy consumption will go beyond that of the developed world and 2/3 of total world in the year 2050. In India, the issue of the securities of energy is as same as of oil securities for the country. In India, when the geo-political implication of the increased requirement for “hydrocarbons” and the dependency of the country on its oil resources are important, the matter of the security of the energy should be kept at priority for “energy supplies,” “commercial,” and “non commercial” and it should not be stopped by just thinking about the availability of the hydrocarbon only. The requirement of our energy is increasing by 5.4 billion kW every year and the non commercial energy as “biomass,” “fuel wood,” and “animal waste” that is nearly 1/4th of the total requirement of the primary energy. There are some technologies that can be renewed are becoming viable for the commercial purposes and it is found that renewable can play a key part to provide electricity in the rural areas and if grab these opportunities the technology will be harnessed. The need of technological power covers the complete range of renewable forms of energy like “solar photovoltaic, solar thermal, solar hydro, bio-energy, ocean energy, etc.” The conservation of the energy is other crucial matter and number of ways is used for so many years for this, especially in respect of oils but it was not successful. Therefore, so as to meet up the “energy security” and the concerns of “climate change,” it is very important to address the issues like “rational energy pricing, energy efficiency, and new technology trusts.”     

Identification of Lysenin Protein Function in Coelomic Fluid Of Eudrilus Eugeniae

S. Murugan, Dr. S. Umamaheswari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 687-696

The coelomic fluid (CF) is the body fluid present in the space between the body wall and gut in the earthworms. The earthworm’s coelomic fluid contains various molecules and exhibits important biological properties such as antimicrobial substances, hemagglutination and anticoagulant agents. The coelomic fluid of earthworm possesses primary function that has the ability to destroy the membranes of foreign cells. It is a mechanism that leads to cell death by the release of cytosol and attributes coelomocytes which secretes humoral effectors into the coelomic fluid. In this work, bacterial cultures namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis were injected into the earthworm body cavity. Then the coelomic fluid extract from the bacteria injected earthworms were collected out. The extracted coelomic fluids were partially purified and precipitated using ammonium sulphate and analyzed to biological activities such as antibacterial activity, proteases activity and heamolytic activity. Then the active compounds present in the coelomic fluids were analysed to FTIR, HPLC and LCMS. This concludes that the microbes introduced into the earthworm body containing coelomic fluids have lysenin protein that inhibits antibacterial, protease and haemolytic activity. Hence the induction of bacterial cultures Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis into the earthworm’s body cavity leads to the secretion of lysenin protein in the coelomic fluid of earthworms. Thus the presence of proteins presence in the coelomic fluid can be used for pharmaceutical purposes.

Elder Abuse

Swati Bhusanur, Dr. G.S. Venumadhava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 697-702

Elder abuse comprises physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, exploitation, neglect, and abandonment. Perpetrators include youngsters, different members of the family, and spouses furthermore as stat at nursing homes, aided living, and different facilities. Abuse will happen to anyone regardless of the person's age, sex, race, religion, or ethnic or cultural background. Each year, many thousands of adults over the age of sixty are abused, neglected, or financially exploited. This can be known as elder abuse. Abuse will happen in several places, as well as the older person's home, a family member's house, a power-assisted living facility, or a institution. Abuse is one among the deviant behavior, that has the intention to harm either physically, mentally, emotion and sexually. this paper, mentioned the various forms of abuses likewise elder abuse, Signs and risk factors of elder abuse and Prevention of elderly abuse.

Anxiety and aggressiveness in Peruvian postgraduate students in COVID-19 context

Nancy Isabel Herrera Paico; Sanchez Diaz Sebastian; Juan Méndez Vergaray; Edith Gissela Rivera Arellano; Enaidy Reynosa Navarro

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 713-726

The objective of this work was to determine the level of anxiety and aggressiveness in
graduate students from a private university in Lima; likewise, establish the level of
association between the variables under study in the COVID-19 context.
Methodology: quantitative approach, non-experimental descriptive cross-sectional
design; population made up of 378 graduate students from the César Vallejo
University (San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima-Peru Campus). Non-probabilistic sample
of 203 doctoral students from the mentioned university. The instrument used to
measure state anxiety and trait anxiety was the STAI “State-trait Anxiety inventory”
and the Buss and Perry aggressiveness questionnaire (AQ). Results: 84.7% of the
participants presented a high level of state anxiety, while 44.3% presented a trait
anxiety above the average; on the other hand, 60.6% showed a low level of
aggressiveness. The Chi-squared test showed a significant association between the
variable state anxiety and aggressiveness at a confidence level of p = 0.008 ˂ 0.05;
Likewise, the association between trait anxiety and aggressiveness showed a
confidence level of p = 0.009 ˂ 0.05. Conclusions: As a consequence of the
confinement caused by COVID-19, the levels of state anxiety and trait anxiety
increased, which is probably associated with the increase in aggressiveness in its
different variants.

CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED COMPRESSION FRACTURES OF THE BODIES OF THE VERTEBRALS IN THE LOWER CREW AND LUMBAR SPINE

Pardaev Saidkosim Narkulovich; Urunboev Paizullo Urunboevich; Juraev Ilkhom Gulomovich; Narkulov Maksudjon Saidkosimovich; Turaev Berkin Turaevich; Kaxxorov Aziz Sirozhitdinovich; Jalilov Khusan Mukhidinovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 727-732

The frequency of uncomplicated spinal fractures in the lower thoracic and lumbar
spine, according to modern statistics, ranges from 0.5 to 17.7% of the total number of injuries
of the musculoskeletal system. The lower thoracic and lumbar spine are most susceptible to
damaging effects and are prone to the development of post-traumatic deformities. The aim of
our study was to optimize the methods of conservative treatment of uncomplicated
compression fractures of the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. As a material for the study,
the data of 65 patients who were treated at the Samarkand Regional Trauma Hospital for 2020
with uncomplicated stable fractures of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine were analyzed.
The method of using the device was described and shown in detail, as well as the results of our
research.

AN IMPACT OF CUSTOMERS BRAND PREFERENCE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EXPERIENCE GOODS – A STUDY.

Dr.N. MANIVANNAN; Dr.V. VIJAYALAKSHMI; Dr.V. ANDAL

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 733-738

The study is fully related for the entire product to be produced only on the basis
consumer and customers. The product all are needed in his personal use and also the retail
purpose, but most of the consumer must to concentrate for the personal promotion. The
promotion performance is based on the experience goods in the present society. Consumer is
always the important assets in the marketing field; the selling targets must to be fulfilled only
by the hands of consumers/customers. The study contained the scope, objectives, and
limitations of the study. The table values are prepared on the basis of Chi-Square test, and the
findings, suggestions and conclusion of the study.

Significance of Serum Samples for Protein Studies

Pushpalakshmi Gangadharan; Ananthi Sivagnanam; Balasankar Thangasamy; Ambika Pushparaj; Premkumar Karunakaran; Raja JeyaSekar R; Megala Jayaraman; Pushparaj Arunachalam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 740-749

Serum proteins also known as blood or plasma proteins are proteins present in
blood that serve many different functions, including transport of lipids, hormones,
vitamins, and minerals in the circulatory system and the regulation of acellular activity
and functioning of the immune system. Other blood proteins act as enzymes, complement
components, protease inhibitors, or kinin precursors. Although serum proteins have very
high concentrations, they exhibit an uneven distribution in terms of composition. That is,
only about 22 proteins account for 99% of all the serum proteins. These include serum
albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen. The remainder 1% of blood proteins is composed of
low abundance circulatory proteins, as well as proteins secreted by live, apoptotic, and
necrotic cells. Most blood proteins are secreted by the liver and intestines except for the
gamma globulins, which are synthesized by the immune system. In this study we aimed to
analyse the serum samples taken from gastric cancer patients and compared with healthy
serum samples. We estimated the serum samples using Bradford method of protein
estimation and performed SDS PAGE analysis. This article highlights the importance of
serum sample collection, handling and storage with respect to consideration towards
protein-based studies using serum samples.

Comparative Evaluation Of Endodontically Treatedteeth Reinforced With Bendable Titanium Post And Straight Titanium Post- An In-vitro Study

Dr. Agyey Kumar Pathak; Dr. Umesh Palekar; Dr. Deepak M. Vikhe.; Dr. Veena Saraf; Dr Neha Hajira; Dr Alpa Newaskar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 750-759

Trauma and decay are often associated with an extensive loss of tooth structure, requiring a
restoration for aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of the tooth. Often caries leads to loss of
tooth structure and vitality of the pulp. Endodontic treatment is necessary in such cases.
Adequate anchorage for restoration cannot be achieved if a significant amount of coronal section
of the tooth is lost i.e. when only one wall or no wall is remaining. To increase the retention of
the restoration post and core treatment is required.

A Hypothetical Study on Immunogenic Expression of Novel Corona Vaccines

Deepanwita Deka; Avra Pratim Chowdhury; Amrit Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 760-766

Boosted therapy of immunization against SARS-CoV2 has already been certified to progress for humans all around the world. After having a long breakthrough of a pandemic, the physiological response of human cells is now presenting as omnipotent characters for their autoimmune criteria against a viral antigen, types, sub-types, strains, and modified strains. The molecular genesis is migrated and conducts with a different pattern of doses but specified in the same dosed to administer by injected protein derivatives. The viral epitopes and their surface protein are concerned with the activation of monoclonal antibodies by the artificial secondary immune response. The artificial immunogenetic is explored by analytical research of several trials of virologists from mid- August to December 2020. The ethical confirmation of molecular phenomena of antigenantibody interaction works in the same module and different manufacturing identity against SARS-CoV2. The accuracy of antigen-antibody titer is determined on the efficacy margin of an implemented vaccine in a mass population formulating the reports and
outcomes on boosted series of injections. In these circumstances, the conceptual models are required to study the SARS-CoV2 prone regions framed on the statistical alignment of the affected population during the pandemic.

Performance Study of ML Models and Neural Networks for Detection of Parkinson Disease using Dysarthria Symptoms

Harisudha Kuresan; Dhanalakshmi Samiappan; Arathy Jeevan; Sukirti Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 767-779

Parkinson Disease (PD) is brain disorder that affects the central nervous system
that results in damage of nerve cells causing dopamine to drop. PD has a severe effect on
vocal features termed as Dysarthria symptoms including varied pitch, extended pauses,
monotonous and speaking slowly or with a slur. In this paper, a dataset containing various
vocal features are taken as input to analyze the performance of various Machine Learning
algorithms including Naive Bayes, Random Forest Classifier, Support Vector Machines
(SVM), Linear Regression, K Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Neural Networks such as ANN
and LSTM. The best classification accuracy was obtained by ANN around 90.00%.

DYNAMIC CAPABILITY MODEL TO INCREASE CREATIVE ECONOMY COMPETITIVENESS IN DEPOK CITY, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

Florentina Ratih Wulandari; Bambang Supriyono; M.R. Kairul Muluk; Endah Setyowati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 780-791

Depok is an autonomous region that supports the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia. This position has a strategic and complex value for the city of Depok. The value of strategy can be felt by changes in line with changes in development in the capital city. The complexity of changes in the strategic environment of Depok City, raises governance problems in the midst of a dynamic environment for the achievement of a competitive Depok City through the development of the creative economy. This dynamic environment requires resources that have dynamic capabilities. Capable human resources are a determining factor for the success of dynamic governance.
The purpose of this study is to describe the capabilities of government officials in supporting dynamic governance in Depok City, West Java Province and to offer a more precise model.This study followed a descriptive design with a qualitative approach, and observations, interviews, and documentation were carried out to be included in the process data analysis. The research took place between June and October 2019, the informants consist 9 government and 6 business man representation. The research focus includes the dynamic capabilities of the Depok City Government in achieving regional competitiveness through the development of the creative economy. This capability is related to the able people and agile process factors in Depok which have dynamic capability characteristics, namely think ahead, think again and think across. The data processing process uses NVIVO 21 software.

A Hypothetical Study on Immunogenic Expression of Novel Corona Vaccines.

Deepanwita Deka; Avra Pratim Chowdhury; Amrit Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 792-798

Boosted therapy of immunization against SARS-CoV2 has already been certified to
progress for humans all around the world. After having a long breakthrough of a
pandemic, the physiological response of human cells is now presenting as omnipotent
characters for their autoimmune criteria against a viral antigen, types, sub-types, strains,
and modified strains. The molecular genesis is migrated and conducts with a different
pattern of doses but specified in the same dosed to administer by injected protein
derivatives. The viral epitopes and their surface protein are concerned with the activation
of monoclonal antibodies by the artificial secondary immune response. The artificial
immunogenetic is explored by analytical research of several trials of virologists from mid-
August to December 2020.

MORPHOMETRY AND MORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF MENTAL FORAMEN IN INDIAN ADULT POPULATION SKULLS

CHETNA THAKUR; PRERNA CHANDRA; TEJENDRA SINGH; BHAWANI SHANKAR MODI; SHIKHA SHARMA

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 799-804

Backround: Mental foramen present on anterolateral surface of mandible &provide passage
for nerve and vessels.
Methods: Present study was carried out in department of anatomy on 50 dry adult mandibles
from F.H. medical college Agra & Autonomous state medical college Shahjahanpur.
Results: Position of mental foramenin the line with second premolar 64% on right side& 70%
on left side, between second premolar & first molar 10% right side & 14% on left side, between
first and second premolar 18% right side & 4% left side and in the line with first premolar
absent on right side & 4% on left side.

MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE ANGLE OF THE PATELLAR FACET

TEJENDRA SINGH; MOHD. SHARIQUE; BHAWANI SHANKAR MODI; CHETNA THAKUR

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 805-815

The possible association between disorders of the femoro-patellar joint
and geometrical anatomical variations in the patellar facet and femoral sulcus motivated us to
conduct a morphometric study on the angle of the patellar facet and to correlate this with
possible variation factors, such as: length,width at the midpoint of the femur, femur
inclination angle, distance between condyles and depth of the patellar facet. Significance of
the study in that obtained results would be useful for clinicians dealing with case of pathologic
alterations in the sulcus angle and malignant of the patella femoral joint.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To measure the angle formed by the patellar facet in relation to
the length of femur, the width at the midpoint of the femur, the femur inclination angle and
many more.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy,
Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan on 200 dry human femur bones of both
sides (including 95 right and 105 left) of unknown sex and age and also having no deformity.
RESULT: Present study shows that range for patellar facet angle at the end point (PFAe) of
the femoral sulcus from whole sample was observed 1160 to 1460, for right side as 1170 to 1460
and for left side as 1160 to 1460 found.
CONCLUSION: The results obtained as follows:- a) angle of the patellar facet: mean for start
level of the patellar facet=142.80; mean for midpoint level =131.50 and mean for end level =
131.60 b) mean distance between condyles = 46.6mm c) mean depth of the patellar facet = 7.1
mm d) mean for Ficat and Bizou’s condylar depth index = 6.8 e) Inclination angle=125.50

THE STATE OF FREE-RADICAL OXIDATION OF LIPIDS IN EXPERIMENTAL MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS

Baykulov Azim; Djalilov Mustafo; Eshimov Dusmurat; Yusupova Saodat; Kim Oksana; Sovetov Kаrоkul

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 816-820

Lipid peroxidation products are capable of inhibiting the activity of enzymes of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, inhibiting the synthesis of protein and nucleic acids, inhibiting many membrane-bound enzymes and thus exerting a pronounced damaging effect on cells and the body as a whole. It is of particular interest to study the intensity of lipid peroxidation in the body during myocardial infarction, which was the price of this study.

EFFECT OF ULTRASOUND CAVITATION VERSUS PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE IONTOPHORESIS ON CENTRAL OBESITY IN HYPERTENSIVE WOMEN

Mina Nashat Halim Farag; Ramez Yousry Fawzy Bakhoom; Ahmed Assem Abd El Rahim; Ahmed Aref Ahmed Hussein; Mahmoud Y Elzanaty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 821-832

Background/aim: Central obesity (CO) confers a great threat on the cardio-metabolic health of
population. Central obesity is directly matched with increased visceral abdominal fat and it is also
matched with endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, hypercholesterolemia, and cancer.
Purpose of the study: This study was designed to compare between the effect of ultrasound
cavitation and phosphatidylcholine iontophoresis on central obesity in hypertensive women.
Material and methods:It is a randomized controlled trial performed on 40 hypertensive centrally
obese females divided into two equal groups. Group (A) consisted of 20 females received
ultrasound cavitation, Group (B) consisted of 20 females received phosphatidylcholine
iontophoresis. The primary outcome measures were waist circumference, visceral fat range,
systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Results: the results showed that there was statistically
significant improvement in central obesity and hypertension in Group A but there was statistically
significant improvement in central obesity but non-significant improvement in hypertension in
Group B. Improvement in Group A is more significant than in Group B regarding the percent of
decline in WC, VFR and DBP. Conclusion: there was improvement in central obesity and blood
pressure in women after applying ultrasound cavitation and phosphatidylcholine iontophoresis
with better results in ultrasound cavitation than phosphatidylcholine iontophoresis.

Evaluation of Public awareness, Knowledge and Approval of Oral Implant Treatment in South Indian Population: A cross sectional study

Nayana Prabhu; Saumya Kapoor; Sushma Yadav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 833-840

Background - Presently, dental implants are favourable treatment alternatives for
completely or partially edentulous patients. Research has reported substantial improvement
in attitude of patients toward dental implants, however in developing nations with poorer
access to dental care, acceptance of this treatment alternative isn’t yet completely known.
Objective: A survey from a representative sample of Indian population was made to assess
the level of public awareness, sources of information, need for information and
expectations from dental implants in semi urban southern part of India.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 377 adult patients was
conducted via systematic multi-choice questionnaire at a tertiary care medical university in
southern part of India. The data collected was interpreted using SPSS version 20. A pvalue
of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Comparative evaluation of demineralization potential of different luting cements for bands used in space maintainers - an in vitro study

Dr. BhumiSarvaiya; Dr. Birva Patel; Dr. Jay Soni; Dr. Pratik Kumar Lahiri; Dr. KomalGhiya; Dr. KrunalChoksi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 841-854

Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the demineralization potential of different luting
cements used for bands in space maintainers.
Method: A total of 120 caries free extracted permanent molars were collected and randomly
divided into four groups, each group containing 30 samples. Stainless steel preformed
orthodontic bands were cemented on teeth in each group as follows. Control group (nonbanded
non-cemented), Conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), Resin-modified glass
ionomer cement (RMGIC) and Adhesive resin. Later all the samples were demeneralised in
acidic solution followed by imulsion in methylene blue dye. Evaluation of created
demineralization through dye penetration was done. Statistical analysis was performed to
determine the significant differences between the groups.

Incidence of fecal incontinence and sphincter disruption in patients with anal intercourse (Review of 40 women)

Omrani Zahra; Mahjoobi Bahar; Mirzaei Rezvan; Roozbeh Cheraghali MD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 855-862

The lifetime of anal intercourse increased from 27% to 36%. It has been widely assumed to be
one of the major causes of fecal incontinence. Heterosexual anal intercourse is rarely
discussed in the scientific literature.
In this descriptive cross-sectional observational study, we reviewed fecal incontinency in
patients who came to Tehran Legal Organization from January to November 2019 and have
complaints of AnoReceptive Intercourse(ARI).
The mean age of patients was 29.18±10.5 years old. The mean Wexner score was 4.78±4.6.
The most common type of anal intercourse was unwanted (47%). Thirty-two patients of 40
patients had a gap in their external anal sphincter in endo anal sonography. Stool consistency
divided into 3 groups as the most common was soft (70%). There was also no difference in
Wexner score between patients who had gaps in their ext anal sphincter and those who had
not.

Thalidomide is better than Rapamycin in prevention of neovascularization after laser photocoagulation in dorsal window chamber rat model

Kareem Esam; Maha Fadel; Lilian Naoum; Mahmoud S. Elbasiouny

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 863-878

Objectives: -This study examines the effect of two different antiangiogenic drugs (rapamycin
and thalidomide) in prevention of neovascularization when locally used, after laser
coagulation through dorsal skinfold window chamber rat model.
- Determine what is the most effective antiangiogenic drug when used locally and its
potential side effects.
Methodology:
The study includes 3 groups, each group contains 10 rats Thalidomide, Rapamycin and
control group (laser group). Blood vessels in the dorsal window chambers implanted on
dorsal skin of albino rats were irradiated by Diode laser pulses until coagulation occurs.
Blood flow and vessels structure were documented with high definition camera to evaluate
photocoagulation and reperfusion. Treatment groups received the treatment drug which
was injected to the widow’s medial side, every 3 days’ intervals for 2 weeks after laser
irradiation.

A Study to assess the prevalence of Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas in association with tobacco consumption in a tertiary care hospital

Dr. Durgadevi; Dr. Jayaganesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 879-885

Head and neck cancers are the sixth most common type of cancers and has a steady rise in
India, predominantly in males .The most common etiological factor contributing for the
cancer development is Tobacco consumption in various forms. This was a laboratory based
,retrospective study to assess the prevalence and association of HNSCC in a subset of
population of tobacco consumers A total of 50 positive cases of Head and neck squamous
cell carcinomas were collected at our hospital for a period of two years and history collected
in view of age , sex and tobacco consumption . In this study, 64% affected cases are males
and 48% of the cases had the history of tobacco consumption. Tobacco consumption prevails
as the sole risk factor for the development of Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Immune Response Mechanism of the Gingival Epithelium in the Tissue Repair Exposed to Porphyromonasgingivalis Toxin on Topical Administration of Nigella sativa Extract

Shafira KURNIA; Jonathan STEVEN; Vincent LAKSONO

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 886-898

Background and Objectives: Periodontal disease is not the typical cause of pain experienced by sufferers. This discomfort is commonly observed in advanced stage. P. gingivalisbacteria infections, and Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) have been identified as the main virulence factors. Furthermore, numerous attempts have been exploited during treatment with unsatisfactory outcomes, including the administration of local or systemic antibiotics, periodontal curettage and flap surgery. Therefore, early prevention is one of the effective and efficient approaches, particularly involving the use of medical plants, and the natural material selected was black cumin (Nigella Sativa). The aim of this research, therefore, is to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa extract against the inflammation reaction and beta defensin-2 (BD-2) mechanism in gingival epithelium exposed to P. gingivalis LPS. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental research performed in the laboratory, using Randomized Posttest-Only Control Group Design. The animals used include white 45 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) randomly allocated to 3 research groups, comprising K (LPS P. gingivalis), P1 (N. sativa extract + LPS), and P2 (LPS + N. sativa). Furthermore, each set was subsequently divided into 3 on the basis of time span, at 4, 7, and 21 days. The tissue expressions of BD-2, and MMP-8 were examined using immunohistochemical techniques. Results: This investigation showed a significant difference between K, P1, and P2 groups at any span of time. Moreover, lower MMP-8 expression were observed in the P1 and P2 groups, compared to K on day 4, 7, and 21, while the BD-2 expression was higher in P1 (31.3) and P2 (32.2) than K (19.8). Conclusion: Based on the study results, Nigella sativa was determined to be capable of decreasing MMP-8 expressions, and increase BD-2, as part of the host innate response.

Disinfectants and Sprayers for Prevention of COVID-19 Pandemic in India

Kishore Chandra Swain; Abhinab Mishra; Rutuparna Biswal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 899-912

A novel coronavirus (nCoV), originating from Wuhan, China had begun as an epidemic in
December 2019, declared as a pandemic in March and reiterated the call for countries to
go for lock down mode and other strict measures. With the onset of winter, the threat of 2nd
wave of infection is looming large over the Northern Hemisphere of the World. Virus is
mainly transmitted through droplets and then by touching contaminated surfaces and
mucous membranes with the hands. Though the virus survives on environmental surfaces
for varied period of time; it gets easily inactivated by biological or chemical disinfectants.
Alcohol based disinfectants viz. hand disinfectants, sprayers, mist blowers, cannon, and
butterfly sprinklers etc. act as vital component in controlling the pandemic disease.
Various biological and physical measures, such as self-disinfectant surfaces, UV-C
sterilization, cold plasma technique etc. will assist in disinfecting the surfaces and
materials. With unlocking underway, fast disinfection of the office space, meeting room,
marketing spaces and even the areas in contaminant zones need quick disinfection through
various sprayers, blowers and drones. This review emphasizes on the ongoing efforts to
prevent the transmission of COVID-19 and can guide the public health responses,
particularly in India.

Formulation and evaluation of nanosuspension for enhancing the solubility of poorly soluble Antihyperlipidemic Drugs

Kiran G. Sonkambale,Dr. Ramesh G. Katedeshmukh,Amol B. Kumbhar,Shivraj V. Mane,Prashant A. Pawar,Jyoti N. Kadam, Anita V. Malusare

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 913-928

Gemfibrozil is a lipid regulating agent that decreases serum triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and increases highdensity lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
According to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System, GEM is classified under classII drugs.ClassII drugs are the drugs with poor solubility and high permeation in the human body and pose problems in their pharmaceutical product development process. The aim
of this work is to prepare GEM nanosuspensions using a precipitation ultrasonication method to increase its water solubility. The prepared nanosuspension was evaluated for Percent transmitance and in vitro dissolution. A Box behnken design was employed to study the effect of the independent variables i.e drug concentration in organic phase (mg/ml) at levels 20, 50 and 80 mg/ml (X1), Polyvinyl alcohol concentration at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 % (X2) and Sonication time at levels 10, 20 and 30 minutes (X3) on the dependent variables (i.e., percentage of drug released after 90min).The resulting data were fitted into Design Expert software and analysed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data were also subjected to 3-D response surface methodology to determine the influence of concentration of Drug , PVA concentration and sonication time on dependent variable.The results show that nanosuspensions prepared with the higher concentrations of drug , the higher quantities of PVA and higher sonication time reduced the particle size and enhanced the dissolution rate of the formulation. The dissolution rate of the optimized nanosuspension Formulation was enhanced (96.2% in 90 min) mainly because of the formation of nanosized particles. The particle size of optimized nanosuspension was 191.0 nm and zeta potential was -12mV which is enough for sufficient electrostatic stabilization of Gemfibrozil nanosuspension. The X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the amorphization of gemfibrozil ra crystal and convert into nanocrystalline form and presence of drug. Conclusively, nanosuspension of gemfibrozil prepared using precipitation ultrasonication method showed improved solubility as compare with pure gemfibrozil.
Keywords: Gemfibrozil, Nanosuspension, Precipitation-ultrasonication method, particle size, Solubility, bioavailability.
 

IMMUNITY BOOSTING BAR FOR THE FEMALE ATHLETE AT HOUSEHOLD LEVEL DURID COVID-19

ADITI SINGH, SUNITA MISHRA

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 929-938

The present study is based on the developing “Immunity boosting bar for the female athlete at household level during COVID-19”. All over world is suffering from the global pandemic because of the Coronavirus or SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Virus. It is important to pay attention towards the health and immunity of the athlete’s body because due to the lockdown they are not consuming the adequate amount of nutrients.
Aim :-The aim of the study is to provide the immunity boosting bar for the female athlete for their post and pre workout by using those ingredients which are easily available in the kitchen and also which are beneficial for the body to fight against the virus.
Method and Materials :- Making pre and post workout immunity boosting bar, different ingredients are used which are easily available in the local grocery shops like turmeric powder, oats, dates, dry fruits, honey etc.
Results and Conclusions :- The evaluation is done by the sensory evaluation methods by the female athlete, living in a sports hostel of Sultanpur. In a result, found that pre workout immunity bar (T1) is highly accepted by the athletes. In sensory evaluation taste, smell, texture, appearance everything is analysed by the athlete.

RESULTS OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CONGENITAL HIP DISLOCATION

Ibragimov Sadullo Yusupovich; Urinboev Paizullo Urinboevich; Kudratova Gulsara Najmiddinovna; Saloxiy Otabek Ikromovich; Muxtorov Zokir Safarovich; Kuvatov Dilshod Xolmurodovich; Ashirov Mavlon Umurzokovich; Kayumov Rustam Shuxratovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 939-947

Relevance. At present, although significant progress has been made in the field of early detection of congenital malformations and conservative treatment, a large number of patients with this pathology remain untreated in a timely manner. In 10-15% of patients treated conservatively with congenital malformations of the thighs, the need for surgical treatment arises. Purpose of the study. It consists of studying the causes of complications observed during long periods of treatment of patients treated surgically on congenital malformations of the thighs and looking for measures to prevent them. In such cases, depending on the age of the patients and the severity of the discharge, surgical procedures are performed, ranging from simple open placement to repair and opening of the proximal part of the femur and the roof of the joint.This article presents the results of surgical treatment performed for 111 children with congenital hip dislocation. After 30 years, the long term results of the intervention were studied in 76 (68.5%) patients. According to observation, 22(28.9%) patients and 31(40.8%) patients demonstrated good and satisfactory long term results respectively. While results of surgical treatment for 23(30.3%) patients estimated as unsatisfactory. Identified the causes of unsatisfactory results and preventive measures were recommended.

MORPHOFUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF NEUROSECRETER CELLS IN THE ARCUATIC NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHLAMUS DURING THE PERIOD POST-REANIMATION DISEASE

Karabayev Aminjon Gadaevich; Yusupov Mirzo Murodovich; Ismatova Marguba Shaukatovna; Nurimov Paxlavon Baxtiyorovich; Urokov Gayrat Mardikulovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 948-953

In the postresuscitation period through the I-II-III-IV-V-stages and long-term periods (1 and 3 months) of postresuscitation illness, when modeling a 10-minute clinical death, we studied the relationship between the reactivity of the autonomic nervous system and the morphofunctional activity of neurosecretory cells of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of white mature rats - males, weighing 180-220 grams, who underwent a 10-minute arrest of systemic circulation (clamping of the vascular bundle of the heart according to the method of V.G. Korpachev). Sham-operated animals served as control. Physiological, morphological, morphometric, histochemical, cytophotometric studies of the state of reactivity of the autonomic nervous system and morphofunctional activity of neurosecretory cells of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus were carried out. We used image analysis using a Leiss microscope with an electronic micro-attachment connected to an Intel computer, and the content of neurosecretory substances was studied using a cytophotometer. In the postresuscitation period, during stage I, hyperhydration of the cytoplasm of neurosecretory cells of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus was revealed against the background of the predominance of the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system. During stage II of the predominance of the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system, starting from stage III of the disease, against the background of the predominance of the tone of the sympathetic nervous system, hyperhydration of the nuclei of neurosecretory cells of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is observed with an increase in the release of neurosecret into the blood, i.e., compensatory-adaptive reactions were observed. Compensatory-restorative processes with a shift towards depletion of neurosecretory cells of the arcuate nucleus were observed starting from stage IV and in the remote periods of postresuscitation disease against the background of the predominance of the tone of the sympathetic nervous system and overhydration of the nuclei.

Reactivity of the supraoptic, arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the B- and D-basophilic cells of the adenohypophysis in the early postreanimation period

Karabayev Aminjon Gadaevich; Nurimov Paxlavon Baxtiyorovich; Urokov Gayrat Mardikulovich; Bobokandova Mexriniso Fazliddinovna; Xasanova Sabina Baratovna.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 954-957

In the early postresuscitation period, we studied the relationship of neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus with the B and D basophilic cells of the adenohypophysis in the early stages (I-II-III stages) of postresuscitation disease in animals that underwent a 5-minute clinical death by clamping the vascular bundle of the heart using method B G. Korpacheva (1982). Sham-operated animals served as control. Physiological, morphological, morphometric, histochemical studies and morphofunctional activity of neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus, as well as Band D-basophilic cells of the adenohypophysis were carried out. We used image analysis using a Leiss microscope with an electronic micro-attachment connected to an Intel computer, and the content of neurosecretory substances was studied using a cytophotometer. In the early postresuscitation period (stages I-II), there is an increase in morphofunctional activity, which is more pronounced in the NSC SOY, ARN and D-basophilic cells of the adenohypophysis, at the III-stage post-resuscitation disease, there is a further increase in the morphofunctional
activity of NSC SOS ARN and B-basophilic cells adenohypophysis, with a shift towards depletion.

DIFFERENT OBTURATING TECHNIQUES USED IN PRIMARY TEETH: A REVIEW

Dr Pankaj Chavhan; Dr Yogesh Somvanshi; Dr Suryakant Kumar; Dr.Grishmi Niswade; Dr Arun Sajjanar; Dr. Nilesh Rojekar; Dr. Vaidehi Awari; Dr. Anand Deo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 958-965

Primary teeth maintain the arch length and form by maintaining proper guidance for permanent teeth. Pulpectomy is the one of the treatment option available to preserve the tooth and thus helps in maintaining normal space maintainers. Other objectives of preserving primary teeth are to enhance esthetics and mastication, prevent aberrant tongue habits, aid in speech, and prevent the psychological effects associated with tooth loss. Obturation with hermatic seal is the key for long term success of pulpectomy. Obturationtechnique that fulfill criteria’s for perfect obturation should be given emphasis. However different obturation techniques give different outcomes. Hence the purpose of this article is to throw light on different obturation technique with their comparison with each
other.

Balanced GradientEcho (FIESTA)- MRI Evaluation Of The Fatty Liver Disease

Fatih Düzgün; GökhanPekindil .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 966-971

FIESTA (FastImagingEmployingSteady-stateAcquisition) is commonlyacceptedthatbelongstotheclass of gradient-echosequence (1). FIESTA has provedto be useful in abdominalimagingformagneticresonansimaging (MRI) of
gastrointestinalsystem, oncologicimagings, assessingvascularpatency. However, FIESTA MRI findings of fattyliver has not previouslybeenreported, although it describedthesignalreductionduetofat in previousarticles. Weobservedthatthepatientswithfattyliver had lowersignalintensity (SI) values at FIESTA sequencescomparedto normal patientswithoutfattyliver.

A STUDY OF BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CURRENCIES UNDER CIRCULATION AMONG HOSPITAL WORKERS.

Dr.G. Sasikala; Dr. Reena Rajan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 972-978

Background: Microbial contamination of currency notes may act as fomites in the transmission of pathogenic organisms in the community. Aims & Objectives: The present study was done to isolate and identify bacterial pathogens from currency notes among hospital workers Materials & Methods: A sterile cotton swab soaked in sterile normal saline rubbed thoroughly on both surfaces of currency notes were inoculated on blood agar and Mac Conkeys agar and incubated aerobically at 37ºC for 24 hrs .Isolates were identified by standard biochemical methods. Results & Discussion: A total of 50 currency notes were included .72% notes showed polymicrobial contamination. Gram negative bacilli was the common isolate obtained followed by gram positive cocci. The most common gram negative isolate was Klebsiella spp (25.64%).The predominant gram positive cocci isolated was staphylococcus epidermidis (19.23%) Conclusion: Education on proper money handling practices should be done in order to raise awareness among health care workers to prevent the transmission of drug resistant nosocomial pathogens in the community.This study recommends safe hand hygiene practices after handling currency notes as contamination of currency notes poses risk of infection

Dosimetric analysis of VMAT Irradiation in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Moroccan Radio Oncology Center's experience

Bouchra Amaoui; Slimane Semghouli; Dounia Mouhssine; Abdelaziz Bayla; abdellatif Bouih; Nawal Bouih; Hicham Tamri; Mohamed El Mourchid; Noureddine Benjaafar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 979-988

Introduction: Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a technique increasingly used in radiotherapy. It was recently introduced in Morocco. Furthermore, technological advances allow the use of conformal radiotherapy to be phased out and replaced by VMAT technique for some locations. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and quality of treatment with VMAT of nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods: Twenty patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer treated curatively by VMAT were studied at the Al Kindy Oncology Center in Casablanca. The dose was delivered using two arcs at a dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions.

Gastroesophageal Reflux and Respiratory Diseases in Children linked:

Dr. Basel Mamdouh Samman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 989-998

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD ) can be the contributing factor for many morbidities in the upper and lower Respiratory System, in this article I will connect GERD to each one of these morbidity and spot a light on a sometimes neglected diagnosis in the treatment that can if treated increase the chances of cure and decrease the need for surgery.

The influence of the HIV/AIDS program on the knowledge and attitudes of the labourer in the building construction project of the Faculty of Engineering, University of Hasanuddin, Indonesia

Andi Alim; Dedi Maulana; Arlin Adam; Moh. Husni Thamrin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 999-1010

This study attempts to analyze the differences of knowledge and attitudes of construction labours of Engineering Faculty Unhas, Gowa with methods of communicating information and education as well as the screening. In response to the prevention of HIV/AIDS at work. This study using the method was an experiment quasi pre and post-test design with the application of two group pre and post. With different treatment given a few and observed every treatment. This study found that there is the influence of intervention with the IEC media methods before and after interventions affecting knowledge and attitude labourers of HIV/AIDS, and some the influence of intervention with the method the screening before and after interventions affecting knowledge and attitudes labourers about HIV/AIDS. Based on our research findings, there need to be continuous interventions to increase knowledge, much efforts to prevent sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS and check periodically of HIV/AIDS.

ROTARY ENDODNTICS IN PRIMARY DENTITION: A REVIEW

Dr Pankaj Chavhan; Dr.Grishmi Niswade; Dr Yogesh Somvanshi; Dr Arun Sajjanar; Dr Suryakant Kumar; Dr. Pratima Kolekar; Dr. Dishika Bhagnani; Dr. Akash Bakal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1011-1015

Biomechanical tooth preparation is the most time consuming procedure in root canal treatment, which is also most important step in therapy. Conventional technique of instrumentation is the benchmark over hand instrumentation, which makes procedure time consuming and hectic for both patients and dentists. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. The purpose of this article is to review the rotary instrument in primary root canal procedure.

Formulation and evaluation of glibenclamide loaded mouth dissolving films with xanthan gum as film forming polymer

Antima Shukla; Nidhi Bhatt

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1016-1025

Glibenclamide is a BCS class II oral hypoglycemic agent that is widely indicated for the
management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and has the ability to pass through the gastrointestinal
mucosa. The need to rapidly maintain glucose levels in the body is subject to design systems
that can release drugs into the systemic circulation in a very short time. The present study
attempts to prepare glibenclamide loaded mouth dissolving films (GMDFs) using xanthan
gum, as it forms polymers for rapid absorption of the drug in systemic circulation. The solvent
casting method was used to produce oral disruptive film containing glibenclamide. All
formulations exhibited instant release drug release, rapid dissolution and optimal mechanical
strength. The GMDF3 formulation exhibited the highest drug content (96.1±5.89) and all
aggregates were found to decompose within 40 seconds. The GMDF1, GMDF2 and GMDF3
formulas were able to release 97, 96 and 98% 10 drugs at the end of 10 minutes, respectively,
while GMDF4 and GMDF5 were able to release 94 and 90%, respectively. The results of rapid
stability studies have shown that all aggregates are stable under extreme conditions

An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Sociocultural determinants of maternal health care services in Ethiopia

Ibsa Mussa Abdulahi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1026-1048

Background: The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Ethiopia is due to complications of pregnancy and delivery. In Ethiopia, the maternal mortality ratio had been 353/100,000 live births in 2015. The socio-cultural contexts under which these pregnancies and deliveries occur are the factors that pave the way for these complications and mortality. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine, and describe the sociocultural determinants of maternal health care in Ethiopia. Methods: This study was based on a qualitative, exploratory research design and used focus group discussions and in-depth interviews as its primary data collection techniques. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews conducted in three districts (Haramaya, Grawa and Meta) in the Ethiopia. The study population consisted of 24 focus group discussants and 152 respondents homogeneous group. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis based on ATLAS.ti.8.2.

The Relationship between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Simple Febrile Convulsion in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 years

Mohammad Hadi Yarigarravesh; Shadi Izadbakhsh; Parastoo Amiri; Maryam Goudarzian; Mehdi Jalili Akbariyan; Kazem Hassanpour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1049-1057

This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between simple febrile convulsion and iron deficiency anemia in children. In this case-control study, 60 children aged 6 months to 5 years old with simple febrile convulsion hospitalized in the Pediatric Unit of Heshmatiyeh Hospital of Sabzevar. separately for case and control groups and the two groups were compared in terms of blood indexes and iron deficiency anemia. The significance level was considered Pvalue <0.05. The case and control groups were matched in terms of age and sex, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. The results showed the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in the febrile convulsion group was somewhat lower than that of the control group. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups (p> 0.05). The results of this study showed that the risk of convulsion is not higher in cases with anemia. However, iron can be prescribed with caution for high-risk patients with a history of previous convulsion or a positive family history of this condition, if they suffer from iron deficiency anemia. Moreover, according to the results of previous studies and the present study, conducting extensive research simultaneously in several centers is recommended.

The Influence Of Parenting Style On Dental Anxiety- A Short Review

Ilankizhai J; Dr.Geo Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1058-1064

Dental treatment, altogether with its characteristics, represents quite stressful act that have influence on all of its participants especially the children. Children often show their distress with the dental situation in an aversive behavior which sometimes leads to management problems. Different pathways for the development of fear have been described. Most of the researches focus on the effect of parental presence and behavior during dental procedures. But however no in depth researches have been done on the influence of parenting style on the child’s behaviour in the dental setting. Thus the purpose of the review is to analyse whether the parenting style really does influence the child behaviour or not.

ANALYSIS OF FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF COCKTAILS – A STUDY ON HOTEL MANAGEMENT STUDENTS

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar; Dr. Amrik Singh; Mr. Rahul Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1065-1075

This study concentrates on the formulation, evaluation and acceptability of cocktails along with their ingredients used. Developed cocktails are tested for their ingredients and sensory evaluation on hotel management students. Data analyzed using SPSS software (20) for concrete evaluation of association of taste and flavors of alcoholic beverages. Sensory evaluation methods are extensively used in the wine, beer and distilled spirits industries for product development and quality control, while consumer research methods also offer useful insights as the product is being developed. This paper introduces sensory evaluation and consumer research methods and provides a detailed analysis of their applications to a variety of different alcoholic beverages and their association with various flavors. The respondents are from the different region who tasted all the samples of cocktails. Research data was collected through structured questionnaires and 100 respondents given response out of 120 respondents targeted. Five point likert scale used for measuring the performance of all factors. In this research study qualitative methods of research were applied. Present study revealed that using of different types of juices, fresh herbs and other useful ingredients change the taste, color, flavor and give new shape to the drink where customer show the acceptability towards the drinks

DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AMONG STUDENTS COMMUNITY DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC LOCKDOWN IN TAMIL NADU - A WEB BASED DESCRIPTIVE CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

K. Saravanan; S. Hariharan; R. Karthikeyan; B.Krishna Prasanth; Supraja Nagarathinam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1076-1080

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an appreciable impact on public
mental health. Hence continuous monitoring of the population’s mental health
especially during a pandemic demands immediate attention. The COVID-19
pandemic contributing to a rise in depression and anxiety among college students,
with more than one third of them experiencing detrimental mental health challenges.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression
and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic among medical college students.

A refined Algorithm for using Pattern with Variable Length by using the existing pattern matching

Kuljinder Singh Bumrah; Himani Sivaraman; Dr. Sandeep Budhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1081-1084

It has been observe in past years that the academics have instigated string matching algorithms in several turfs to extract and find the undisclosed key RSA algorithm or any other encryption method for discovering the intruder or malicious pattern in imposition detection system , the DNA matching, carbon chain matching . This article has a signified aim to analyse ,suggest and attain an algorithm which is classified for discrete pattern matching in different mode and moreover more efficiently and effectively. It has been designed for any pattern or type of string whether a character string , decimal value , wild character or any special symbol using your ASCII value.

The Issue of Human Life in Tran Buddhist Philosophy

Asso. Prof., Dr. Doan Chinh; Dr. Nguyen Minh Tri; Dr. Trinh Thi Kim Chi; Dr. Trinh Thanh Tung

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1085-1095

The article focuses on presenting human issues in Tran philosophy, through the viewpoints of human purpose, attitudes and actions; ethical values and intellectual and moral cultivation; about human life and death, imbued with the imprint of meditation, with typical thinkers such as Tran Thai Tong, Tue Trung Thuong si, and Tran Nhan Tong.

NEED OF VITAMIN D BEYOND BONE: A CONSISE REVIEW.

Roshan Kumar Jha; Deepika Kanyal; Dr. Archana Dhok; Lata Kanyal Butola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1096-1109

Vitamin D is also known as calciferol because of its role in calcium metabolism and antirachitic factor because it prevents rickets. It is a modified steroid, synthesised in the skin under the influence of sunlight and is necessary for metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Its RDA is 400 IU or 10 mg, it binds to the receptor of target cells and regulate through gene expression. Vitamin D undergoes hydroxylation in the liver to form 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D]. The two main forms are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). The main source of vitamin D in humans is in the form of vitamin D3, which is derived from synthesis in the skin via exposure of 7- dehydrocholesterol, concentrated in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum, to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. Vitamin D2 is obtained from the diet, and is derived from ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, found in fungi. Both metabolites are transported in the blood bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). These inactive vitamin D metabolites must undergo a two-step hydroxylation process to become biologically active. Initially, vitamin D2 and D3 undergo hydroxylation in the maternal liver, via the action of vitamin D 25-hydroxylase enzyme (CYP27A1), to form the inactive steroid precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). 25[OH]D is the major circulating and stored form of vitamin D. In this present review we have focused on need of vitamin D beyond bone.

Optimizing the Organizational Structure in Transforming Human Resources Who Can Manage Work Stress With a Religious Culture

Ali Mufron; Afiful Ikhwan; Muh. Syuhada; Achmad Ridlowi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1110-1126

This research is motivated by a phenomenon that contrasts industrial-based educational
institutions' implementation model that denies aspects of universal human values. Islamic
boarding schools positioned centrally to provide alternative solutions to humanity's
problems, morality and human behaviour. This study uses a qualitative approach with a
multi-case study design. The author concludes that individual action in students'
transformation by increasing the productivity of performance shaped by experience and
environment; group behaviour in conducting leadership transformation influenced by
recruitment of human resources, work teams, communication patterns and conflict
management based on consensus agreement. Organizational structure transforms
educators and education personnel by creating and implementing religious work culture by
optimizing the potential of faith, thought, and dzikir (pray) and managing work stress

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices about Biomedical Waste Management among Nursing Professionals in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Bhubaneswar,Odisha.

Kulumina Dash; Minati Das; N.K. Satapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1127-1142

Biomedical waste (BMW) management is an issue of major concern of all healthcare providers and healthcare establishments as the waste produced during the course of healthcare activities carries potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Biomedical waste management has recently emerged as an issue of present concern not only to hospitals, nursing home authorities but also to the environment. The bio-medical wastes generated from health care units depend upon a number of factors such as waste management methods, type of health care units, occupancy of healthcare units, specialization of healthcare units, ratio of reusable items in use, availability of infrastructure and resources etc. The proper management of biomedical waste has become a worldwide humanitarian topic today. Many studies across the country have shown that there are still deficiencies in the Knowledge, attitude and practices of the health care professionals in the organizations. Hence, A cross sectional study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding biomedical waste management among nursing professionals in a tertiary care hospital Bhubaneswar, Odisha. With due consideration to nursing personnel’s availability, accessibility, feasibility, and resources, we decided to include (n=100) of them in our study. The number of nursing personnel was selected by simple random sampling in their respective department/specialty. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, practices and attitude of the nursing personnel regarding biomedical waste management. Overall, the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards biomedical waste management among the nursing professionals were satisfactory. Complete hepatitis B vaccine coverage among nurses (100%) in our study is attributed to hospital policy of free immunization to high risk groups. Such policy decisions do have a positive impact on work efficiency of nurses by creating a sense of being protected.

Comparative evaluation of Coenzyme Q10 dentifrice Vs. Commercially available dentifrice in treatment of gingivitis: a randomized double blinded clinical trial.

Krishna Chaitanya Patri; Gautami S Penmetsa; Mani Meghana Kommula; Bhavana P; Aishwarya M; Jaswitha V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1143-1149

Background: Gingivitis is the most common forms of periodontal disease seen among all age groups. It is an inflammation of gingiva without any destruction of underlying periodontal structures. Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 in the gingival tissues may lead to gingivitis. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anti- gingivitis effect of Co enzyme Q10 as a dentifrice. Methods: Thirty patients were enrolled in the double blinded randomized controlled trial wherein 15 patients were allocated in test group and 15 patients in control group. For each patient scaling was performed and Co enzyme Q10 dentifrice given in test group and Colgate advanced dentifrice in control group and plaque index(PI), gingival index(GI) and bleeding index(BI) scores were recorded at baseline and 30 days. Results: Marked reduction of Plaque index, Gingival index, and Bleeding Index were observed after 30 days in both the groups. But, there is no statistically significant difference was observed in both the groups after 30 days. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the current study that Coenzyme Q10 has potential for reducing the gingival inflammation, when used in the form of dentifrice. No sideeffects were noted in any of the patients. Therefore, future studies are required for testing the antiplaque and anti-gingivitis efficacy of Co enzyme Q10.

Comparative evaluation of contact angles of three different universal adhesives-an invitro study

Dr.Anusha Nadipineni; Dr.Vijetha Badami; Dr Pavan Kumar Kanumuru; Dr Sujathagopal Sooraparaju; Dr Swetha Kommavarapu; Dr Mounika Pulijala; Dr Sahithi Nammaniwar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1150-1159

Context: The development of Universal adhesives has simplified the adhesive protocols in dentistry. Contact angle of adhesives are indicative of bonding ability and can predict longevity of the restoration. Aims: To compare the contact angles of three different universal adhesives and influence of prior acid etching on their contact angles. Materials and Methods: 36 caries-free intact extracted human mandibular molars were used. Two sections parallel to the occlusal surface were made beneath the dentin–enamel junction to obtain 2mm thick superficial dentin slices.Three adhesive systems were used- Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), Solare Universal Bond (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and Tetric N Bond Universal adhesive (Ivoclar Vivadent). Measurement of static contact angle θ* with 1.0 μL droplets of liquid adhesives, was performed by the sessile drop method using Rame Harte Goniometer.

Staphylococcus aureus: An Overview of Discovery, Characteristics, Epidemiology, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Sensitivity

Narin A Rasheed; Nawfal R Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1160-1183

Staphylococcus aureus is an important infectious pathogen in health sector and communities. S. aureus was first described by the Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogaston in surgical abscess in 1881. It causes various infections ranged between simple to life threating infections. Owing potent toxins and other virulence factors enabled the bacteria to be very virulent. Additionally, acquisition of antimicrobial resistant genes increased the challenge in treating the infections caused by bacteria especially methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) that are often multidrug resistant strains. The circulation of MRSA between health settings and communities resulted in changing even the genetic map for the strains in both places. Vancomycin was used for years and still acts as the drug of choice for treating MRSA infections but recently the resistance to vancomycin has risen and vancomycin resistant S. aureus were recorded. Consequently, different regimes were used like combination of antibiotics to reduce the resistance rate to antibiotics if they were used as a single drug and practiced the control measures at health settings to reduce the spread of MRSA strains. At last, global health organizations call for research and finding new antibiotics agents and put MRSA on the top list of infectious agents that need more antibiotics.

EFFECT OF CRYOTHERAPY ON HYPERTROPHIC SCAR

Z. Mowafy Emam Mowafy; Hany M. I. Elgohary; Khaled M. Hassan; Kamal Eldin S.Mohamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1184-1191

Background: Hypertrophic scar formation is a major clinical problem in the developing and industrialized worlds, Cryotherapy is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical treatment. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cryotherpy in treating hypertrophic scar. Method: Sixty patients who had hypertrophic scar participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 20 to 40 years. The participants were selected from Deraya university outpatient clinic and EL Minia University Hospital. They were randomly distributed into two equal groups. Group A (control group): This group received routine medical treatment and routine physical therapy including (stretching Exercises, Positioning and splinting, Pressure Therapy and Massage). Group B (study group): This group received cryotherapy for 10 minutes at -14 degree, 2
sessions per week, for 10 weeks in addition to routine medical and physical therapy treatment. Measurements were done using MAPS and were recorded in the first visit as a base line and after 3 months of treatment. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between groups in the study group compared with the control group regarding post treatment data of surface, height, thickness, color, pigmentation and the total score of MAPS where p value equals (0.005, 0.0001, 0.0005, 0.0021, 0.00016, < 0.00001) respectively. Conclusion: Cryotherapy had significant effect in improving the outcome and treating hyper trophic scar.

Protecting Local Coconut Oil of Lana Bango: Challenges of Indonesian Competition Law

Mercy Maria Magdalena Setlight; Friend Henry Anis; Rudy Max Karel Mamangkey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1192-1199

The Regional Government of Sangihe Islands Regency, North Sulawesi, has designated Local Coconut Oil in Sangihe Language called "Lana Bango" as a Regional Superior Product. This study is a normative-legal research by using statute, case, and conceptual approaches. Data were analyzed with descriptive qualitative analysis with content analysis. In this study, the authors used the qualitative research method, which (in general) generates words rather than numbers as data for analysis. The approach used is observation and interpretation, which makes these phenomena observable. This paper provides information on the latest trend in research. The results show that the optimization of the Lana Bango production program must be carried out to support more profitable production prices for farmers. Local governments need to pay attention to all existing regulations so that they do not tend to violate regulations. Siding with the people should not be detrimental to other parties. Hence, the solution that can be carried out by the Sangihe Islands Regency Government when there is fluctuation in copra prices by optimizing other potentials of coconut plants. Last but not least, there are not contrary to regulations concerning the Prohibition of Monopolistic Practices and Unfair Business Competition.

Poetics of modern Uzbek storytelling (based on the work of E. Azam)

Murodov G`ayrat Nekovich; Shukurova Bahor Boltayevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1200-1206

During the years of independence, Uzbekistan has made significant progress in the study of fiction in terms of creative individual approach. Indeed, the study of satirical representations of reality in close connection with the art of creating an artistic image is one of the most important tasks facing literature.

The Performance Evaluation of Deep Learning Classifier to Recognize Devanagari Handwritten Characters and Numerical

Anuj Bhardwaj; Prof. (Dr.) Ravendra Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1207-1228

A text classification is a well formed process using various measurable properties and computerized logical procedure to fetch a pattern from different classes.Since classification is important for the pattern recognition process, there are some issues with well-formed classification in this process, which is one of the important issues for proper development and improvement of productive data examinations. On behalf of the versatility of learning and the ability to deal with complex calculations, classifiers are consistently best suited for design patter recognition issues. The aim of this paper is to present a result based comparative study of different classifiers and the optimal recognition of results computation through the Devanagari Handwritten characters and numerical values. Different classifiers were used and evaluated in this investigation including k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Support-Vector machine (SVM), Naïve Bayes, Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Convolution Neural Network (CNN). To accomplish the experiment purpose, this paper used an unbiased dataset with including 123 samples that consists of 123 characters and 123 numerical values. Python 3.0 with sciket learn machine learning open-source environment library have been used to evaluate the performance of the classifiers. The performances of the classifiers accessed by considering the different matrices including dataset volume with best split ratio among training, validation, and testing process, accuracy rate, Ture/False acceptance rate, True/False rejection rate and the area covered under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Similarly the paper shows the correlation of the accuracy of the experiments obtained by applying to chosen the classifier. On behalf of the exploratory results, the
infallible classifiers considered in this test have free rewards and must be executed in a hybrid manner to meet the thigh precision rates.In the views of test work, their result compressions and the examination to be performed, it is argued that the Random Forest classifier is performing in a way that the current use of the classifier to recognize the Devanagari Handwritten character and the numerical values with the accuracy rate 87.9% for the considered 123 samples.

Platelet Rich Plasma InjectionVersus Ligating Inter-sphincteric fistulous tract for Management of High Trans-sphincteric Peri-anal Fistula

Ahmed Helmy Muhammed Mortagy; Ali Helmy El-Shewy; Ashraf Goda Farag; Ahmed Mahmoud Sallam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1229-1237

Background: Fistula-in-ano (FIA) is one of the most common benign anal conditions in daily surgical practice. Modern management of anal fistula include anal fistula plug, fistula laser closure, adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (PRP )injection. The study was aimed to compare the efficacy of platelet rich plasma injection versus ligating inter-sphincteric fistulous tract in treatment of high transsphincteric peri-anal fistula. Patients and methods: Our study was carried out in General Surgery Department, Zagazig University Hospitals and included 18 patients who were divided in two groups; 9 patients were treated with platelet rich plasma injection after curretage of the fistulous tract and 9 patients were treated with ligation of the intersphincteric fistulous tract with close monitoring and followed up of all the patients of both groups as regards to: operation time, hospital stay, healing time, postoperative incontinence and recurrence.

INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY - A FACTOR OF EDUCATIONAL EFFICIENCY

R. Musurmonov; A. Burkhonov; M. Musurmonova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1238-1241

The article discusses innovative guidelines for improving the effectiveness of education in educational institutions, the problems of preparing teachers for innovative activities, and thus the modern requirements and principles of raising the efficiency of the education system to a new level.

DEVELOPMENT FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE AND MORAL EDUCATION SYSTEM FOR STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITIES

Umida Mamurjanovna Bazarova; Suyarova Shahnoza Toylokovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1242-1246

In the article, from the standpoint of the competence-based development of the formation of professional competence and the system of moral education of students of a technical university, the organization of the educational trajectory of students of a technical university in teaching a foreign language is considered. This paper describes a system of educational activities for those employed in a foreign language, which is aimed at improving the moral education of students of a technical university.

FORMATION OF HERD IMMUNITY TO SARS-CoV-2 IN THE REGIONS OF UZBEKISTAN.

Rakhimov R.A.; Ibadullaeva N.S.; Khikmatullaeva A.S.; Abdukadirova M.A.; Sadirova Sh.S., Lokteva L.M.; Rakhimov R.R.; Bayjanov A.K.; Samatova I.R.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1247-1252

6 months after the start of the COVID-19 epidemic in Uzbekistan, a comparative analysis of the reported incidence of COVID-19 and the level of herd immunity to SARS-CoV- 2 was carried out. The registration of patients with COVID-19 in the country was carried out on the basis of the positive results of the examination for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, using the PCR method. To study herd immunity, the WanTai SARS-CoV-2 Ab Rapid test (China) was used to detect total antibodies (IgM and IgG) in blood. In the period from August 27, 2020 to September 11, 2020, in all 14 administrative-territorial regions of Uzbekistan, blood samples of 86879 people who sought medical help at an outpatient clinic at their place of residence were tested for the presence of total antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. According to official figures, 0.14% of the population were infected with COVID-19. The proportion of the population with the presence of specific protective antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus was 23.1%. This proves that the actual incidence of COVID-19, on the national average, was at least 165 times higher than officially reported. An uneven territorial distribution of the level of herd immunity was revealed. All regions were conditionally divided into 3 zones: 1) regions with a high level of herd immunity ˃ 20% (8 regions), 2) regions with an average level of herd immunity ˂ 20% and ˃ 10% (3 regions), 3) regions with a low the level of herd immunity ˂ 10% (3 regions). The degree of population affected in different regions of the county did not depend on the population density in the region, its age and gender composition. It was shown that the factors that influenced the intensity of the epidemic process and the formation of the level of herd immunity were the degree of external and internal migration.

EFFICIENCY OF MICROCURRENT REFLEXOTHERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

Gavrilova Tatiana Alekseevna; MadzhidovaYakutkhonNabievna .; KhusenovaNodiraTurgunovna .; Azimova Nadira Mirvositovna; Usmanova Durdona Djurabaevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1253-1262

Childhood autism is one of the topical health problems in the world, which is determined not
so much by the frequency of childhood autism (СHA) in the child population - from 4 to 26
per 10,000 children [3, 8, 15], but by the social significance and insufficient knowledge of the
etiology and pathogenesis this disease [2, 9, 10]. Today, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are
widely regarded as neurodevelopmental disorders implying a sharply disharmonious
development of the brain and the formation of neural connections [6, 13]. Despite the increase
in the incidence of these types of disorders, the awareness of the public and specialists about
the problem is extremely low [5, 11].

Study Of Deterministic Inventory Model For Deteriorating Items With Stock- Dependent Demand Rate Under Inflation

Dr.Kapil Kumar Bansal; Dr.Vijesh Kumar; Dr.A.K. Malik; Mr.Mahesh Kumar Pandey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1263-1267

Deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items with stock dependent demand is
developed. In this model the shortages are allowed and partially backlogged and the effect
of inflation rate and delay in payments are discussed. This paper establishes an inventory
model for the deteriorating items and stock dependent demand rate under inflation when
the supplier offers a permissible delay to the purchaser. A sensitivity analysis of the optimal
solution with respect to the parameters of the system is carried out.

Risk Factors of Miscarriage in Malaria- Endemic Region: A Case-Control Study in Eastern Indonesia

Firza Fadila; Savira Ekawardhani; Nisa Fauziah; Jontari Hutagalung

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1281-1292

Background: To date, there are still 242 districts in Indonesia which remain
endemic for malaria, mostly in the eastern region of the country. East Nusa
Tenggara Province is one of the regions with the highest Annual Parasite
Incidence (API) per 1,000 population, with none of the districts or cities being
able to achieve malaria elimination even once. Hence, most of the pregnant
women who live in the Asia-Pacific countries are at risk of Plasmodium vivax
infection. There is also a notion that malaria infection could increase the risk of
miscarriage. Therefore, we aimed to assess the risk factors of miscarriage in the
malaria-endemic regions in Eastern Indonesia.
Methods: A case-control study was conducted using data from the previous
malaria study in East Nusa Tenggara. This study included 37 respondents with
a history of miscarriage and 74 control subjects matched by age (±5 years) and
sub-district. We assessed the correlation of socioeconomic status, malaria,
anemia, body mass index, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)
deficiency with miscarriage. Data were analyzed using bivariate and
multivariate analysis with p-value <0.05 indicates that the variable has a
significant effect.
Results: A total of 111 women were included in this study with 37 respondents
being the case group and 74 being the control group. The risk of developing
miscarriage increased in lower socioeconomic status (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 0.45-
2.44), in malaria-positive (OR 1.40; 95% CI: 0.60-3.26), in the presence of
anemia (OR 1.90; 95% CI: 0.82-4.45), and in abnormal BMI (OR 1.08; 95%
CI: 0.47-2.46).

Impact of Non-Invasive and Top-Down Approaches On Hemispatial Neglect in Stroke Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Noha A. Nasef; Gehan M. Ahmed; Mahmoud S. El Fakharany; Abdelaziz Abdelaziz Elsherif

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1293-1305

Aim: One of the most common disorders in stroke is hemispatial neglect. Regarding treatment of hemispatial neglect, there are many physiotherapy interventions including top-down, bottom-up and non-invasive approaches. In this study, we aimed to systemically examine the effect of these approaches in hemispatial neglect patient.

Coliphages Lytic; as a potential biological control agent against E. coli (O157:H7) in a mouse model.

Nidham M. Jamalludeen; Hekmat K. Atea; Hazim T. Thwiny

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1306-1317

The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the phage for use as a potential
biological control agent against Escherichia coli O157: H7. A standard strain of E coli O157:
H7 (NCTC 12900, China) was used to isolate the lytic phage from bovine faeces and raw
wastewater. The spot-assay test was used to check phage activity. Characterization of phage
isolates included phage resistance to acidity and alkalinity, electron microscopy and PCR
assay for stx1, stx2, and cI genes. Isolate phages were tested where a cocktail was
administered to treat mice that was given a single oral dose (108 CFU) of Escherichia coli
(O157: H7) (NTCC 12900). Three phages (P1, P3, P4) were successfully isolated from the
sewage samples as they showed strong lytical activity against E. coli O157: H7 (NCTC 12900).
The P1 and P4 phages had icosahedral head and a long, flexible, thin, inelastic tail with the
tail fibers while the P3 phage had a less rigid, long and relatively thick tail with the tail fibers.
All phages found are resistant to pH 4-9. The PCR results revealed the absence of genomic
coding for stx1, stx2, and cI in the isolated phages. All mice treated with the phage gave a
negative result for culture of Escherichia coli O157: H7.

Investigation of microbial contamination in processed food according to Indonesian National Standards and The food and Drug Supervisory Agency at The Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta

Conny Riana Tjampakasari; Ariyani Kiranasari; Ika Ningsih

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1318-1329

Food is all ingredients in processed from that are eaten by humans as a basic requirement needed for energy sources in daile activities. Proper and correct food processing is very beneficial for the body, otherwisw food can be a potential source of infection if it is contaminates by microorganisms which can cause food poisoning. The purpose of this stydy was ti determine the quality of processed food sent to The Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia. A total of 246 processed food samples were examined using food investigation methods, which are Total Plate Count (TPC), Most Probable Number (MPN) and pathogenic bacteria culture according to Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 7388:2009 and Regulation of Food and Drug Supervisory (BPOM) No. 13 of 2009. The samples examined from 5 types of consumers, namaely : hospitals, health laboratories, catering services, restaurants and companies. The samples examined consisted 0f 28 categories. The largest sample was in 2015, while the lowest was in 2020, respectively 49 and 13 samples. 47 from 246 processed food samples did not meet the standards. Samples that do not meet the requirements, the most in 2017 (31.4%) and the lowest in 2019 (11.1%). Food samples that did not meet the standards were spread out in 14 of categories. The highest categories were : vegetables, seaweed , beans and seeds (29.79%). Some 19.11 % of processed food did not meet the standards. Regular laboratory investigation are very important do to ensure that the food served is safe for consumption and meets quality standards.

Prevalence of Fatigue in Patients Post Covid-19

Shendy W; Madonna Maher Ezzat; Doaa Abdallah ELaidy, MD; Abdelaziz Abdelaziz Elsherif

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1330-1340

Background: pandemic Covid-19 isn't a simple health-care problem that will go away and never come back. One of the most common symptoms of Post-acute covid-19 is fatigue. Purpose of the study: To determine the prevalence of fatigue in adult people post mild and moderate covid-19 cases and the relation between fatigue post covid-19 and several factors. Material and methods: Eighty-one post covid-19 patients from both genders were recruited from registry records of preventive medicine and surveillance of Ministry of Health and Population in the city of El Minya / Egypt. The study was conducted from 15st September 2020 till 15st December 2020. Demographic data were collected (age, sex, BMI), smoking status, Data about status of covid-19 if they hospitalized or not hospitalized and received treatment. Fatigue post covid-19 was evaluated by using Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) and Shortness of breath (dyspnea) by Numerical rating scale of dyspnea. Results: fatigue in adult patients post mild and moderate covid-19 cases after three to five months from their recovery was prevalent 64.2% using the MFIS. There was no significant association between fatigue and age, sex, BMI, smoking, hospitalization and received treatment. The association between NRS and MFIS was moderately positive and significant. (r = 0.39, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: fatigue was prevalent among adult patients post covid-19 with 64.2% using the MFIS. Continuous monitoring and timely intervention prevent long-term symptoms from being chronic.

Solvent-free , One pot synthesis of Dihydropyrano [3,2-c] chromene derivatives with β-Alanine as a green catalyst

Sandeepika Rana; Aarti Nagar; Poonam Singh; Shubha Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1341-1349

We reported an productive and green procedure for one pot, three-component condensation
reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarine, malononitrile and appropriate aldehydes using β- alanine as
a catalyst under solvent free conditions at ph 6 ,gave dihydropyrano[3,2-c] chromenes
derivatives at 650C. Here new compounds are synthesized and the result were compared by
FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13NMR as well as Mass spectra .Short reaction time, cost effective ,clean
reaction profile, ,simple isolation, excellent yield and environment benign are the main
advantages of this procedure.

Correlation between neck pain characteristics and gait parameters in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain

Ebtesam Wafik Shehab; Nahed Ahmed Salem; Sandra Ahmed; Abdelaziz Abdelaziz Elsherif

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1350-1357

Background: Neck pain is now a widely recognized musculoskeletal problem in the global community. It has been linked to a variety of problems in the cervical spine as well as other structures. Walking is a basic human activity that is simple to perform, has a low risk of injury, and has many health benefits.
Aim: The present study was done to objectively investigate if there is a relationship between neck pain characteristics and gait parameters in people who had chronic mechanical neck pain (CMNP). Material and methods: Twenty-six participants suffering chronic mechanical neck pain (G1) and twenty-six normal healthy matched subjects (G2) were assessed for neck pain characteristics and gait parameters. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied to assess pain intensity, the Neck disability Index (NDI) Arabic version was applied to assess neck function, and the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 TM device was used to assess spatiotemporal gait parameters.
Results: in comparison with the control group, the study group displayed a significant reduction of walking velocity, both feet step length, and left foot time of support. There were significant correlations between VAS, NDI, and gait parameters in patients with CMNP.
Conclusion: people with chronic mechanical neck pain showed a decrease in walking velocity, step length, and time on each foot. These results demonstrate that neck pain seems to have an effect on spinal health and gait.

Oxidation of p-Anisaldehyde to p-Anisic Acid by Organic Clay as a Novel Method

S. P. Babara

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1358-1366

Oxidation of p-anisaldehyde by microwave irradiation produces p-anisic acid under solvent-free condition. This oxidation reaction is performed in presence of different red, white and black organic clay as catalyst. This method possess functional group compatability, does not involve cumbersome work-up exhibits chemoselectivity since other functional groups remain intact and proceeds under mild reactions. The structure of the obtained products were analyzed by 1H and 13C NMR(Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectral studies and organic clay catalysts were characterized by EDX(Energy dispersion x-ray analysis), XRD (X-ray diffraction) tenchniques. Elemental composition of red, white and black clay determined by EDX pattern recorded in the binding energy region of 1-10 KeV.  XRD studies showed average crystallite size of clay catalyst is in the range of 20 - 30 nm. The resulting product obtained in good yield within reasonable time

HOSPITAL CORNEA RETRIEVAL PROGRAMME – A WAY FORWARD

Dr. Vaishnavi. R; Dr. Praveena Venkatakrishnan; Dr. Thiyagarajan. P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1367-1379

Background/Purpose:
To study the clinical indications, visual outcome, complications of penetrating keratoplasty and to compare the effect of hospital corneal retrieval vs home retrieval with the visual outcome and complications post keratoplasty. In addition, the study aims to highlight the effectiveness of the hospital donor cornea retrieval program.
Methods:
A 2 year prospective study was conducted with 52 patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty for optical indications with regular follow up on post-operative day 1 (POD), 1st , 3rd month and 6th month. The various indications for keratoplasty, early and late complications and factors causing them , Death to enucleation, preservation time and the mode of cornea retrieval were also noted. The results were compared with the post-operative visual acuity and the incidence of developing graft failure post operatively.
Results:
The most common indication was bullous keratopathy (38.4 %). Overall improvement in vision was seen in 69.2 % of patients compared to pre-operative vision. Most common early post operative complication was epithelial defect (30.7 %) and late complications were secondary glaucoma leading to graft failure. Donor factors such as lesser death to enucleation and preservation time was associated with better visual outcome (p<0.001). Hospital retrieved corneas had better visual outcome (p=0.20) and lesser rate of graft failure (p=0.004).

A Prospective Comparative Study of Effectiveness of 0.5% Timolol, 0.2% Brimonidine and 0.005% Latanoprost in Glaucoma Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital.

Sampath D, Jyoti Upadhyay, Chaganti Nagesh, Rajesh Kumar Manchi, Dr Preeti Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1380-1388

Background: Timolol, brimonidine and latanoprost are three different classes of drugs used in the treatment of glaucoma. These drugs act through different mechanisms to reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP). The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of timolol 0.5%, brimonidine 0.2% and latanoprost 0.005% in treatment of glaucoma.
Methods: This three arm parallel group randomized study was done at Narayana General Hospital
& Modern Eye Care Hospital, Nellore. This study included 30 patients randomly allocated to three groups 1, 2, and 3 receiving treatments with timolol 0.5%, brimonidine 0.2% and latanoprost 0.005% respectively.
Results: Total 10 patients were included in each group (1, 2, 3). The baseline characteristics were comparable between the groups. The group 1 patients showed significant decrease in IOP on day 3 of treatment, in comparison to baseline IOP. The same was observed with other groups also. In comparison of mean reduction of IOP between groups, group 3 patients showed significantly more reduction in IOP.
Conclusion: Latanoprost has shown more efficacy in comparison to timolol and brimonidine in reducing the IOP.
 
Keywords: Three-arm study; glaucoma; intraocular pressure.

Efficacy of Synthesized Amidoximated Acrylic Copolymer Membrane Treated with Nano Silver Particles for its Antibacterial Property

Bhoopesh Kumar Sharma, Soni Rani, Abhishek Swami

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1389-1399

Antimicrobial barriers are made of polymers of cationic functional groups.PolymerMembrane filtration is considered as highly effective method for removing particles, organic matter, and microorganisms from drinking water.These membranes are usually made from copolymers. In the present work, fabrication of a copolymer membrane wasdone first and a portion of the copolymer's nitrile groups is converted to amidoxime groups through the amidoximation process. After that the mebrane was treated with HA in an aqueous solution at 60-80°C to form an Amidoximated film. These fabricated and specially synthesized copolymer film after the treatment with Nano Silver particles were then studied for its efficacy as antibacterial water disinfectant. Several techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (EDX), Thermogravimetric analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope, and Transmission Electron Microscope were used to characterize the virgin and amidoximated acrylic copolymer membranes.  Many significant changes in the copolymer properties, such as functionality, crystallinity, thermal activity, hydrophilicity, elemental composition, and surface morphology, were observed during the amidoximation phase along with their antibacterial activity. It was found that an amidoximated copolymer membrane is more efficient than the untreated membrane in context to its antibacterial activity.

Assessment of Level of knowledge regarding menstruation, menstrual hygiene and various myths and taboos faced by the Adolescent Girls of Khera Khurumpur a small village in India

Palkin Bhatia, Archana Chaudhary, Bhupinder Kaur Anand , Manvinder Pal Singh Marwah, Swamy HM, Dinesh Bhatia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1400-1416

Introduction – Menstruation is the most natural and physiological phenomenon which a female periodically goes through every month. Even today's era witnesses the association of the menstrual phenomenon with stigma and disgrace in several countries. The complete lack of knowledge about this subject which mostly ends up with the rise of myths and taboos in society is even worse. Adolescent girls must get to know about menstruation at an early stage while seeking education during schooling. This study highlights the level of knowledge, menstrual practices adopted and myths and taboos faced by adolescent girls of this area.
Methodology - A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 115 school-going, adolescent girls. The adolescent girls being the respondents agreed to be part of the study and answered questions on the questionnaires which were provided to them. The main objective was to assess the knowledge about menstruation, menstrual hygiene, and the prevalence of various myths and taboos among school girls and their societies. Data analysis was done using SPSS 21.0 software and Chi-squared test with application of the Fisher exact test in few cases. Since 91 out of 115 girls responded, data analysis has been done accordingly for the number of girls who provided response.
Results - Mean age of girls in this study was 13.75 ± 1.62. 64 (70.3%) and 27(29.6%) girls are menstruating and non-menstruating respectively. The most common response given by 43% of girls was that "periods come regularly every month once for 4 -5 days". Mothers in 66% of cases were the first informant about the phenomenon of menstruation followed by lady teachers at school. 73(80%) had prevalent myths and taboos related to menses which was required to be addressed. 47.2% of the girls were demonstrated by their teachers regarding the phenomenon of menstruation at school.
Conclusion - Though many of the girls considered menstruation as a normal and physiological process majority were unaware of the uterus being the actual source of bleeding. Fortunately, teachers are acting as the first informant regarding the phenomenon of menstruation in this study for a high percentage of girls thereby addressing the associated myths and taboos related to the process. Gleefully the menstruating girls attended school regularly which is not affecting their education and learning thereby making them more self-reliant and help in overcoming societal issues and discrimination while addressing the menses process.

PREVALENCE OF FIRST PERMANENT MOLAR CARIES AMONG 6-10 YEAR OLD SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN NAGPUR REGION

Dr. Milind Wasnik; Dr. Arun Sajjanar; Dr. Suryakant Kumar; Dr. Shweta Bhayade; Dr. Niharika Gahlod; Dr.Sumit Rajewar; Dr.Durga Bhattad; Dr.Harshita Shukla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1417-1431

Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease involving various factors such as diet, microorganisms, tooth morphology, saliva, as well as genetic predisposition. The present study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in first permanent molar among 6-10 year old school going children in Nagpur Region Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the caries prevalence of first permanent molar in 6-10 year old school going children in Nagpur region Objectives: 1) 1) To determine the caries prevalence of first permanent molar in 6-10 year old boys and girls. 2) To determine the frequency of simultaneous presence of first permanent mandibular molar caries and its antimere in 6-10 year old school going children Methodology: A cross sectional study was done in government and private schools of Nagpur district of Maharashtra. Around 800- 1000 school going children between 6 to 10 years of age in the government and private schools of Nagpur were examined for first permanent molar caries. Results: The prevalence of dental caries in first permanent molars among 6-10 year old school going children was 47.48% Prevalence of caries in first permanent molars and DMFT increased with age.

A FRAME WORK TO DETECT BREAST CANCER USING KNN and SVM

RAJESH SATURI; K.V. Sai Phani; Prof.P. PREM CHAND

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1432-1438

The main reason of increasing mortality rate among women is the breast cancer. It makes several hours with the less availability of systems to identify the diagnosis of cancer manually. Hence there is a need to develop an automatic system for early detection of cancer. Several researchers have focused in order to improve performance and achieved to obtain satisfactory results. But unfortunately it will be very difficult to detect the cancer in beginning stages because the symptoms may be inappropriate.Therefore, there is a need to determine and acquire a new knowledge to prevent and minimizing the risk of getting effected with cancer. Machine learning (ML) is algorithms are widely used in detecting breast cancer patterns and predict the grading level. Machine learning techniques can be used to classify the stage of cancer, where machine can be trained from past data and build a model so that it can predict the category of new input.In this paper we used K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) on the dataset collected from UCI repository to detect breast cancerwith respect to the results of accuracy the efficiency of algorithm is also measured and compared.

Prosthodontic Management of Patients with Systemic Disorders

Dr.Jaykumar Gade; Dr. Aushili Mahule; Dr.Aparna Trivedi; Dr.Vandana Gade; Dr. Almas Shaikh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1439-1451

Aim: The present paper aims to highlights the prosthodontic management of patients with
some common systemic disorders.
Background: The increase in life expectancy, more desire for improved standard of life
and increased importance to esthetics has resulted in many ambulatory patients with
systemic health disorders walking into the dental clinics.
Results: Systemic diseases can have a local manifestation with no apparent systemic
symptoms or may present with both local as well as systemic reactions. Accordingly, the
assessment of medical risks and its relationship to oral health becomes a major area of
concern.
Conclusion: Dental specialists have a responsibility to contribute to overall health by
subsequent maintenance of the oral health.
Clinical significance: As certain systemic disorders may produce a pernicious effect on the
oral health, it is incumbent for the dental specialists to be aware of the several systemic
conditions and also to consider them in the treatment plan

The Knowledge of Radiation Hazard between Health and Medical Technology Students at Al-Zahra University in Karbala-Iraq

Hassan Hadi Al Kazzaz M.B.Ch.B, PH.D, F.I.C.M.S (F.M)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1452-1461

Study of the health and medical technology student ’s knowledge and attitudes will
open the ways to solve the deficit in their information regarding radiation hazards. The aim
is to assess the knowledge of Al-Zahra university students toward radiation hazard.This study
is a cross-sectional observational analytical study of the amount of knowledge and altitude
towards radiation hazards and protection of the Health and Medical Technology students’ of
Al-Zahra University in Karbala, Iraq. This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was
conducted on 129 out of 132 undergraduate students from The Health and Medical
Technology College, whose curriculum included General Radiology, after completing 90 days
in the Department of Radiological Techniques at Al-Zahra University for Women. Among 132
students, 129 students participated in this Google Classroom questionnaire, giving an overall
response rate of (97.7%). Their overall knowledge was good and showed a higher KAP value
in relation to hazardous protection that (Is x ray is harmful) with a percentage of (66.6%),
while their knowledge was poor concerning the safety guidelines. The lack of knowledge about
ALARA or ALADA principles needs to be considered by updating first year student ’s
curriculum as well as creating training courses to improve their knowledge.

A Clinicopathological study of Wilms’ tumor among Sudanese patients

Hoda M. A. Salih; Salwa O. Mekki; Mohamed Elkhatib; Hani B. Abdelgalil; Abdelbasit E. Ali; Mohamed A. Salih; Mohammad Shahid Iqbal; Aisha Tabassum

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1462-1480

Background: Wilms’ tumour is the commonest renal tumour in children, with unique
pathogenesis and histology. Objectives: To determine the different tumour patterns and
components, geographical distribution of the patient ’s tribes, and the relation of
histopathology of the tumour to its clinical presentation and stage. Materials and
Methods: We collected the data of 51 Wilms’ tumor patients from January 2006 to
December 2010 inclusive from Soba University Hospital, Radio Isotopes Centre
Khartoum (RICK) and the National Health Laboratory (NHL) in Khartoum, Sudan.
The data was collected from patient’s files using a predesigned questionnaire.

Analysis of Complications for Expectant Women and Comparative Study of Maternal Mortality in India

G. Keerthi; M.S. Abirami

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1481-1491

From the first maternal level up to the delivery, there is high risk in women's health factors. Nowadays, severe maternal problems lead to crucial health issues in pregnant women. These problems may occur either during pregnancy or delivery time or after delivery according to the women health conditions. These crucial issues will become a risk for the mother’s and baby’s life. These maternal conditions during delivery are not easy to detect at the early stage of pregnancy. In this paper, some of the important pregnancy complications are addressed with their symptoms and treatment. Based on the study, different methodologies are discussed to prevent and avoid pregnant women's complications and for childbirth. The main aim of this study is to improve the maternal and fetal outcomes irrespective of the places. In this paper, a sample dataset in India is taken to show the Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) by considering the values from the year 2010 to 2030. More analysis of MMR can be done by considering different countries, which will be helpful to solve the occurrence of risk factors either during or after pregnancy. Consequently, this analysis may avoid pregnancy death rates. The main work is to improve the maternal and fetal outcomes by strengthening the pregnant women health. Future work will be applying different machine learning methodologies to detect the risk level of severe maternal morbidity.

THE STUDY OF THE HEART RATE IB ATHLETERS ENGAGED IN UNDERWATER SPORTS, DEPENDING ON THE SPECIALIZATION

Redi Elena Vladimirovna; Tolstopyatov Igor Anatolevich; Lisovik Alla Nikolaevna; Bortnikova Galina Nikolaevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1492-1498

Goal. To study the heart rate (HR) indicators in divers of different specialization in 2000, 2010, and 2020. Materials and methods. The study involved three generations of submariners (divided into groups): group A-2000, group B-2010, and group B-2020. Each group consisted of 10 boys and 10 women aged 17 to 25 years. Results. Male and female submariners of group B are characterized by higher rates of increase in resting heart rate (HR), compared to athletes of group A and B. Conclusion. The cardiovascular system is sensitive to various influences, including strenuous physical activity, but the compensatory capabilities of the heart are not unlimited and if this is not taken into account, then you can get overexertion. In our case, it was found that the heart rate, regardless of specialization, reflects the functional level of the state of the cardiovascular system in accordance with different somatotypes.

Assessment of antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Volvariella volvacea

Pushpa P. Gupta; Shashikant Chandrakar; Amit Roy; Seema Verma; Neeta Gupta; Ram Kumar Sahu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1499-1509

Mushrooms (a macrofungus) have high dietary values and are used in cooking for ages. Some of them are also reported to have medicinal properties. Volvariella volvacea (V. Volacea) is an edible mushroom cultivated in East and South East Asia. This provides good nutrition is extremely suitable in human diet. The present work was planned to determine the antidiabetic potential of V. volvacea by exploring the glucose tolerance test and other vital serum profiles in normal as well as STZ-induced diabetic rats. The mushroom was subjected to hydroalcoholic extraction; the extract was divided into two equal portions. One part was dried by lyophilisation (LE) and second part was dried in hot air oven (ODE). The LE and ODE of V. volvacea was studied for antidiabetic activity. The extracts, in a dose dependent manner could significantly decrease the serum glucose level of diabetic rats. The results show that LE of V. volvacea exhibited more antidiabetic activity than ODE. The above result advocate that more study is required to proceed for developing a formulation of this mushroom to utilise its nutraceutical and medicinal properties

Maxillomandibular Changes following Extraction and Non-extraction Orthodontic Treatment -A CEPHALOMETRIC STUDY-

Dr. Evan. A. Clement (M.D.S); Dr. Xavier Dhayananth (M.D.S); Dr. Shahul Hameed Faizee (M.D.S); Dr. Navaneetha Nambi (M.D.S); Dr.Priyadarshini (B.D.S)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1510-1518

Objectives:-The objective of this retrospective study is to evaluate the skeletal maxillomandibular changes after orthodontic treatment through Steiner’s cephalometric analysis. Materials & Methods:-Pre and post treatment cephalometric radiographs of 50 orthodontic patients were used for this retrospective study, where they have been divided into two groups (25 Extraction and 25 Non extraction cases). Evaluation of Steiners - SNA, SNB and ANB angles in both the Pre and Post treatment cephalogram were done. Statistics:The data was tabulated and computed using SPSS software version 21.0.The Pre and Post cephalometric parameter were analysed through paired sample T tests, by calculating the mean difference, Standard deviation and Standard error and paired differences. Results:-ANB angle showed a decrease of 1.12° among the patients treated with extraction procedures, and the ANB angle showed increase of 0.2° among patients treated with non extraction procedures.
Conclusion:- The result of the above study suggested that the ANB reduced in patients who underwent extraction orthodontic therapy and the patients treated as non extraction did not show much significant difference

INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY - A FACTOR OF EDUCATIONAL EFFICIENCY.

R. Musurmonov; A. Burkhonov; M. Musurmonova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1519-1522

The article discusses innovative guidelines for improving the effectiveness of education in educational institutions, the problems of preparing teachers for innovative activities, and thus the modern requirements and principles of raising the efficiency of the education system to a new level.

Poetics of modern Uzbek storytelling (based on the work of E. Azam).

Murodov G`ayrat Nekovich; Shukurova Bahor Boltayevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1523-1528

During the years of independence, Uzbekistan has made significant progress in the study of fiction in terms of creative individual approach. Indeed, the study of satirical representations of reality in close connection with the art of creating an artistic image is one of the most important tasks facing literature

FORMATION OF HERD IMMUNITY TO SARS-CoV-2 IN THE REGIONS OF UZBEKISTAN..

Rakhimov R.A.; Ibadullaeva N.S.; Khikmatullaeva A.S.; Abdukadirova M.A.; Sadirova Sh.S.; Lokteva L.M.; Rakhimov R.R.; Bayjanov A.K.; Samatova I.R.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1529-1534

6 months after the start of the COVID-19 epidemic in Uzbekistan, a comparative analysis of the reported incidence of COVID-19 and the level of herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 was carried out. The registration of patients with COVID-19 in the country was carried out on the basis of the positive results of the examination for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, using the PCR method. To study herd immunity, the WanTai SARS-CoV-2 Ab Rapid test (China) was used to detect total antibodies (IgM and IgG) in blood. In the period from August 27, 2020 to September 11, 2020, in all 14 administrative-territorial regions of Uzbekistan, blood samples of 86879 people who sought medical help at an outpatient clinic at their place of residence were tested for the presence of total antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. According to official figures, 0.14% of the population were infected with COVID-19. The proportion of the population with the presence of specific protective antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus was 23.1%. This proves that the actual incidence of COVID-19, on the national average, was at least 165 times higher than officially reported. An uneven territorial distribution of the level of herd immunity was revealed. All regions were conditionally divided into 3 zones: 1) regions with a high level of herd immunity ˃ 20% (8 regions), 2) regions with an average level of herd immunity ˂ 20% and ˃ 10% (3 regions), 3) regions with a low the level of herd immunity ˂ 10% (3 regions). The degree of population affected in different regions of the county did not depend on the population density in the region, its age and gender composition. It was shown that the factors that influenced the intensity of the epidemic process and the formation of the level of herd immunity were the degree of external and internal migration.

RATIONALE FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE HACCP SYSTEM IN THE PRODUCTION OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS

Fayziboev Pirmamat Normamatovich; Shovaliev I.Kh .; Bulyayev Z.K .; Maxmanazarov Gafur Akhnazarovich; Malikov Z.M .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1535-1539

The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for contamination of confectionery products by developing and implementing a modern control system for critical points. The results of sanitary-hygienic and microbiological studies of finished products in confectionery enterprises in Tashkent and Gulistan were obtained, indicating that they did not comply with the accepted standards according to the criteria of KMAFAnM (the number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms), yeast and mold. And for the oriental sweetness “Navvat” safety criteria have not been established. It has been established that the processes of formation of micro-biological safety of confectionery products determine the ways of managing it, i.e. determine the possibility of using any actions that allow you to change the quantitative and qualitative composition of the microflora when implementing the HACCP system.

DEVELOPMENT FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE AND MORAL EDUCATION SYSTEM FOR STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITIES.

Umida Mamurjanovna Bazarova; Suyarova Shahnoza Toylokovna,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1540-1543

In the article, from the standpoint of the competence-based development of the formation of professional competence and the system of moral education of students of a technical university, the organization of the educational trajectory of students of a technical university in teaching a foreign language is considered. This paper describes a system of educational activities for those employed in a foreign language, which is aimed at improving the moral education of students of a technical university

EFFICIENCY OF MICROCURRENT REFLEXOTHERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS.

Gavrilova Tatiana Alekseevna; MadzhidovaYakutkhonNabievna .; KhusenovaNodiraTurgunovna .; Azimova Nadira Mirvositovna; Usmanova Durdona Djurabaevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1544-1553

Childhood autism is one of the topical health problems in the world, which is determined not so much by the frequency of childhood autism (СHA) in the child population - from 4 to 26 per 10,000 children [3, 8, 15], but by the social significance and insufficient knowledge of the etiology and pathogenesis this disease [2, 9, 10]. Today, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are widely regarded as neurodevelopmental disorders implying a sharply disharmonious development of the brain and the formation of neural connections [6, 13]. Despite the increase in the incidence of these types of disorders, the awareness of the public and specialists about the problem is extremely low [5, 11].

DIAGNOSTIC SENSITIVITY OF BIOMARKERS IN ASSESSING THE OCCURRENCE AND PROGRESSION OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

Mr.Kondapi Kishore; Dr Santhi Silambanan; Dr Swathy Moorthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1554-1571

Background
Diabetic nephropathy is a major end stage kidney disease and its timely diagnosis helps in combating the morbidity and mortality associated with it, thereby improving the quality of the patients suffering from the condition. Though identification of microalbuminuria has long been used to diagnose the nephropathy among diabetics, there has always a need for sensitive and specific biomarker that could predict the susceptibility of the diabetic patients to develop nephropathy much ahead of the onset of microalbuminuria.
Methods
A prospective study was conducted among 125 diabetic patients at various levels of nephropathy like the normoalbuminuric, microalbuminuric and macroalbuminuric patients and 45 healthy controls based on the Joint Committee of Diabetic Nephropathy Classification. A detailed history, clinical characteristics, duration of illness and other baseline investigations along with urinary podocin, urine nephrin, serum carboxy-methyl lysine levels, glycated albumin, glycaemic control, lipid profile were analyzed among the various nephropathy stages and compared with the controls.

Analysis of the Dengue Infection, Occurrence and Hematological Profile of Dengue Patients in Dhaka City

Mohammad Zakerin Abedin; Md. Sifat Uz Zaman; Tasnim Ahmad; Md. Abdullah Al Maruf; Md Babul Aktar; Md. Fayez Ahmed; Md. Abu Sayeed Imran; Rubait Hasan; Pinki Akter; Md. Ekhlas Uddin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1572-1578

In the tropical and subtropical area, dengue virus is mostly found. To the determination of the occur-rence of dengue viral infection and hematological profile of dengue infected peoples in the Dhaka city. A sum of 255 samples of blood from both sex and different age groups were collected in this research. Dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) and complete blood count (CBC) test were performed for the study. During this study period, total 255 samples were tested. Among these, 67samples were diagnosed as positive. Seroprevalence of dengue was 26.30%. Out of 67 positive dengue patients, 41 (61.2 %) were male and 26 (38.8 %) were female. Dengue infection was observed more in 21 to 30years age group followed by above 40years and 16 to 20years but observed less in of 1st day to 5years followed by 11 -15years, then 6 -10years and 31 - 40years. It was seen that the >40years of age group had the maximum unit of cases having low platelet count followed by 21-30years and it was also seen that 21-30years of age group had the maximum range of cases having low WBC count followed by above 40years of age group. In our research, we showed thrombocytopenia (100000 - 150,000/μl) with leucopenia (White Blood Cells, WBC <5000/μl) in 8(26.6%) cases and thrombocytopenia (100000-150,000/μl) without leucopenia in 9 (24.3%) cases but thrombocytopenia (<100000/μl) with leucopenia (White Blood Cells (WBC) < 5000/μl) in 5(16.7%) cases and thrombocytopenia (<100000/μl) without leucopenia in 6 (16.2%) cases. Among 67 positive cases, we found that (26.6%) had DF and (16.7%) had DHF according to WHO classification. For validating more reliability, this research needs further work.

Knowledge of mothers towards their children below 5 years of age for oral rehydration in Al Rusafa health directorate- Baghdad 2019

Hassan Hadi Al Kazzaz M.B.Ch.B, PH.D, F.I.C.M.S (F.M)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1579-1585

Basic minimal information about the care of children in diarrhea and ORS use is important for early recovery. To plan an anti-diarrheal program, it’s important to know the knowledge, beliefs, practices of diarrhea understanding, and management including ORS; in the community [1]. the study to check out the Knowledge of mothers towards their children below 5 years of age for oral rehydration when attending primary health care centers in Baghdad. This study is a descriptive study with analytic purposes, where 166 mothers were interviewed when attending 5 primary health care centers in the al-Rusafa side of Baghdad city. They were divided into G1(116) cases where mothers of children presenting with cut gastroenteritis, while the remaining 50 children in G2 presented with cut disease other than gastroenteritis. The period of research and data collection was between April 2019 and August 2019 A questionnaire was developed by the researcher, fulfilled by the interviewer. Regarding the mother's ages of both groups, their ages were ranging between (15-65) years. 85%, 90% of both groups were from (15-20) years old respectively. Educational level revealed that most cases have not gone beyond secondary school (G198%, G2 100%). For the employment status (79.4) employed for G1 and (70%) for G2. The crowding index <1 forG1 = 17.2%, G2 = 6%. Regarding the mother’s knowledge of ORT, only ORS used in dehydration, vomiting, and diarrhea, the correct way in preparation of ORS, -and knowledge about signs of dehydration were significant. The previous practice by G1 and G2 was 38% and 82% respectively. Attitude and practice of Gl and G2 during the attack of diarrhea shows significant only in using over -the- counter medications. The high independence score of both groups of mothers Gl, G2 shows 8.6% and 14% respectfully. Most of the mothers in our study had moderate knowledge about oral rehydration salts and technique while the percentage that using ORS was few. Intensive media advertisement about the importance of ORS is required. A leading campaign by the -ministry of health among mothers of under-five children to stimulate them to use ORS for their children as long as diarrhea to lower child morbidity and mortality.

Fibro-epithelial Hyperplasia Mimicking Oral Squamous Papilloma in an 8-year-old child - A Rare Case Report

Dr Ellana Jermiah Joseph, BDS; Dr Razia Haidrus, BDS; Dr Anupama Nayak P, MDS; Dr. Sangeeta U Nayak, MDS; Dr. Srikant Natarajan, MDS; Dr. Arathi Rao, MDS; Dr. Deepa G Kamath, MDS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1586-1590

Oral mucosa is affected by various papillary lesions. Any oral lesion raises concern because of its clinical appearance. This case report describes the management of an 8-year-old girl with an exophytic papillary growth on the palatal aspect of 64. The lesion clinically resembled an oral squamous papilloma but did not show any signs of a virally infected lesion histopathologic ally or on immunohistochemistry analysis which was unique with this case.

Analysis of emerging technologies for the social inclusion of people with hearing disabilities: a review of the scientific literature from 2005 - 2020

Henry Melgarejo- Nagata; Michael Cabanillas- Carbonell

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1591-1604

Currently, hearing impairment is not alien to our reality. The limitations that these people present are reflected in the development of their communication skills, which prevents its development in the social, work and psychological sphere. There are various methods to help these people, the communication adaptations that aim to develop their social skills. One of the methods to achieve the social integration of these people is by applying ICT. For this reason, the objective of this systematic review of the scientific literature is to determine the criteria that should be taken for the development of an emerging technology for the social inclusion of people with hearing disabilities. For the preparation of this research, a compilation of 61 sources of information in Spanish and English, related to the subject, was made. The selected articles were obtained from the databases Scielo.org, Redalyc.org, Dialnet and IEEE Xplore.

Preparation of prerequisites programs for successful implementation of HACCP in local food products company

Mahmud Abdullah Jasim Alkhafaji

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1605-1624

The HACCP system is designed to identify the risks that may affect consumer's health, whether these risks are physical, chemical, or biological. The application of the HACCP system in Iraqi food companies is recent, since it started a few years ago, there are only a few number of food companies implement it. Due to mentioned reason the present research is trying to put a highlight on this very important topic related with consumer's health, especially at the present time after the outbreak of the Covid19 in most countries worldwide, including Iraq. The research is overcoming the difficulties in front of specialists in food safety and employees in local food production companies, and trying to understand how to implement HACCP system in effective way, and given excessive details to the preparation of prerequisites programs which must be carried out before implementing the HACCP system. Four questionnaires was established for this purpose, and directed to each of: managers of food companies, employees in food handling working in national food products companies, food inspectors, and to the consumers. Questionnaires results demonstrated that, only 20% of local food companies managers having knowledge about HACCP pre-requisites programs, and only 31.2% of employees working in the national food company sector have been participated in training about HACCP and pre-requisites programs, 75% of food inspectors working in the national authority of food control have been receiving training about HACCP and pre-requisites programs, and finally only 27% of consumers are seeking food products bearing quality and safety certificate while purchasing food. The research conduct that HACCP system and their pre-requisites programs require more attention from Iraqi food control authority, and it recommended to be obligated application by all local food products companies.

Study of skin expression of thrombomodulin in the Psoriatic Plaques

May mostafa Abo Al-kher MSc; Sawsan Khalifa Elsayed M.D; Safinaz Salah Eldin Sayed M.D; Sara Ahmed Galal M.D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1625-1637

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing, immune-mediated inflammatoryskin disease of unknown etiology. The role of thrombomodulin (TM) in different autoimmune inflammatory diseases was explored previously in some studies. Thus; the aim of this study was to assess TM expression in the affected skin of patients with psoriasis.
Methods: This prospective case-control study was carried out on 30 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 30 age and gender matched apparently normal subjects as a control group. Skin biopsies were taken for immunohistochemical evaluation of TM expression.
Results: There was a highly significant difference between the two studied groups regarding the expression of TM in the skin. Patients group had a higher expression of TM in both epidermis and dermis compared to controls with a highly statistically significant difference, P-value< 0.01.

COVID-19: Fear and anxiety among healthcare students in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

Sameer Shaikh; Syed Fareed Mohsin; Muhammad Atif Saleem Agwan; Saqib Ali; Ziyad Ahmad Alsuwaydani; Saleh Ahmad AlSuwaydani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1638-1647

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly discovered respiratory syndrome which has adversely affected millions of people around the world. The study aims to estimate the psychological impacts of COVID-19 in the form of fear and anxiety among the healthcare students of the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst health care students in Saudi Arabia. A non-probability convenience samplingapproach was adopted to collect data by mean of an online questionnaire on social media. The sample size was determined by using Epi info software; the minimum sample required for this study was 567. Likert scale with five points was used to measure healthcare students' fear and anxiety level. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23. The descriptive data were expressed as frequencies and percentages. Spearman correlation was used to determine the strength of the relationship between variables. Amongst 571 health care students, 359 were males, and 212 were females. Data revealed that 84 (15%) of students had a severe level of anxiety, 438 (77%) had a moderate level of anxiety and 49 (9%) of the students had mild level of anxiety. Correlation coefficient was found insignificant between gender, academic year and institute (=0.066, p=0.116), (=0.018, p=0.661) and (=0.034, p=0.423) respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on higher education because of the long-lasting pandemic situation. Our study's results illustrate the critical need to implement approaches and prevention measures to address healthcare students' mental health.

CO-RELATION BETWEEN ORAL HEALTH AWARENESS AND ORAL HYGIENE STATUS AMONG PARENTS AND THEIR CHILDREN IN NAGPUR CITY- A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED SURVEY

Dr. Niharika Gahlod; Dr. Arun Sajjanar; Dr. Milind Wasnik; Dr. Miranda George; Dr. Sneha Khekade; Dr. Durga Bhattad; Dr. Pratima Kolekar; Dr. Dishika Bhagwani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1648-1652

General health depends upon the good oral health. Health is now a days universal human need for the entire human population. General health cannot be attained without oral health. The mouth is generally regarded as the mirror of the body.1 Oral health education begins from home and family. Growing children need proper guidance for their healthy growth and development and maintain hygiene of their teeth. 2Oral health affects the general health, well-being, education and overall development of children and their families, and diminishes the quality of life. Maintaining the oral health since childhood is utmost important to be free from dental caries and gingival and periodontal diseases. Therefore lot of efforts have been made where various dental health information programs have been conducted in schools and other settings.

SARS-CoV2 multiple target inhibitors from Andrographis Paniculata: An in-silico report

Karthikeyan Swaminathan; Kavinkumar Nirmala Karunakaran; Jeevitha priya Manoharan; Subramanian Vidyalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1653-1685

Coronavirus Disease – 2019 (COVID–19) caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2 has plagued the world in pandemic for the past few months. Currently, many groups are investigating on a potent candidate for treating this highly infectious disease. Phytocompounds from many medicinal plants are reported to possess anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study emphasizes on evaluating the inhibition efficacy of the phytocompounds from Andrographis paniculata against 10 structural and non-structural SARS-CoV2 proteins by virtual screening. Molecular docking, binding interactions, ADME and toxicity profiling of the selected fifty one phytocompounds were analysed and compared against 10 well studied repurposed drugs. The best docked complexes were subjected to MD simulation for 50 nanoseconds and the compound stigmasterol was observed to be outperforming in the simulation studies. We report that A.paniculata constitutes 65.78% druggable phytocompounds against SARS‐CoV2. We found that the two phytosterols, stigmasterol and stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol act as potential lead molecules against multiple target proteins of SARS–CoV2. Based on the literature evidence on Andrographis paniculata and our detailed analysis, this plant and its phytocompounds could be repurposed as a potential anti-COVID agent.

EFFECT OF BRAIN GYM EXERCISES ON POSTURAL CONTROL IN STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIREMET

Nesma elsayed Mohamed barakat; Amira Mohamed eltohamy; Gehan Hassan elmeniawy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1686-1706

Hearing impaired children, showed deficits in both the movement and the balance on the postural control. this research was conducted for the objective of revealing the impact of exercising the brain gym on the postural control, among the students with hearing impairment,
Methods. A single before and after without control group experimental design, was performed. it involved 26 students with bilateral hearing impairment (deaf and dumb) their age ranged from 7 to 10 years. male & female. they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One experimental group, participated in the intervention in which static and dynamic balance were measured by using BOTs. The students were subject to train the exercises for 1 hour per day – 3 times a week on the activities of the brain gym . that was run for 12 weeks, and pre & post intervention values were, measured. Results . there was a significant increase in the point score, scale score after intervention rather than the before treatment of the study’s group, with the probability of ,<0,001). There was no great differences regarding the point score, among girls & boys with the probability of p>0,05)- while there was no great increase in the scale score among males for the before intervention rather than among the females as the probability was >0,05)- while there was a great increase in the scale score among the 7,1-8,8 months of age group before treatment. compared with that of 8,9-10,8 months age group. with the probability =0,0008- and no significant differences post treatment with the probability of p>0,05).
Conclusions . the study showed: practicing the exercises of the brain gym was useful for the postural control among the students injured by the hearing impairments.

A Case Study Of Fbs, Ppbs, Hba1c For Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Chandra Sekhar A., Sesha Pavani G., Madhav P.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1707-1711

In the development of intravascular thrombosis, aggregation of Platelets, adhesion of platelets play themain role in the development of micro vascular and macro vascular complications with alterations in the morphology of the platelets, function. On analyzing the glycemic control, it was found that the mean HbA1C was very high (10.43%, 95% CI 10.06 to 10.81), which indicates that diabetes was poorly controlled. The lowest recorded HbA1C was 10.15% and the highest recorded value was 15.70%. V Mohan et al (2013)(62) published the HbA1C study, which assessed the glycemic status among urban South Indian population. Data from 20,554 patients showed that the mean HbA1c was 9.2%, and diabetes control was worse in those with longer duration of diabetes (9.9 +/- 5.5 years). Other authors from the western countries, including Demirtas L et al (2015) (13)in their study on 307 diabetic subjects  reported a mean  HbA1C of  8.6  with an IQR of 6.9-10.4 which was much lower. The stark differences in HbA1c may be attributed to the long duration of diabetes, poor compliance of patients to treatment and follow up and associated conditions of healthcare in the rural Indian setting.

SIMULATION APPROACH TO DESIGN HIGH SENSITIVE NEMS BASED SENSOR FOR MOLECULAR BIOSENSING APPLICATIONS

Miranji Katta; Sandanalakshmi R; P. Srinivasulu; M Vamsi Krishna Allu; K. Lavanya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1730-1738

This research article utilizes the finite element method of analysis to achieve
the finest throughput of piezoresistive nano cantilever sensor by minimizing the
dimensions of both physical piezoresistor and cantilever. The
750nmx300nmx15nm-sized cantilever is incorporated with 5nm substantial Si as
piezoresistor is used for revision. The proposed cantilever output performance has
been calculated based onsurface stress sensitivity and displacement. A
maximumresultant displacement value of about 12nm for the load of 100pN has
been obtained . The Performance comparison between Polysilicon and SiO2
cantilever has been found out by applied identical load and measured displacement.
Similarly the sensitivity of the cantilever sensor by parametric sweep on thickness is
applied for both cantilever and piezoresistor. The parametric sweep results shows
that the sensitivity of the cantilever is highest when the thickness of both cantilever
and piezoresistoris at the smallest. Poly silicon and SiO2 based cantilevers with the
built-in longitudinal cut at the bottom create stress concentration regions which will
greatly improved sensitivity as high as 13.89% and 31.81% in comparison with
other Non-SCR cantilevers for the proposed design.

Performance Analysis of Covid-19 Epidemiology Surveillance at the Class 1 Port Health Office Batam in the Batam Center International Ferry Port Work Area

Dewi Agustina; Huwaina Afidah; Nur fadhilah Hasanah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1739-1746

COVID-19 is infectious by a coronavirus. It causes that are unknown
before the outbreak in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 is now a pandemic occurring
in many countries around the world.The study aimed to analyze the performance
of COVID-19 Epidemiological Surveillance in Class I Port Health Office Batam,
Batam Center International Ferry Port Work Area. The study used a qualitative
descriptive approach using triangulation methods (observation, interviews, and
documentation). The results found that several indicators we re still lacking, such
as lack ofmanpower and facilities. Surveillance officers who were still not good
enough, in te rms of numbers, resulting in 1 staff having to take holidays on
weekdays. Meanwhile, in terms of facilities, some facilities were damaged,
namely thermal scanne rs, for process and output activities that we re following the
specified indicators. This study concludes that the epidemiological surveillance
activities in Port Health Office I Batam, Batam Center Inte rnational Fe rry Port
Work Area in-process and output have been going well and are by the input,
even though there is a shortage of input. It is recommended that the class I Port
Health Office Batam add more personnel, especially quarantine officers,
andorganizeand replace damaged thermal scanners so that surveillance activities,
especially on input, are better.

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF LABORATORY FABRICATED HAWLEY’S AND ESSIX RETAINERS, WITH AND WITHOUT DISINFECTION AFTER RECEIVING FROM THE DENTAL LABORATORY- AN IN VITRO STUDY.

Dr. Rashmijawalekar; Dr.Harish Ataram; Dr.Aman Khan.; Dr. Shantanukalokhe.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1747-1757

Orthodontic treatment plan is incomplete without planning the retention.Usually
post treatment, the teeth tend to move to their earlier position. To prevent the relapse, use of
retainers after orthodontic treatment becomes mandatory. Removable retentive devices facilitate
ease in maintaining good oral hygiene during the treatment1.The most commonly used
removable retainers are theHawleys and Essix retainers. The retainers permit reorganization of
the underlying supportive structures after completion of orthodontic treatment2. They are mostly
made up of either thermoplastic polymer or polymethylmethacrylate acrylic base.3.The selection
of retainers from wide range of retainers available, depends on choice of aesthetic of the patient
and other parameters. Presentlyvacuum formed retainers (VFR) are more commonly used.
Removable orthodontic devices provide a favourable environment for accumulation of microorganisms
and may result in caries, Periodontal diseases and other illnesses.4-7 Most common
bacteria of oral cavity are Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Many studies have shown
high level of bacterial accumulation on removable orthodontic appliance

CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR INCREASED PRODUCTION OF L-ASPARAGINASE FROM MARINE FUNGI

VENKATA SIVA LAKSHMI TEEGE , KASTURI KONDAPALLI

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1758-1769

Present  study  details  the  isolation  and  screening  of  fungi  from  marine  sediments  for  the  selection  of  a  high  potential  L-Asparaginase  producing  strain.  The  study  includes  characterization  and  identification  by  combination  approach  and  optimization  of  the  process  parameters  for  maximization  of  L-Asparaginase  production  by  the  potential  strain.  Four  fungal  strains  from  twenty  three  isolates  were  isolated  from  different  places  of  marine  soils  of  adavuladeevi  which  show  positive  for  L-Asparaginase  production  by  producing  characteristic  pink  coloration  around  the  colony.  Among  isolated  fungi  tested  by  plate  assay  and  antibacterial  studies,  the  isolate  αAW1-  9  from  the  marine  sediment  exhibited  the  highest  zone  of  diameter  (2.5cm)  and  maximum  antibacterial  activity  against  Vibrio  cholera  (22mm)  were  considered  as  the  potent  strain  and  were  used  for  further  studies.  Based  on  it’s  morphological  and  microscopy  characteristics  as  well  as  18S  rRNA  sequence  analysis,  the  isolate  designated  as  αAW1-  9  were  identified  as  novel  Fusarium  sporotrichioides  strain  MT232628.  Findings  made  work  hold  immense  importance  for  maximum  production  of  L-Asparaginase  enzyme  after  optimization  of  physico  chemical  parameters  such  as  optimum  incubation  period  for  maximum  biomass  and  L-Asparaginase  production  of  αAW1-  9  were  120h  and  48h    (1.5g/100ml  and  9.87/IU),  temperature  at  48°C  (2.23g/100ml  and  39.33/IU),  pH  7.0  (2.14mg/100ml  and  47.1/IU),  lactose  (1.92g/100ml  and  52.35/IU),  yeast  extract  (2.61mg/100ml  and  97.75/IU)  were  considered  to  be  the  ideal  conditions. Hence  this  study  opens   a  new  avenue  for  the  researchers  and  pharmaceutics  to  pay  a wider  attention  to the  enzyme  production  from  marine  fungi.

SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF NARINGENIN WITH CONVENTIONAL ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

Ameesha Tomar; Shobha Broor; Swati Kaushik; Tanisha Bharara; D. S. Arya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1770-1784

Overcoming resistance to Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is attainable by inhibition of penicillin-binding protein (PBP-2a). Nowadays, natural products are used to enhance the therapeutic potential of drugs. Naringenin, a bioactive flavonoid exhibits potential antibacterial activity. Hence, present study demonstrates it’s potential alone and in combination with β-lactam antibiotics against MRSA.
Individual Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Naringenin and selected antibiotics was determined by agar dilution method in 20 clinical isolates. The anti-bacterial potential of naringenin in combination with the β-lactam drugs was evaluated using checkerboard method and FIC-index was calculated. Effect of naringenin on the expression of PBP-2a was studied using immunoblotting. MIC of naringenin against MRSA was 125μg/ml. On combination of naringenin with oxacillin and cloxacillin, 12 strains showed synergistic effect. All the strains showed indifference effect when naringenin was treated with amoxycillin. Hence, it was found that the susceptibility of MRSA positive strains was augmented in the presence of naringenin. Combination of different drugs with naringenin showed suppression of PBP-2a protein. It is found that combination of naringenin and β-lactam antibiotics intensified the antibacterial property of these drugs. The present study also demonstrates that the mechanism of action of naringenin is dependent on the inhibition of PBP-2a.

ANALYSIS OF THE SELECTION OF THE COVERING MATERIAL FOR THE TREATMENT OF THERMAL BURN OF THE SKIN

Baykulov Azim; Abdullayev Davlat; Narzikulov Rustam; Oripov Rustam; Yermanov Rustam; Mamirov Vasliddin; Islamov Nurali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1785-1808

Background: Despite the vast experience of treating burns in surgery, a large number of victims become disabled; therefore they represent a serious medical and social problem.
Methods: The study included 120 white outbred male rats, which were simulated an experimental 3-degree topical burn and were divided into 4 groups according to the type of treatment substance. The burn was simulated by immersing the depilated skin area in boiling water. Studies of wound healing were carried out in three series, respectively, on the third, seventh and tenth days.
Results: We found that the local application of chitosan derivatives at an early stage leads to healing of the wound defect in rats in our experimental model. This was associated with a decrease in endogenous intoxication, lipoperoxidation, and internucleosomal degradation compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Thermal damage is accompanied by increased internucleosomal skin degradation. Compared with levomecol, chitosan derivatives more effectively reduce the degree of internucleosomal degradation, especially on the 10th day of the experiment.

The ability of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis algal extract on preventing harmful effects of H2O2 on human fibroblast cells in vitro

Quan Minh To; Dieu Quang Tran; Tuyet Thi Vy Le; Ha Le Bao Tran; Long Thanh Le

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1809-1819

This study aimed to determine the ability of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis algal extract (AE) on preventing adverse effects of H2O2 on human skin fibroblast cells. A Haematococcus pluvialis strain obtained from Vietnam was used as a source of astaxanthin. hF cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with AE 0, 10, 25, 50 μg/ml for 7 days. WST-1 assay results showed that AE 10-50 μg/ml was not poisonous and didn’t have any negative effects on cell proliferation. hF cells were pre-treated with AE (0, 10, 25, 50 μg/ml) for 24 hours prior to H2O2 treatment (200 μM, 120 minutes). The results showed that AE protected hF cells: reduction of G0/G1 phase cells in cell populations (16.08 – 21.52%), senescence-associated β-galactosidase – positive cells (28.9 – 40.8%), and maintenance of cell proliferation, nuclear area. AE 10 μg/ml is the optimal concentration in this study. In conclusion, AE has been shown to have the ability to protect fibroblasts from the adverse effects of H2O2.

International Arbitration: A Meta-Analysis of Five Decade Research

Dr. Aaliyah Siddiqui; Dr. Mujahid Siddiqui

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1820-1832

Introduction - Surging trade relations, resulting in trade and commercial disputes are a matter of great concern in international trade between countries. It is therefore important to have a robust dispute resolution mechanism for such international commercial disputes. An analysis of studies undertaken in the last five decades in this vital area of international trade is presented in this study.
Purpose - Academic contribution through research is essential for the development of business and commerce. An outline of research trend in a Business laws is useful in analysing the nature and extent of studies performed. The current study is an effort to understand the trends of research linked with international arbitration over the last five decades, with an object of benefitting the business and commerce as well as for academicians.

The impact of galvanic vestibular stimulation on elderly balance

Faten Mohamed Hassan; Akram Abd- Elaziz; Hany Ezzat Obaya; Shawky A. Fouad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1833-1846

Background: Imbalance still a common and fatal problem among the elderly population, increasing morbidity and mortality rate in society among the elderly, This study assessed the efficacy of galvanic vestibular stimulation on balance in the elderly.
Subjects and methods: Forty elderly patients of both sexes (23male and 17female) their age ranged from 60 to 70 years old were selected from the outpatient clinic of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. The forty patients were divided into two groups; each group consisted of twenty patients. Group (A) performed a program of balance exercises in addition to galvanic vestibular stimulation 3times/week and group (B) control group performed a program of traditional balance exercises. The balance was assessed at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks of treatment.
Results: Showed that there are no significant differences (P>0.05) for Biodex scores of both groups as the post- treatment mean values ± SD of the biodex scores for both groups (A and B) were (3.70±1.69 and 4.19±1.70), respectively and no significant differences for functional reaching test scores (P<0.05) as the post- treatment mean values ± SD of functional reaching test scores for both groups (A and B) were (21.61±2.44 and20.26±2.99), respectively.
Conclusion: it was found that galvanic vestibular stimulation was not considered an effective intervention in improving balance in elderly > 60 years.

Study on Importance of Anaemia as a Risk Factor for Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Shantha Sruthi. M; Mary Thomas; Vaishnavi Ravi; Thupalli Lalithamrutha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1855-1861

BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing medical issue all over the world with Diabetic retinopathy (DR) being the leading cause of acquired yet potentially avoidable blindness. Anaemia can be an individual risk factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease and chronic renal disease along with DR.
AIM
The aim of our study is to prove that anaemia is a risk factor for DR in patients with type 2 diabetes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This Hospital based cohort study includes 240 patients of both the genders (130 males and 110 females) with type 2 DM having DR. Blood investigations including haemoglobin levels by colorimetric method, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine were also assessed. SPSS version17 was used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS
The mean age of enrolled patients was 56.68+10 years. Of the 240 patients that were included in the study, 92 (38.3%) had diabetes of <5 years, 124 (51.7%) had diabetes of 5-10 years and 24 (10%) had diabetes of >10 years. Of the 480 eyes of 240 patients, 188 (39.1%) had mild NPDR (Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy), 140 (29.2%) moderate NPDR, 140 (29.2%) severe NPDR and 12 (2.5%) had PDR (Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy). Out of 130males, 21 (16.2%) had haemoglobin level <13g/dl. Out of 110 females, 76 (69%) had haemoglobin level <12g/dl.

Assessment of association between glycemic status and Parkinson disease

Gary Batra; Sourav Bansal; Jugraj Singh; Arshdeep Singh Samra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1862-1866

Background: Parkinson disease (PD) is also a major chronic disease, and its clinical significance is increasing worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess association between glycemic status and clinical stage of PD.
Materials & Methods: 89 patients of Parkinson disease (PD) of both genders were included. Sleep quality was assessed using Parkinson’s disease sleep scale (PDSS). Presence of depression was assessed using Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scale. Presence of motor and autonomic symptoms were recorded.
Results: out of 89, males were 49 and females were 40. Autonomic dysfunction was constipation in 42, urinary symptoms in 34, sexual dysfunction in 28 and postural giddiness in 53 patients. Non- motor symptoms was sleep disorder in 23, depression in 38, pain in 21, olfactory dysfunction in 45 and cognitive dysfunction in 61. Glycated hemoglobin <5.7% was seen in 18, 5.7- 6.4 % in 23 and >6.5% in 48. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Poor glycemic control was found in most of patients with PD.

ASSOCIATION OF DUAL ENDOCRINOPATHY WITH SEVERITY OF PREECLAMPSIA - A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

Sudhaa Sharma; Natasha Gupta; Sunita Jamwal; Atul Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1867-1877

Introduction: Hypertensive disorders complicate 5-10 percent of all pregnancies and contributes greatly to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women with gestational diabetes are at increased risk of preeclampsia and worsens the fetal prognosis. Thyroid hormones seem to be important in placentation and regulation of early pregnancy, partly explaining the association between hypothyroidism and preeclampsia. Incidence of both hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes was found significantly higher in women with Preeclampsia Induced Hypertension. There are few studies worldwide to establish the association between Preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association of dual endocrinopathy in pregnancy with severity of preeclampsia. Study Design: Prospective Observational Cross-sectional Study Material and Methods: 400 patients who met inclusion criteria and consented for the study were recruited in the study from November 2015 to October 2016 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , SMGS Hospital, Govt Med College Jammu. All patients underwent relevant blood and urine tests. They were grouped into 2 groups – mild and severe preeclampsia. The association of two groups with dual endocrinopathy (hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes mellitus) was studied. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test was employed to determine association of dual endocrinopathy with severity of preeclampsia. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, majority of patients i.e. 70.50% (282 out of 400) were in the mild preeclampsia group and only 29.50% (118 out of 400) were in the severe preeclampsia group. According to present study, 14.4 % of severe preeclampsia patients had dual endocrinopathy while only 7.8 % of mild preeclampsia patients had dual endocrinopathy. This association was calculated using Chi-Square Test and was statistically significant (P value = 0.042).

SITE SELECTION FOR HEALTH LAND USE THROUGH GIS CASE STUDY SHIRVAN,IRAN

Mohammad Reza zandmoghadam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1878-1891

According to  that one of the essential tasks and important in  urban and regional planners, land allocation to different land uses with respect to the role and function of the city, the city's economy as well as a member of a mutual effect on each other. Issue of optimal allocation of treatment uses  with considering parameters and  the factors affecting in this study are taken into consideration.
According to investigations on the present situation, there are three clinics in the city of Shirvan that  is looks not suitable  their distribution and location view . So for future planning and development of urban landscape assessment base and also suggest suitable locations for the clinics is an essential issue.This study seeks to provide a suitable model for the optimal location of clinics is the Shirvan city. The research method is descriptive - analytic study. In the first Stage have been deal with  identify and analyze the factors affecting the location, status and pay, then using software Arc GIS and the process of data collection, preparation layers, classification and value investing layers and weight and overlapping layers of information we  deal with to prioritize land of Shirvan city clinics. required information is obtained through observation, field research, comprehensive plans and detailed study of the city of Shirvan.The city's land into four categories: very good, good, poor, very poor, we conclude that the segmentation is presented in the form of maps., After matching the map with the fact were detected \ ground good class, a very good health centers.

Impact of Armed Conflict on Mental Health, Educational Access and Reduction among Children in Kashmir

Dr. Zaffar Ahmad Nadaf; Prof. NighatBasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1892-1907

Children in conflict countries are exposed to difficulties with an austere point of view for
their future. People residing in conflict-affected areas are denied their right to education,
admittance to aptitudes and information, and the path to a superior life for themselves and
their country. The present investigation is descriptive. In the current examination, the
investigator studied recent related literature and secondary data extensively like books, ebooks,
journals, editorials, and other reliable sources, which put forwarda more prominent
understanding of all possible and practical aspects of the research problem at hand.The
exploration reveals that conflict has taken a heavy toll on children and their right to
education concerning mental and physical health, school attendance, school closure, and
schooling capacity reduction. In addition to that, appalling levels of massacring,
mutilating, recruitment and denial of humanitarian access, committing rape and other
forms of sexual violence, engaging in attacks on schools; and abducting children in armed
conflict situations came under the domain of violations against children

Efficacy of Two Commercially Available Desensitizing Agents in Reducing Sensitivity of Teeth Prepared For Fixed Dental Prosthesis

Dr. Aparna Deo; Dr Umesh Palekar; Dr. Deepak M. Vikhe.; Dr Veena Saraf; Dr Sneha Ailsinghani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1908-1918

The ambit of fixed prosthodontic treatment ranges from restoration of a single tooth with cast
crown to replacement of one or more missing teeth with fixed dental prosthesis or an implant
supported prosthesis[1] Fixed prosthodontic treatment also includes restoration of entire
dentition. Fractured vital tooth may require a full coverage crown. Fixed prosthodontic
treatment enriches patient comfort and enhances masticatory ability and esthetics. It helps to
maintain the health and integrity of dental arches

A Study on the Problems of Online Teaching- Learning Classroom During Covid-19

Pranjal Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1919-1929

In this era of science and technology human beings made a tremendous progress
which we have never think of in the earlier days. Now we can interact with anyone without
much facing difficulty by thinking about our distances. But in 2020 we human beings came
into contact with a corona virus which creates sufferings in our life. It made a huge impact in
all areas of human life and education sector is one of such area. Due to covid-19 outbreak we
shifted our teaching-learning process from offline mode of teaching-learning to online mode
of teaching-learning. In this shift we have came across with different problems which we face
in the online teaching-learning classroom. So in this paper the researcher discussed in a detail
manner about an empirical study which was conducted to study the problems which are faced
in the online teaching- learning classroom.

Air pollution linked to the raised COVID-19 death risk

Raghad Abdulsalam Khaleel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1930-1945

In December 2019, several cases of “unknown viral pneumonia” have been reported which were initially linked to the exposure at the Huanan Seafood Market, Wuhan, China (1). In January 2020, a novel coronavirus was detected (Fig. 1), capable of infecting humans and termed COVID-19(2). By the 11th of March 2020, therewere 80,955 confirmed cases inside China and 37,367 with COVID-19 globally (3). Common symptoms of COVID-19 include dry cough, fever and fatigue. The current official incubation period of COVID-19 is between 2 and 14 days.

Autophagy as a molecular target for cancer treatment

Raghad Abdulsalam Khaleel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1946-1962

Autophagy is a progressive conserved catabolic mechanism, by which eukaryotic cells recycle or degrades internal constituents through the membrane-trafficking pathway. Thus, autophagy provides the cells with a sustainable source of biomolecules and energy for the maintenance of homeostasis under stressful conditions such as tumor microenvironment.It is generally believed that modulating autophagic activity, through targeting specific regulatory actors in the core autophagy machinery, may impact disease processes. Both autophagy upregulation and down regulation have been found in cancers, suggesting its dual oncogenic and tumor suppressor properties during malignant transformation. Identification of the key autophagy targets is essential for the development of new therapeutic agents. In this review the two-faced role of autophagy in cancer as a tumor suppressor or as a pro-oncogenic mechanism discussed and the shared regulatory pathways that play a role in autophagy and malignant transformationillustrated. Finally, anti-cancer therapeutic agents used as either inhibitors or inducers of autophagy have been discussed.

Role of Autophagy in Psoriasis

Raghad Abdulsalam Khaleel; Munaf.H. Zalzala; Yasir W. Rashid

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1963-1978

Autophagy is a complicated cellular mechanism that maintains cellular and tissue homeostasis and integrity via degradation of senescent, defective subcellular organelles, infectious agents, and misfolded proteins. Accumulating evidence has shown that autophagy is involved in numerous immune processes, such as removal of intracellular bacteria, cytokine production, auto antigen presentation, and survival of lymphocytes, indicating an apparent and important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Current studies indicate that autophagy is important for the regulation of inflammation through disruption of multiple steps of inflammasome activation, therefore preventing inflammation.
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease that affects approximately 2% of the population worldwide. Importantly, studies have shown that constitutive granular layer autophagy is deregulated in psoriasis patients. Moreover, autophagy could down regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production, exert a protective role in inflammatory diseases, and clear cellular materials such as damaged mitochondria to maintain cellular homeostasis; all these effects play a supporting role in the protection against inflammation associated skin diseases. In psoriasis, autophagy may reduce inflammation and proliferation of keratinocytes and may also promote bacterial clearance.hemistepsin A, lupiwighteone may be promising therapeutic targets in psoriasis treatment

The association between neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, vitamin (D) deficiency and development of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients

Dr. Mohamed Omar Abdel Aziz; Prof. Dr. Amr Mahmoud Abdel Wahab; Prof. Dr. Rawhya R Elshereef; Dr. Hend Mohammed MonessAly; Dr. ReemMamdouh Abdel Salam Ali; Dr. Wael M Abdel- Ghany; Dr. Mahmoud Ragab Mohamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1979-1991

Background/Aims:Some studies had suggested that neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) levels grow with
the increase of nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Recently, several studies found that vitamin (D)
deficiency can cause the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complication including neuropathy.The
aim of our study is to evaluate the association betweenNLR, vitamin (D) deficiency and development of
peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients.
Methods: In cross sectional study we selected a total of 60 T2DM patients.All patients underwent nerve
conduction study (NCS). Then we divided them according to the results into two groups, 45 patients with
DPN and 15 patients without DPN as a control group.DPN group wassubdivided according to NCS
results into three groups,11 patients with mononeuropathy,4 patients with mononeuropathy multiplex
and30 patients with polyneuropathy. We evaluated the effect of DPN in these patients as regarded NCS
results on HbA1c levels, NLR and vitamin (D) levels.

Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction in Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Embeddedness

KOK YEOW CHONG; DAISY MUI HUNG KEE

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1992-2008

Job embeddedness is a new construct in the Royal Malaysia Police (RMP). This
paper aims to investigate the association between organizational commitment (OC)
and job satisfaction (JS) among police officers in Royal Malaysia Police (RMP)
through the mediating role of job embeddedness (JE). This study used the analysis
concept from the survey. The data was collected from 309 traffic police officers
currently working in Kuala Lumpur. The results show that JE mediates the
relationship between OC and JS. Hence, JE is a crucial factor that is needed to
assist OC and JS in improving police officers' performance.

Predictive study of the end of the Covid-19 pandemic in Morocco by regression, and ARIMA modeling (p, d, q)

Majdouline Larif; Adnane Aouidate; Mohammed Bouachrine; Tahar Lakhlifi; Abdelmajid Soulaymani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2009-2018

Objective and methods: The objective of our study is to provide forecasts on the key data of the
epidemiological situation in Morocco in order to predict the number of beds in hospitals.The data sources
used in this study are official and they were daily collected updated with information from the Moroccan
Ministry of Health at 6:00 p.m. before the month of Ramadan and 4:00 p.m. for this month.
The autoregressive integrated moving average ARIMA was applied to real-time for the two month
Predictions on the Moroccan population. ARIMA models were able to estimate the number of positive cases
confirmed based on two criteria. The first criterion is to determine the reliability of the statistics and the
second one is to measure the accuracy of forecasting ability of the model equation. The sparse model with
the lowest order of the (AR) or (MA) and (RMSE) values of the forecasts for each dataset was considered the
best.
Result and Conclusion: The ARIMA (1,0,0), ARIMA (9,0,0) and ARIMA (10,0,1) models were deemed to be
the best suited to provide the best possible model to predict the number of positive cases for two months of
prediction of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).
However, the ARIMA model (10,0,1) predicts the best model with an expected end of home confinement at
the end of June 2020 with an epidemiological peak of 5000 accumulated cases caused by the coronavirus
disease 2019 (Covid-19) on 13/05/2029.The models were able to predict the number of confirmed cases of the
coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) within a range of two months in Morocco. Thus, it can be a useful tool
for health officials to improve management of the fight against the pandemic and to warn in advance of the
spread of the pandemic.

Internal control, a lever for good governance of public companies: Case of morocco

ASTTTENE dounya; SrourMbarek .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2019-2034

Control in a broad sense is often defined as a tool for good governance within the company,
particularly that belonging to the public sphere, where the concept of control is often
synonymous with a structural or even regulatory obligation to be observed, particularly at the
level of the public structure.The purpose of this article is to highlight, the main attributes
defining the mode of control within public structures, particularly in the Moroccan context.
Also, it is proposed to examine the positioning of internal control at the level of the national
and international context and its evolution within the public entity in Morocco.
Accordingly, a first section is devoted to a clarification of the concept of governance and a
lever value creation. At the second, the context related to internal control at the level of public
organizations in Morocco is presented. Then, a close look is taken at the concept of Control as
an elementary axis of enlightened and performance-oriented governance. On another level,
with regard to the public structure in Morocco, a presentation of the evolution of the concept
is exposed, complemented in the last part by a review of the regulatory and organizational
framework governing the management of the public portfolio

Efficiency of information technologies for measure the level Burnout Syndrome, a systematic review

Michael Cabanillas- Carbonell; Allison De la Cruz- Velasquez

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2035-2046

Burnout Syndrome or burn syndrome is a disease caused by exhaustion or work
overload, this has a high impact due to the consequences occurring in different
situations. This document presents a systematic review of the literature on the
impact of information technologies to measure the level of burnout syndrome.
We reviewed 65 articles from the period 2015-2020 on Burnout syndrome with
indicators like causes, consequences and treatments from the databases IEEE
Xplore, Sciencedirect, SpringerLink and Proquest

Experimental and numerical simulation to predict the Effect of strain rate on tensile response of basalt epoxy woven composite

J. Chafiq; I. Ouchte; M. Ait EL Fqih

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2047-2053

The use of sustainable, natural fiber as reinforcement for fabrication of lightweight and low cost composites is
increasingly popular in the engineering fields and it is very important to characterize their mechanical properties unde r different conditions such as varying loading speed. In this present work, the effects of strain rate on the tensile properties of basal t fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) were investigated. These composites were fabricated hand layup with 12 layer of Basal t fiber Woven Fabric Twill with the ratio of weights of fiber is 50%. Tensile tests of BFRP specimens were conducted at two strain rates 0.1mm/s and 1mm/s using a servo-hydraulic testing system. The tensile strength and elongation increased with increasing strain rate. Moreover, tensile modulus was independent of varying of strain rate. The experiment tensile results and the finite element an alysis outcomes for BFRP agree with each other, which validates the numerical results .

Mobile application to optimize the transfer of knowledge and technology for the economic reactivation of small companies affected by covid-19

Michael Cabanillas- Carbonell; Sheyla Angulo- Angulo; Frank Cochachin- Quito

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2054-2063

Due to the great demand that exists today in interconnecting businesses with
their customers, after the crisis generated by the pandemic, it is necessary to
adopt new measures that allow economic reactivation. Knowledge transfer is an
important issue; Peru must face the unproductive situation with tools that enable
people to make their small and medium-sized companies and/or businesses
profitable, and implement ICT provide innovation and boost development, for
this reason the objective of this article is to develop a prototype that helps
companies to be trained on how to act in this situation, helping them to become
economically

A New Onset Recurrent Myositis Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation in Adult Male Patient : A Case Report

Desti Priani; Yunita Mansyur; BatariTodja Umar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2064-2069

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) is a benign, non-infective clinical syndrome
characterized by inflammation of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic disorders. Orbital
myositis is one classification of IOI and rare in adult male patients. In this article, we report a 41-yearsold
male who presented to the eye clinic with swollen, redness, pain, chemosis, and squints on his left
eye 2 weeks ago. He had a history of recurrent swollen on his left eyelid and self-treated with
methylprednisolone. Visual acuity on right and left eye were 20/25 and 20/30, respectively. The
intraocular pressure on the right and left eyes were 18 mmHg and 24 mmHg, respectively. No
abnormality in the fundus examination. There was a restriction on the left eye movement to all gaze,
and the eye was fixed to the superior temporal direction. Head MRI-scan showed hypertrophy of the
lateral and medial rectus muscles on the left eye without any other abnormality in the intracranial
cavity. The laboratory examination showed leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, normal thyroid
function, low C-Reactive Protein level, and a negative result for the antinuclear antibody test and antids-
DNA test. The patient was diagnosed with myositis of idiopathic orbital inflammation and was
treated with a high dose of methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg BW/day. Two weeks later, the patient had
improvement in his eye movement and the swollen was resolved. The treatment is still ongoing. Finally,
we can conclude that comprehensive evaluation and treatment with high-dose corticosteroid results in a
better outcome in an adult male patient with myositis IOI.

APPLICATION TO MEDICAL SCIENCE USING G-METRIC SPACES

Radha, Balbir Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2070-2083

In this paper, we have extended the concept of contraction by introducing D-
Contraction de ned on a family of = of bounded function . Also, a new notion of
xed function has been extended G-metric space. Some xed theorems with illustrate
examples have also been given to verify the e ectiveness of our result. In 2019, Vishal
et. al [3] presented some xed function theorems using the notion of xed function
and D-Contraction in complete metric space. Following this concept, a sequence is
constructed in G-metric space with three di erent dose function which converges to
a xed function. An application based on the best approximation of treatment plan
for tumor patients by splitting DDC matrix into three components with three dose
functions.

EFFECT OF LOW LEVEL LASER ON ABDOMINAL OBESITY IN WOMEN WITH LUMBER DISC PROLAPSE: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Haytham GamalEldin; Samy A. Nasef; Ghada Shaban; Ashraf Elaggan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2084-2095

Background:Obesity is an international health crisis. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a novel, non-invasive procedure for lysing excess fat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect to LLLT on reducing the abdominal obesity in women with lumbar disc prolapse.
Material and methods:Forty women were distributed randomly into two equal groups, group A received an energy restricted diet regime (daily kilocalorie intake restricted to 1200 Kcal/day) and treated by Low Level LASER GaAlAs with wavelength of 680nm and Power 40mw for 20 minutes/ session, two sessions/ week for 8weeks. Group B received the same diet regime for 8 weeks but without application of LASER. Weight, pain score, body mass index, waist circumference and abdominal obesitywere measured at baseline then after 8 weeks.
Results:In both groups there was a significant reduction of weight and body mass indexpost-treatment with P>0.05. Regardingabdominal obesity, waist circumference and pain score percentageresults, there was statistically significant difference in favor ofgroup A when compared with group Bwith P<0.05.
Conclusion:A combined treatment of LLLT and diet may offer a safe and effective treatment modality for obese patients with lumbar disc prolapse.

Prediction and Short-Term Effects of Slow Flow and No Reflow Post Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

AhmedOsama Mohamed El Hefnawi; Radwa Muhammad Abdullah; ame r Mohamed Mostafa; Laila Mohamad El Maghawary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2096-2106

Background:In a large number of primary percutaneous coronary intervention patients,
angiographic non-reflow and slow flow phenomena are observed in recent developments in
interventional equipment and techniques (PCI). In ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial
Infarction (STEMI), we have investigated clinical, electrocardiographic preoperative
findings that could predict a slow flow / no-reflow in patients treated with PCI, as well as
predictor and effect of slow flux / no-reflow during hospital stays and short-term results.
Aim:Identifying the pre-procedure, clinical, electrocardiographic findings that may predict a
slow flow/no-reflow in PCI-treated STEMI patients and identifying adverse clinical event
predictors while in the hospital and the short-term in a slow flow/no-reflow population.
Patients and Methods:The study included 72 patients divided into 2 groups, slow-flow / nonreflow
group I and normal-flow group II. All were monitored for three months after PCI.

Thrombus Occurrence in Patients with Non-STElevation Myocardial Infarctionand Associated Risk factors

Mahmoud Abd El Hakim Mostafa; Ragab Abd-Elsalam Mahfouz; Abd-Elsalam Al-Sayed Hussein; Waleed Salem Mohamed El-Awady

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2107-2115

Background:Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment
elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
(NSTEMI), and unstable angina. ACS carries significant morbidity and mortality and prompt
diagnosis.Thrombus encountered in the setting of acute coronary syndromes has been
correlated with acute complications during the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) such
as no-reflow, acute coronary occlusion, and long-term complicationsthat occurs later such as
stent thrombus.
Aim:To identify the electrocardiographic changes and the possible complications associated
with thrombus formation in patients with Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Methods:In this sample, 66 patients were enrolled in 2 groups; Group I (n = 33) represented the
low level of thrombus; Group II (n = 33) represented the high level of thrombus. The degree of
stenosis and coronary flux by thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI), grade, was
assessed in all patients to assess the associated high thrombus plaque disruption or formation.
Results:Class I and II have a mean age respectively 62.21±9.51 and a mean age of 66.67±9.14.
The global systolic average LV (AGS) in Group I and II relative to Group III was slightly lower.
Regarding the Killip class, the main difference between the groups was statistically
significantwith a P-value of 0.001, regarding ECG Changes (ST depression and t wave
inversion), the main difference between the groups was statistically non-significant with p
values 0.726 and 0.403 respectively.

Current Approaches for the Prediction of Atrial Fibrillation Development and Progression

Mahmoud Hassan Shah; Hisham Samir Roshdy; Mohammad Safwat Abd Eldayem; Ahmed Mahfouz Ahmed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2116-2139

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia inclinical practice. Several
conventional and novel predictorsof AF development and progression (from paroxysmalto
persistent and permanent types) have been reported.The most important predictor of AF
progression ispossibly the arrhythmia itself. The electrical, mechanicaland structural
remodeling determines the perpetuationof AF and the progression from paroxysmal to
persistentand permanent forms. Common clinical scores such asthe hypertension, age ≥ 75
years, transient ischemicattack or stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,and heart
failure and the congestive heart failure,hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes mellitus,
stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74years, sex category scores as well
as biomarkers relatedto inflammation may also add important information onthis topic. There
is now increasing evidence that even inpatients with so-called lone or idiopathic AF, the
arrhythmiais the manifestation of a structural atrial disease whichhas recently been defined
and described as fibrotic atrialcardiomyopathy. Fibrosis results from a broad rangeof factors
related to AF inducing pathologies such ascell stretch, neurohumoral activation, and
oxidativestress. The extent of fibrosis as detected either by lategadolinium enhancement -
magnetic resonance imaging
or electroanatomic voltage mapping may guide thetherapeutic approach based on the
arrhythmia substrate.The knowledge of these risk factors may not only delayarrhythmia
progression, but also reduce the arrhythmiaburden in patients with first detected AF. The
presentreview highlights on the conventional and novel risk

Comparison between Hysteroscopy andSonohysterography in the Assessment of Abnormal Uterine Cavity

Latifa Elsayed Ali Mohamed; Magdy Mohamed Elfawal; Ahmed Mohamed Alsowey; Ahmed Mohamed Abdou

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2140-2154

Background: The root causes of infertility in about 15percent of infertile women are
intrauterine pathologies. Several uterine defects, such as septum intrauterine adhesions,
endometrial polyps or submucous myomas, may interfere with implantation and cause
spontaneous abortion. The uterine cavity can be assessed by using variable diagnostic methods,
such as hysterosalpingography, transvaginal ultrasound, sonohysterography and hysteroscopy.
Objective:Our research aims at assessing the significance of the sonohysterography in vaginal
hysteroscopic correlation in the assessment of uterine cavity disease.
Methods:In 48 women suspected of having intrauterine abnormality, this prospective crosssectional
analysis was carried out. Between days 7 and 10 of the menstrual cycle,
sonohysterography was done. In the mid proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle for
premenopausal women ,hysteroscopy was done. Histopathology was our gold standard
reference.

Periprocedural Complications of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Diabetic Patients Who Underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Mohamed Gaber Abd El Aziz Abd El Hamed; AlySaad .; Tamer Mohamed Mostafa; Marwa Mohamed Gad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2155-2161

Background:There is an increase of risk of coronary artery disease about 4-fold with diabetes
mellitus, and ischemic heart disease is liable for diabetes-related deaths. In this study, we
examined the association between glycemic control, as determined by Hemoglobin A1c, and the
incidence of periprocedural complications in diabetic patients who had coronary artery bypass
graft (CABG) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Aim of the study:To assess the effect of control of DM on the outcome of PCI in patients who
underwent CABG.

Relation of HbA1c Control in Diabetic Patients and Complications of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients who performed Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Mohamed Gaber Abd El Aziz Abd El Hamed; Aly Saad .; Tamer Mohamed Mostafa; Marwa Mohamed Gad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2162-2168

Background:Coronary artery disease is higher in risk with diabetes mellitus, and diabetesrelated
deaths can lead to ischemic heart disease. We examined the relationship between the
glycemic regulation as determined by Hemoglobin A1c and the occurrence of periprocedural
complications in patients who performed percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and had
Coronary artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
Objective: To identify associated complications and their sites with Percutaneous Coronary
Intervention in diabetic patientswho performed Coronary Artery Bypass Graft.
Methods:The cross-sectional analysis was performed at the cardiology department in Zagazig
University Hospital in which all 24 CABG & DM patients were included during the period
between January 2019 and January 2020 divided into 12 patients with controlled
DM(HbA1c>7)&12 patients with uncontrolled DM (HbA1c<7).Both patients had a complete
medical history, a detailed clinical evaluation, and preoperative laboratory work: role of the
renal, completion of blood counts as a marker for regulation of DM, ECG, and ECHO.
Glycosylated Hemoglobin HbA1c was used.

Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: a comprehensive review

Kamel Hassan Ghazal; Tamer Muhammed Moustafa Abdelghany; Khaled Muhammed Souliman Hamed; Ahmed Said Eldamahoury

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2169-2180

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as the impairment of renal function
measured as either a 25% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline or a 0.5
mg/dL (44 μmol/L) increase in absolute SCr value within 48-72 hours after
intravenous contrast administration. Although prophylactic hydration has been
promising in decreasing the occurrence of CIN, other efforts such as diuretics,
calcium channel blockers, theophylline, aminophylline, atrial natriuretic peptide,
dopamine, and fenoldopam have been disappointing. The preventive effect of Nacetylcysteine
on CIN has not been consistent in the literature. In a recent clinical
trial, bicarbonate infusion was more effective than hydration in the prevention of
CIN. Mechanical devices are in development to perfuse renal arteries with
protective drugs during contrast exposure or for removal of contrast from coronary
sinus during coronary angiography. In this article, we have reviewed available data
in regards to CIN.

Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: a comprehensive review.

Kamel Hassan Ghazal; Tamer Muhammed Moustafa Abdelghany; Khaled Muhammed Souliman Hamed; Ahmed Said Eldamahoury

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2169-2180

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as the impairment of renal function
measured as either a 25% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline or a 0.5
mg/dL (44 μmol/L) increase in absolute SCr value within 48-72 hours after
intravenous contrast administration. Although prophylactic hydration has been
promising in decreasing the occurrence of CIN, other efforts such as diuretics,
calcium channel blockers, theophylline, aminophylline, atrial natriuretic peptide,
dopamine, and fenoldopam have been disappointing. The preventive effect of Nacetylcysteine
on CIN has not been consistent in the literature. In a recent clinical
trial, bicarbonate infusion was more effective than hydration in the prevention of
CIN. Mechanical devices are in development to perfuse renal arteries with
protective drugs during contrast exposure or for removal of contrast from coronary
sinus during coronary angiography. In this article, we have reviewed available data
in regards to CIN.

Evaluation of Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Neonates and Children

Mohamed R. Beshir; Ahmed Emam; Wesam A. Mokhtar; Esraa H. Elsayyad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2181-2188

Background: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) make up a large group of rare
disorders caused by an inherited deficiency or absence of proteins that have
enzymatic, carrier, receptor, or structural roles. This study is aimed to early
detection, diagnosis, and intervention to improve outcome.
Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Pediatrics
Department, Zagazig University Hospitals. It included 65 cases with suspected
inborn errors of metabolism. All the studied cases were subjected to full history
taking, clinical examination and Laboratory investigations.
Results: The age of neonates, infant and children were 35 (54.6%), 22 (34.37%), 8
(10.93%) cases respectively, 34 cases were females and 30 males. The most common
complaint was poor suckling in 14 cases (21.8%) then lethargy as well as fever in 6
cases (9.37%). Disturbed consciousness and hepatosplenomegaly were present in 11
cases (17.18%). Metabolic disorders including metabolic acidosis (25%),
hypoglycemia (3.12%), raise lactate level (4.68%), hyperammonemia (14) and
presence of ketonuria in (4.68%) of cases, respectively. The different disease types
of the studied cases after routine and specific laboratory finding, our results showed
that, 18 cases Suspected IEM (not diagnosed), 11 cases Diagnosed metabolic (non
PKU), 36 cases Diagnosed Phenylketonuria (PKU).
Conclusion: Early diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) during
neonatal period or infancy for starting its proper treatment will improve outcomes,
control complications of metabolic diseases and decrease the mortality rates.

Direction of Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Policy for Pregnant Mothers based on Local Wisdom

Erpita Yanti; Siti Fatimah; Abdul Razak; Yessy Aprihatin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2189-2196

Various efforts and policies on earthquake mitigation have been carried out by the Government of Pariaman City, but not for pregnant women. Therefore, the direction of the earthquake disaster mitigation policy for pregnant women based on local wisdom is drawn up. This research is analyzed using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with Policymaking using human resources, maternal and child health, and local wisdom as criteria used in determining policy. The results of priority policies based on local wisdom are as follows: 1) Socialization and preservation of knowledge; 2) determining safe evacuation routes for pregnant women with the assistance of special teams; 3) Improvement of facilities and infrastructure needed by mothers pregnant and child; 4) trauma healing for religiously-based pregnant women; 5) Compilation of Standard Operational Procedures (SOP); 6) Establishment of monitoring groups for pregnant women; 7) Improved coordination between related institutions and program integration in one command; and 8) Security escort in the delivery and distribution of aid facilities, infrastructure, and logistics based on mutual assistance. The eight (8) policies, making cooperation and kinship the basis for implementation, strengthening the role of Ninik Mamak and Bundo Kanduang as a driving figure, and for promotion and socialization of local wisdom.

CHILDBIRTH PREPARATION: CONCEPT ARTICLE

Lekha Bist, Dr. Lekha Viswanath, Dr. Ruchira Nautiyal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2197-2206

Childbirth preparation programs are significant tool to improve maternal and child health. Today, no one knows the most effective educational approach. The objective of this article is to discuss various methods of childbirth preparation and the impact of childbirth preparation on antenatal mothers.
 
Keyword- Childbirth preparation, childbirth education, parenthood education, Centering pregnancy, pregnancy, prenatal care, childbirth education methods.

VIRTUAL SCREENING OF POTENT ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MOLECULESFROM BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA.LINN AGAINST NEUROINFLAMMATION FOR P38Α INHIBITOR(S)

Kavitha Raj Varadaraju, Jajur Ramanna Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2207-2216

Inflammation in the central nervous system is a common feature in Neurodegenerative diseases like Amylotropic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Multiple Sclerosis. Experimental evidences have shown the extensive increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PC) acts as a major contributor in disease progression of chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Major PC, such as IL-6 and TNFα, are produced by cells involved in these disease progressions by involving p38α MAPK pathway at cellular level. Hence p38 MAPK family is being investigated as a potential therapeutic target for many CNS disorders. Since a variety of approved drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases have reported potentially serious side effects. Hence there is a massive need for these therapies from natural sources.
In the present study, we have chosen a medically important ayurvedic plant Boerhaavia diffusa.linn (BD). Based on the research review on BD, Eupalitin, Eupalitin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside, β-sitosterol, Liriodendrin, Boeravinone B, Punarnavine; potentanti-inflammatory phytochemicals were selected to exploreits pharmaceutical properties. The initiation of early ADME screening studies of these phytochemicals also showed impressive pharmacokinetic properties, to be a potent drug molecule. Among them, Eupalitin, β-sitosterol, Boeravinone B, Punarnavine were qualified for druglikeness. Further, docking experiments were used to screen the selected phytochemicals for p38α inhibitors. The studies indicated Eupalitin and Boeravinone Bas potent p38α inhibitors as it showed the compact binding to the biologically active sites. Additionally, these phytochemicals were evaluated for its anti-neuroinflammatory effects using in-vitro cell line studies on microglial cells in comparison with the whole plant extract.
Our pilot studies suggests that these natural phytochemicals from potent anti-inflammatory valued plant has potency intargeting all the neurodegenerative disease in common from being a potent p38α inhibitor along with a good druggable property.In future these phytocompounds can be experimented to explore the mechanism of action at molecular level.
Keywords: Boerhavia diffusa.linn, Docking, p38α MAPK, neuroinflammation, Docking

ANTI-ANGIOGENIC PROPERTY OF BERGENIN IN CHICKEN CHORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE

Tej Ganapathy Mandira, JR Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2217-2229

Angiogenesis is one of the prime factors required for the formation of blood vessels and capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It plays a major role during embryonic development but is detrimental during the later stage as uncontrolled angiogenesis will lead to the formation of tumours and other disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases. Hence to combat this irregularity and maintain balance, a major receptor called VEGF needs to be targeted. Therefore many recent studies are based upon experiments using drug molecule from a plant source which has no side effects and effective in blocking the pro-angiogenic factors. In this context, our present study is based on investigating the antiangiogenic effect of Bergenin using the preliminary and widely used in-vivo model called CAM. Bergenin is a natural compound found in rhizomes ofBergenia species.It has various medicinal properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant,neuroprotective activity andmany more. The CAM Assay in our study is followed by a cell viability assay on macrophages which show Bergenin to be non-toxic. Also, at the highest concentration, Bergenin has shown good anti-angiogenic activity by inhibiting the formation of blood vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane when compared with the standard drug molecule.The above findings indicate that the molecule Bergenin can be further used in high throughput screening of its antiangiogenic property and can be used as a valuable lead molecule in drug discovery and development against cancer and other neuroinflammatory diseases.
Keywords: CAM, Angiogenesis,VEGF, Neuroinflammation.

A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS ON NEWLY DIAGNOSED HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS IN ASSOCIATION WITH ACE GENE POLYMORPHISM

Madhu Chaitanya Thota, Dr. Nilam Nigam, Dr. Shravan Kumar, Dr. Anil Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2230-2239

Background: Essential hypertension is among such lifestyle diseases which are the leading causes of premature deaths around the globe, due to their cardiovascular and kidney disease complications, if remains untreated. Angiotensin converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphism has been found to affect hypertension and the response of antihypertensive therapies.
Materials and Methods: This is prospective and cross-sectional study.
In Group – A:  ACE gene polymorphism in hypertension
a)  Azilsartan (40-80mg)
b)  Atenolol (25-100mg)
c)  Chlorthalidone (12.5-25mg)
Result: In our study baseline, systolic blood pressure was 172.31 mmHg Atenolol group, 179.94 mmHg Azilsartan group and in Chlorthalidone was 177.48 mmHg. Baseline Diastolic Blood pressure was 101.43 mmHg in Atenolol group, 103.78 mmHg in Azilsartan group and in Chlorthalidone was 109.59 mmHg. While comparing among 3 groups baseline blood pressure was statistically not significant. After 3 months of treatment with Atenolol group, 163.42 mmHg, in Azilsartan group 167.47 mmHg and in Chlorthalidone was 169.47 mmHg systolic blood pressure. Baseline Diastolic Blood pressure was 98.48 mmHg in Atenolol group, 97.58 mmHg in Azilsartan group and in Chlorthalidone was 98.37 mmHg. While comparing among 3 groups after 3 months blood pressure was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism is linked to isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System (RAAS) is one of the regulatory systems governing circulation, systemic vascular resistance, and kidney function.
Keywords: Antihypertensive drugs, Hypertensive patients, Ace gene polymorphism.
 

The Role of Pharmacists in Optimizing Molecular Testing with Evolving Biomarkers and Treatment for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Ashique Ahmed; Alakesh Bharali; Arindam Dutta; Abhinab Chetia; Arzoo Newar; Bedanta Bhattacharjee; Bhargab Deka; Bonti Sonowal; Bharjil Bingari; Dhunusmita Barman; Dibyojyoti Sarmah; Farida Pegu; Farak Ali; Gargi Das; Himangshu Sarma; Nikita Dey; Nayanika Neog; Pinkan Sadhukan; Rofiqul Islam; Richa Sonowal; Shahnaz Alom; Shamima Nasreen Ahmed; Taslima Akhter Rohman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2240-2259
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.08.03.203

Molecular testing and the development of targeted therapies have revolutionized the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite the advantages of molecular testing in patients with NSCLC and guideline recommendations, there is no specific standard testing method, resulting in variable testing practices based on institution protocol and access. Pharmacists can help to improve coordination of care around appropriate testing as results are important in determining the most appropriate targeted treatment course. The majority of patients with NSCLC are tested for PD-L1, EGFR, ALK, ROS1, and BRAF mutations. These biomarkers and their corresponding targeted therapies are more understood than the remaining biomarkers, such as KRAS, RET, MET exon 14 (METex14), and NTRK. Multiple new and emerging therapies target these latter biomarkers, and this article will focus on these lesser-known biomarkers. As the treatment of NSCLC becomes increasingly biomarker-driven and more therapies are added to the armamentarium for the management of NSCLC, pharmacists will be called upon to assist the oncology care team to optimize NSCLC treatment to improve patient outcomes.

Our experience of treatment of femoral fractures with locked intramedullary nailing with ChM fixators

Dr. Mirzayev Ravshanbek Khoshimovich MD; Dr. Kodirov Maruf Abdumajitovich MD; Salohiy Otabek Ikramovich MD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2260-2262

Currently, in the surgical treatment of fractures, the technology of low-traumatic fixation of bone fragments is being actively introduced. Preference is given to the atraumatic nature of the intervention in relation to the periosteum, bone marrow and surrounding soft tissues. From the point of view of patient rehabilitation, that method of treatment is considered as functional, which allows the management of patients without additional external immobilization, an early load on the operated limb.

Prognostic significance ofProcalcitonin, High sensitivity C-reactive proteinandwhite blood cell count incomparison withblood culture in ICU patients with Sepsis and Septic shock inatertiary care Hospital

Dr.Kondle Raghu; Dr. Krishnan Ramalingam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2263-2270

Background: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition in ICU with high morbidity and
mortality. Biomarkers which can act as a predictor for diagnosis, prognosis, and patient
outcome in sepsis are needed.
Aim:Aim of the study is to compare the significance of hs-C-reactive Protein (CRP),
Procalcitonin, White blood cell count, and blood culture in patients with bloodstream
infections and compare their prognostic significance with blood cultures in sepsis.
Materials and Methods: This hospital based prospective observational study was conducted
between July 2018 to July 2019 forone year with 216 cases of sepsis. Serial determination
of Procalcitonin and CRP at admission and Day 6 was done. Data was analyzed check to
compare the prognostic significance of the PCT, CRP, and WBC count.
Results:A blood culture positivity rate of 50.9% was reported with male preponderance.
WBC count has significantly reduced after 72hrs of admission (p= 0.007). CRP levels have
significantly reduced on day 6 (p = 0.043) in comparison to at the time of admission (p=
0.032). The serial determination of PCT levels at admission and on day 6 (p= 0.032) was
found to be a better prognostic indicator in patients with sepsis than at the time of
admission. The significant patient outcome in terms of mortality and reduction in length of
hospital stay has been found (p= 0.018, p=0.002). The positive correlation of PCT and CRP
and SOFA score has been reported.
Conclusion: Prognostic significance was found for the biomarkers PCT, CRP, and WBC
count with significant patient outcomes in terms of mortality and hospital stay reduction

Comparative study between the effect of passive stretching exercises and post isometric relaxation technique in chronic mechanical neck pain patients

Muhammad Ahmed Shady; Ibrahim Magdy Elnaggar; Nader I. El Sayed; Samer Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2271-2278

Aim of the study: Mechanical neck pain is a type of pain that affects the entire neck or
shoulder area, that is characterized by mechanical symptoms such as symptoms triggered by
maintained neck postures, neck movements, or palpation of the cervical muscles. Around twothirds
of people in their forties and fifties suffer from neck pain. Stretching exercises have
many advantages, including enhanced muscle performance and endurance, injury prevention,
improved muscle or athletic performance, healing promotion, and a reduced onset of muscle
soreness. The hyperactive muscle relaxes well after using the post isometric relaxation
procedure. We aimed to compare between the efficacy of passive stretching exercises and post
isometric relaxation technique on neck pain severity and functional disability as well as neck
sagittal, coronal and transverse mobility in treatment of patients wi th chronic mechanical
neck pain.

PROFILE OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH MITRAL STENOSIS AT DR. WAHIDIN SUDIROHUSODO HOSPITAL

Andi Rizal; PendrikTandean .; Syakib Bakri; MakbulAman .; Hasyim Kasim; IdarMappangara .; HaeraniRasyid .; ArifinSeweng .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2279-2286

Objective:To find out the echocardiographic profile of mitral stenosis patients at
WahidinSudirohusodo Hospital
Methods: This research is descriptive quantitative, which was conducted at the
WahidinSudirohusodo Hospital Makassar. The variables assessed consistedof
mitral Sstenosis profile, gender, age, mitral valve area, complications of mitral
stenosis, stenosis of mitral valve disorders, and involvement of mitral valve
stenosis.

Analysis of speech therapy systems for children with physical disabilities and speech disorders, a systematic review

Leo Cespedes- Simangas; Cristhian Uribe- Obregon; Michael Cabanillas- Carbonell

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2287-2301

Today, part of the world's population has an impairment in speaking or being able to
communicate normally in their daily lives. In addition, a large percentage of those
affected are children. Technology and computers play an important role in these types
of problems that many people suffer from. Therefore, the use of speech therapy
applications or systems helps the child to reduce treatment time. The research aims to
identify the best computer tools and technologies and how they influence the
evolution of speech therapy for children with speech disorders or speech problems.
For the research, a bibliographic review was conducted in different databases such as
IEEE Xplore, Scopus, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect where 49 scientific articles
were collected from 2005-2020. Likewise, key words were used to carry out a search
corresponding to our topic of study, thanks to which we were able to collect the
necessary amount of information to nourish the question posed. Finally, it was
demonstrated that the use of mobile applications with a videogame-related subject
matter is able to maintain the infant's active practice of speech therapy, reducing its
treatment by up to half the time.

Analysis of intelligent systems for the prevention of depression, a systematic review

Manuel Rafael- Paitan; Michael Cabanillas- Carbonell

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2302-2314

Depression strikes different people regardless of their social status, education level, or
gender. For this reason, it is important to detect this disease as soon as possible to
avoid negative consequences in people who suffer from it . This study is a review of
scientific literature, where 200 articles have been collected from the following
databases: Ebsco Host, IEEE Xplore, Science Direct and Scopus.Based on our
inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 articles were systematized. Having good results
on the topic of the most common intelligent systems and the approach that is
recommended when developing an intelligent system.

Formulation and Evaluation Studies of Glimepiride Loaded Niosomes

Rohit Kumar; Shefali Srivastava; Utkarsh Verma; Nidhi Bhatt

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2315-2321

The management of infectious diseases and immunization has experienced a transformative
change in recent years. The advent in biotechnology and genetic engineering has created a
number of disease-specific biological. However the focus on successfully delivering
thesebiological is a challenge. Niosomes are vesicles made of non-ionic surfactants that are
biodegradable, non-toxic, more durable, and less costly. In the present work, Glimepirideentrapped
niosomes were produced utilizing an ether injection method with various
cholesterol (CHOL) and Span-60 ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3). In this analysis, the ether injection
approach to insert Glimepiride into niosomes was investigated. In the case of ether injection
process, the prepared niosomesranges from 0.662 to 1.713 μm in size. In-vitro release tests on
Glimepiride niosomes displayed 98.3% release for formulations prepared with CHOL: Span-
60 (1:1) and a release duration of 0 to 24 hours. It has been observed that with the increase in
concentration of Span-60, the order of encapsulation quality had improved. The impact of
varying non-ionic surfactant and cholesterol composition on properties such as zeta potential,
drug quality, vesicle scale, and drug release were tested in an assessment analysis. Based on
the findings of this study, it is possible to infer that the developed noisome formulation of
Glimepiride has considerable potential in the treatment of diabetes due to its prolonged
releaseprofile

VARIOUS METHODS OF EXTRUSION OF TOOTH

T Tandra Das; Pradeep Solete

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2322-2330

1.1 Aim:To assess the various methods of extrusion of tooth
1.2 Objective:To assess different applications of extrusion in every aspect of
operative treatment. Extrusion is widely used in orthodontic therapy, This article
focuses on the use of extrusion in other aspects as well.
1.3 Background:Introduction For many years, the removal of bone or gingival
tissues has been the most common method used for crown-lengthening surgery.
This surgical procedure usually causes an uneven contour of the gingival margin
in the anterior region. In addition, as fear of pain is one of the major problems in
dentistry, patients often reject this traumatic surgery. In recent years, as an
alternative to such a highly invasive technique, mini screws have been used as
temporary anchorage devices (TAD) for several orthodontic tooth movements
including forced eruption. However, there are other methods developed in recent
years.
1.4 Reason:Hence, this comprehensive literature review aims at understanding the
various methods of extrusion of teeth.

CINNAMON: A CLINICAL APPROACH AS MULTIFARIOUS NATURAL REMEDY WITH ABSOLUTE IMMUNITY

Shefali Arora; Mahak Gusain; Ravi Gunupuru; Rohit Kaushik; Pushpendu Sinha; Deepak Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2331-2345

Plants are the oxygen support for our planet and all living things. They can be considered as “mothers of medicine”. As mothers take care of a child, Plants do the same for all human beings and animals. Medicinal plants have therapeutic properties that produce a beneficial pharmacological effect on the animal and human body. In recent years plants are surveyed as new drugs and gain attention to the discovery of new bioactive compounds. Hippocrates quoted “Let thy food be thy medicine, and thy medicine shall be thy food”. The flavor, aroma, taste, and nutritional properties make the Cinnamon offers a wide range of health benefits. The present study explores the connection between the Cinnamon plant and medicine, our food, modern science

Analysis towards the Quality of Work-Life of Employees Working in New Generation Banks in Kerala

Jobin Sebastian; Dr KK Ramachandran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2346-2354

The Quality of Work-Life is is a widely studied approach to predict the work life experience of employees. This study examines the QWL of employees working in the new generation private banks in Kerala. Since, the new generation private banks generally have lot of pressure to sustain in the market. Naturally such pressure will be influenced on the employees. The main objective of the study is to estimate QWL of employees and classify their level. The study result reveals that 88% of employees are having moderate and high level QWL. The result also depicts that number of earning members in the family is significantly influencing the QWL.

COVID-19 – Impact on Banking and Insurance Sector

Aditya More

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2355-2362

COVID-19 affects various industries and economies across the world. India is one amongst the countries severely affected and in 3rd place globally. BSFI sector, which is one in every of the cores for the Indian economy, also affected poorly thanks to COVID-19. during this paper, we discuss various factors like lockdown approach, moratorium, different impacts in banking, financial services and insurance sector. Further, we've given some recommendations to mitigate things so the financial services can continue with the less negative impact which can help for better services to the customer and minimal revenue loss to the financial organisation.

PROGNOSTICATING CLINICAL INCIDENTS VIA RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS BY USING CLINICAL DOCTOR AI

S. Kausalya; S. Kalaiselvi; D. Thamarai Selvi; Dr.V. Gomathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2374-2386

Doctor AI imitates human doctor’s forecasting potential and gives diagnostic results that are clinically significant. Prognosticating Clinical Incidents is a timeseries based RNN model. It is implemented and employed to longitudinal time stamped electronic health record data from a twenty thousand patients over a decade. Encounter medical logs of patients data such as diagnosis codes, medication codes and procedure codes are input data to RNN to predict the diagnosis and medication types for a future visit of patients in a hospital. Doctor AI evaluates the history of patient’s to prepare one label for each diagnosis predictions and medication types i.e.,multi-label forecasting/prediction. Leveraging huge historical patient details in electronic health records (EHR), a collective generic and comprehensive predictive model that covers perceived health state and medication uses for EHR, is new approach in disease progress identification.

Creating Organ Donation System with Blockchain Technology

Anmol Soni; Dr. S. Ganesh Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2387-2395

Organ donation being the most noble deed requires revolutionization. One cannot imagine the urgency and desperation a person feels when his/her loved one is in need of such act and they could not locate an appropriate donor. On the other hand, people who wish to donate worries about the privacy, security and authenticity. The Proposed System is a web-based Application which uses FIFO approach to select an organ donor for each genuine patient requiring a transplant and if there is an emergency case then the priority is given to that patient. It provides an efficient platform for potential organ doners and those who need the organs to connect. It uses Blockchain as its
underlying Technology. Blockchain Technology is as it is known a decentralized and distributed network which stores records that are immutable as in cannot be altered once saved. The Immutability of Blockchain Technology provides the required security to the application. Blockchain Technology uses digital documents which are digitally signed by the user so that they are timestamped at the time of saving the document and cannot be changed after that. It solves the issue of authenticating the same user again and again. It uses smart contracts and RSA algorithm as well which are explained further in the paper.

Catechin Regulates Reticulum Endoplasmic Stress in Rats Cataract Model Catechin in Cataract

Nugraha Wahyu Cahyana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2396-2402

Background : Opacity that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye is called the cataract. Decrease amounts of GRP78 involved in the pathogenesis of cataracts by reticulum endoplasmic stress of lens epithelial cells. Aim : The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of Catechin on sodium-selenite induced cataract formation and activities of GRP78. Methods : 19 μmol/kg of sodium selenite was injection by intraperitoneal to ten day-old Wistar rats. The rats were separated randomly in five groups (n = 5 in each group): a control group, and four cataract induction groups, treated with 0, 50, 100, 200 mg / kg catechin isolates. GMB4 Clone of Green Tea. By slit-lamp bio microscopic we performed degree of lens opacity and analysis of GRP78 by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results : Both eyes of all rats in Group 1 no cataract formation. 20% of group 2 were found grade 3 cataracts and the remaining four of five (80%) developed grade 4 cataracts. Cataract in the lens of all rats between group 2 and any eyes from groups 3 or 4 and 5 showed a significant difference (P = 0.022, 0.001, 0.001). The degree of cataract formation in groups 3, 4 and 5 decreased. Grp78 levels in Group I, Group III, Group IV and Group V were significantly higher than the mean lens levels in Group II (P <0.01). Conclusion : Reticulum endoplasmic stress in the lens that increased following cataract formation in rats was suppressed by catechin Isolate From GMB4 Clone Green Tea.

Structural Equation Model Factors Affecting Suicidal Ideation among Undergraduate Students

Herlina J. EL- Matury; Besral .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2424-2437

The term suicide refers to the experience that one’s life is undeserved that starts with a thought and advances to the actual action to kill oneself or an obsession with self-destruction. This study aimed to construct a structural equation model of factors that affect suicidal ideation among undergraduate students. This study was conducted at 14 colleges at state universities in Jakarta, Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. A sample of 504 students was selected using a stratified random sampling method at 14 colleges. Data was analyzed with structural equation modelling testing. Results: Depression, anxiety, stress, and social support were significant factors that affected students’ suicidal ideation. Low social support was associated with increased suicidal ideation in college students. Depression, anxiety, and stress triggered suicidal ideation in students. Conclusion: Universities need to plan activities that can raise awareness and prevent students from experiencing depression, anxiety, and stress so that students can avoid suicidal ideation

Fractalkine (CX3CL1) as a Diagnostic Marker for Childhood Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Alshymaa A. Ahmed; Ebtehag H. Hassan; Hany Elsayed; Asmaa M. Alhussiny

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2453-2463

Background: - more specific, sensitive, and in the same time non-invasive indicators for the early prediction of juvenile SLE are required.
Aim: - to evaluate serum fractalkine (CX3CL1) as a diagnostic marker, predictor of nephritis, and indicator of disease activity in pediatric SLE.
Methods: - study included 41 children newly diagnosed with SLE, age ranged from 5 to 18 years, 24 (58.5%) were presented lupus nephritis “diagnosed by renal biopsy”. A total of 20 healthy age and sex matched children were included as controls. Serum Fractalkine levels were measured using human CX3CL1 ELISA.
Results: - Serum Fractalkine were significantly higher in SLE patients (median = 1323, range 591- 16547 IU/ml) than healthy controls (median = 950, range 591- 1583 u/ml) p=0.001. Serum Fkn can be a significant diagnostic marker for juvenile lupus indicated by the are under the ROC curve, AUC = 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.92, P<0.001), at the level 1213 IU/ml serum Fkn detected SLE with sensitivity 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62 - 0.89), specificity 0.91 (95% CI, 0.71 – 0.99), positive predictive value 0.94 (95% CI, 0.80 – 0.98), negative predictive value 0.67 (95% CI, 0.55- 0.80), and accuracy 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71 – 0.91). Serum levels of Fkn showed no statistically significant differences when compared in patients with lupus nephritis against patients without nephritis, and was not correlated with disease activity.
Conclusions: - Serum level of Fractalkine can be a diagnostic marker for childhood onset SLE either with or without lupus nephritis, with no significant correlation with activity status or the stage of LN.

Effect of Different Variables on Auditory and Language Development in Prelingual Children Using Cochlear Implant in Zagazig University CI Program Experience

Heba M. El-Horbety; Soha A. Mekki; Ebtessam H. Nada; Elham M. Kadri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2464-2476

Background: For severe to profound deaf persons, cochlear implantation has been used as a successful procedure to regain partial hearing. The variability seen in language and speech development after cochlear implantation is due to contribution of multiple factors not only demographic and hearing history but also neurological and cognitive factors.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of different variables as age of implantation, duration of CI use and preoperative IQ score on auditory and language development of prelingual cochlear implanted children.
Methods: This study included 62 participants operated in zagazig university hospital and follow the candidacy criteria for cochlear implantation of Zagazig University CI program. All patients were subjected topostoperative audiological and phonological assessment including Warble tone response thresholds in sound field, aided speech discrimination, language test and speech analysis.
Results: The results of the study proved that the better outcomes of CI children are correlated with younger age at implantation, longer duration of CI use, preoperative improvement quotient.
Conclusion: Better speech and language development were significant correlated with earlier age at implantation, better IQ score, longer duration of CI use.

Post mastectomy wound complications with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy

Sumitoj Singh; Ashok Kumar; Yahya K.P; Vandana Sidhu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2477-2485

Aim: To analyse the post-operative wound complications in patients getting neoadjuvant
chemotherapy in respect to those patients who underwent surgery without any neoadjuvant
chemotherapy.
Material and method: The present prospective observational study was conducted in
GMCH AMRITSAR Punjab.It consisted of 50 female patients admitted with breast
carcinomadivided into group of 25 each, one group that received neoadjuvant
chemotherapy and the other group which underwent surgery first.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 50.16±11.57 years. no significant difference was
observed in age, wound complications, healing time between the two groups. Flap necrosis
was seen in 4% cases and 12% cases in group 1(primary surgery) and 2(NACT)
respectively. Seroma was seen in 16% and 8% cases in group 1 and 2 respectively. 12%
cases of group 1 and 20% cases of group 2 presented with wound infection. Patients with
DM presented with more complication in both the groups. The difference between both the
groups was significant which shows that diabetic patient without NACT have more risk of
developing wound complications than with NACT.No significant difference was observed
between the mean of healing time in both the groups .

An Empirical Approaches towards Orthodontics clinical Practice & Management

Dr. Salman Hasan Khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2486-2499

The conventional instruction of a dental specialist need set more terrific stress around
Creating Exceptionally skillful diagnostician alternately clinicians. Also need regularly left
an observable void in the region for act management. Concerning illustration dentistry
enters the 21st century, it countenances a regularly evolving populace & more ideas.
Orthodontic observes need aid minor businesses, not just around orthodontic providers, be
that as with at other human services suppliers too. Rivalry inside the coliseum goes from
general dentists performing orthodontics, excessively numerous orthodontists Furthermore
excessively set patients. Also, not many obstructions with entrance under the orthodontic
field exist, concerning illustration at graduates of certify dental schools cam wood act
orthodontics. The indifferent methodology to developing a orthodontic act will no more
can. You quit offering on that one normal situation is that a lot of people orthodontists
aren’t certain regarding how should approach and succeed in the really thing they might
requirement. This article will support those post-graduates and the working on
orthodontists previously, overseeing their clinical act and any issues which they face
previously, normal act

Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cystic Lesions in Comparison to Computed Topography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Mohamed Fouad Mostafa Ahmed; Walid Ahmady Abd El-Dayem; Talaat Fathy Aly; Mohamed Ibrahim Magdy; Mohamed Ali El-Nady

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2500-2509

Background and aims:To evaluate the advantages of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the
assessment of detailed structures of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) compared to computed
tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Tropical medicine department,
Zagazig university hospitals and in Internal medicine department at Kasr Al Aini Hospitals,
Cairo University, in the period between March 2018 and March 2020. The study included 72
patients with PCLs, 29 were males and 43 were females, there ages ranged from 25 to 75 years.
All cases were subjected to the following careful history taking, thorough clinical examination,
laboratory investigations (CBC, LFTs, KFTs, Coagulation profile, serum amylase, serum CA
19.9), imaging (CT and/or MRI abdomen), endoscopic ultrasound examination and EUS-FNA
biopsies using the 22G or 19G needle.
Results:Validity of abdominal CT/MRI imaging, EUS, cytopathology and EUS with
cytopathology was calculated using diagnostic performance depend on sample 2x2 contingency
tables generation. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy and their corresponding 95%
CI were calculated. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant, p-value < 0.001 was
considered highly statistically significant, and p-value ≥ 0.05 was considered statistically
insignificant.

Pancreatic Cystic Lesions: New Diagnostic Strategies

Mohamed Fouad Mostafa Ahmed; Walid Ahmady Abd El-Dayem; Talaat Fathy Aly; Mohamed Ibrahim Magdy; Mohamed Ali El-Nady

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2510-2525

Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCN) are a heterogeneous group of pancreatic cysts that include
intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms
and other rare cystic lesions, all with different biological behaviors and variable risk of
progression to malignancy. As more pancreatic cysts are incidentally discovered on routine
cross-sectional imaging, optimal surveillance for patients with PCN is becoming an
increasingly common clinical problem, highlighting the need to balance cancer prevention with
the risk of (surgical) overtreatment. This Review summarizes the latest developments in the
diagnosis and management of PCN, including the quality of available evidence. Also discussed
are the most important differences between the PCN guidelines from the American
Gastroenterological Association, the International Association of Pancreatology and the
European Study Group on Cystic Tumors of the Pancreas, including diagnostic and follow-up
strategies and indications for surgery. Finally, new developments in the management of patients
with PCN are addressed.

Evaluation of Post-operative wound complications in patients getting neoadjuvant chemotherapy

Sumitoj Singh; Ashok Kumar; Yahya K.P; Vandana Sidhu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2526-2534

Aim: To analyse the post-operative wound complications in patients getting neoadjuvant
chemotherapy in respect to those patients who underwent surgery without any neoadjuvant
chemotherapy.
Material and method: The present prospective observational study was conducted in
GMCH AMRITSAR Punjab.It consisted of 50 female patients admitted with breast
carcinomadivided into group of 25 each, one group that received neoadjuvant
chemotherapy and the other group which underwent surgery first.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 50.16±11.57 years. no significant difference was
observed in age, wound complications, healing time between the two groups. Flap necrosis
was seen in 4% cases and 12% cases in group 1(primary surgery) and 2(NACT)
respectively. Seroma was seen in 16% and 8% cases in group 1 and 2 respectively. 12%
cases of group 1 and 20% cases of group 2 presented with wound infection. Patients with
DM presented with more complication in both the groups. The difference between both the
groups was significant which shows that diabetic patient without NACT have more risk of
developing wound complications than with NACT.No significant difference was observed
between the mean of healing time in both the groups .
Conclusion:In conclusion, our study revealed that a factor, like diabetes mellitus was
associated with an increased risk of wound complications for patients undergoing
mastectomy. However, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with an increased
risk of wound complications.

A Review on an unpublished literature of “Nadi Vijnaniyam”

Dr Madhumitha S, Dr Ranjith Kumar Shetty , DR Sri Nagesh K A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2535-2542

The nativity of Indian medicine stems from the ancient science of Ayurveda. It has recognition globally in the present era, but has deep roots since ages for its well known clinical management and preventive aspects. However, the lesser explored entity remains to be the diagnostic aspect. Just as one can say that identification of the problem is half the solution, appropriate diagnosis forms the first line of treatment. To overcome the callow and also to probe much on this, the study on the unpublished manuscript Nadi Vijnaniyam was taken up. The content of the manuscript is elaborated in twelve patalas (chapters). Each patala intends to brief about the science of Nadi and the interpretations pertaining to the knowledge of Nadi with close relation to Ayurveda. The content of the manuscript authenticates further that this will be highly contributory to the existing Ayurvedic literature. Analysis of this text brought to light, the understanding of the distinct content and few insights that are exclusively belonging to Nadi Vijnaniyam.
 
Key words: Nadi, manuscript, interpretation of Ayurvedic diagnosis

Acute Dermal Toxicity study of Rasapushpadi Malhara & It’s Modified Dosage forms

Dr.ReeteshRamnani ,Dr. Mukesh A.Chuadhari, Dr.Amit Kumar Sharma, Subhash Yadav, Dr. Sakhitha K.S., Prof. K.Shankar Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2543-2549

Rasapushpadi Malahara is one such preparation mentioned in Rasa tarangin icontaining ingredients like parada, saindhava, kasisa and siktha taila having indications like phiranga, vicharchika ,vrana etc. In the present study The Rasapushpadi Malhara prepared by classical method and its modified dosage forms cream and lotion prepared by using chemicals as per modern text.
Material and methods:
Acute dermal toxicity study was carried out as per OECD 402. Wistar  albino rats of female  sex were used in the experimentation. The rats were obtained from animal house of DMIMS Wardha (MH), The experimental protocols were approved by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee ( DMIMS (DU) /IAEC/2018-19/08 ).
Results and discussion:
Dermal toxicity study results showed  weight of all animals of control & test groups was slightly increased or decreased. All animals were found active and healthy no any changes in behavior and activity was observed. All Heamatological perameters, Biochemical perameters and Histopathological perameters was normal in range
Conclusion
The Results  of this study shows Nontoxic effects of Rasapushpadi Malahara and its modified dosage forms ( Cream & Lotion). All observed perameters like body weight , cage side observations , DDISS, Heamatologicalperameters, Biochemical perameters and Histopathological perameters was normal in range.
 
Key words :Rasapushpadi Malahara , Dermal Toxicity, OECD 402 .

Advanced Intermittent Hypobaric/Hyperbaric Method Enhanced and Cured Type 2 Insulin- Independent Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Clinical Trial

Sahar Ahmed Abdalbary; Alaa Balbaa; Khaled A. Zed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2551-2561

Background:
Advanced intermittent hypoxia-normoxia KZ-001 (manufactured in Japan under the
Japanese Wellness Science and Technology) is a combination of a fine-tuned
hypobaric (hypoxia) and hyperbaric (hyperoxia) chamber. It is a new Japanese method
that uses both aerospace and high-terrestrial altitude research or training to stimulate
the effects of high altitude on the human body, especially hypoxia and hyperoxia.
Objectives:
This study aimed to test two hypotheses in response to advanced intermittent hypoxianormoxia
KZ-001 stratification based on its mechanism of action and to answer the
following clinical question: Do patients’ glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels decrease
when undergoing advanced intermittent hypoxia-normoxia KZ-001 treatment?

The Expression of The Apoptosis-Regulating miRNAs 16 And 21 In Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (In Vitro Study).

Heba Khaled; Safa Fathy Abd El-Ghani; Olfat Shaker; Naglaa Mohamed El-Hosary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2581-2581

Cancer is a leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries, which emerges as
a major public health problem. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common form
of carcinoma in the oral cavity and ranks as the 12th most common cancer in the world.
Unfortunately, many cases of OSCC are clinically detected in a late stage, and the available
therapeutic alternatives are highly expensive and disfiguring. The development of reliable
biomarkers and more effective therapeutic agents are necessary to improve patient outcome.

Balanced GradientEcho (FIESTA)- MRI Evaluation Of The Fatty Liver Disease.

Fatih Düzgün; GökhanPekindil .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2582-2587

FIESTA (FastImagingEmployingSteady-stateAcquisition) is
commonlyacceptedthatbelongstotheclass of gradient-echosequence (1). FIESTA has
provedto be useful in abdominalimagingformagneticresonansimaging (MRI) of
gastrointestinalsystem, oncologicimagings, assessingvascularpatency. However, FIESTA
MRI findings of fattyliver has not previouslybeenreported, although it
describedthesignalreductionduetofat in previousarticles.
Weobservedthatthepatientswithfattyliver had lowersignalintensity (SI) values at FIESTA
sequencescomparedto normal patientswithoutfattyliver.
Materialsandmethods:
Thirtypatientswithliverfatandthirtypatientswithoutfattyliverwerethecontrolgroup.Thirtypatie
ntswho had detectedfattyliver at T1W in-out of phase MRI (IOP-MRI)
imageswereevaluatedwithcoronalFIESTA sequence at 1.5 Teslascanner.
Allpatientswereobtained FIESTA sequenceusingthesame MRI acqusitionparameters.
LiverandspleenSI’sweremeasured as usingsame ROI on coronal FIESTA
sequencesandlivertospleen SI ratiowerecalculated. Allvalueswerecompared.
Results:
Decrease in SI of thefattyliver on FIESTA images is
negativelycorrelatedwiththefattyfraction of theliver. Patientswithfattyliver had liver / spleen
SI ratiofrom 0.15 to 0.71 (mean 0.39), and 0.41 to 0.96 in thecontrolgroup (mean 0.70).
Therewas a statisticallysignificantdifference.
Conclusion:
Webelievesuggestthatbalancedgradientechosequencesuch as FIESTA, can
detectfattyliverhoweverfurtherstudiesarerequiredforevaluatethecapability of thesequence in
evaluation of fattyfraction of theliver.

Increasing Teeth Brushing Skills for Mentally Retarded Children with Application of “Educational Media Modification Puzzle” 3D

Tri Wiyatini .; Diyah Fatmasari; Shobirun .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2588-2594

Mentally retarded children experience higher dental and oral health
problems compared to normal children due their ability to carry out independent
activities, especially in dental and oral health maintenance behaviours. The right
behaviour change strategy is to provide dental health education using learning
methods and media tailored to the needs of mentally retarded children. Model of the
3D Gosgi modification puzzle was made specifically for learning carried out by
mentally retarded children in group and been assisted by teachers. Aims: Find effect
of application media puzzle modified 3D Gosgi as an effort to improve the skills of
brushing teeth for mentally retarded children. Research design is quasy experimental
and research location at Special Need School at Semarang, Indonesia. The subjects
were 30 mentally retarded children divided into two groups, intervention group was
given education with a modified 3D puzzle model for 5 d and control group with video
media and brushing teeth demonstrations. Measurement of index debris and tooth
brushing skills of mentally retarded children were carried out before and after
intervention. Statistical analysis used is Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney test. Puzzle
modified 3D gosgi are effective to decrease debris index (p < 0.001) and improve tooth
brushing skill (p < 0.001) compared to group with video and demonstration.
Application of puzzle modification 3D Gosgi by teacher for effective in improving the
brushing skills of mentally retarded children.

Relationship of Blastocystis subtypes and its co-infection with other parasites to the infection symptoms

Hossein Soleymanpoor; Andrea Giacometti; Zeno Bisoffi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2605-2615

Background: One of the common gastro-intestinal parasites worldwide is Blastocystis. Diverse
subtypes are employed to detect this microscopic parasite but there is not enough information on
the issue if these su-btypes may exhibit diverse clinical symptoms or not. This research aimed at
the evaluation of the clinical symptoms of the disease like itching and gastro-intestinal symptoms
in various subtypes as well as in Blastocystis co-infection with other parasites.
Methods: We extracted DNA from the fecal specimens of the cases that had been referred to the
Center for Tropical Diseases in Verona-Italy. Moreover, real-time PCR (RT PCR) was employed
to identify the available parasitic infections and nested PCR to detect the subtypes. Then, SPSS
was used to analyze data.
Results: Any significant relationship did not exist between the subtypes and clinical symptoms. In
addition, co-infection did not significantly related to the disease symptoms and a number of
parasites. The small statistical population may influence such results.
Conclusion: Further investigations must be conducted for determining the effects of Blastocystis
sub-types and their co-infection on the disease symptoms.

Role of Prophylactic Antibiotic (Cefotaxime) In Elective Surgical Procedures

Darshan Jit Singh Walia, Jaswinder Kaur, Manpreet Kaur, Nikhil Dehankar,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2616-2629

Introduction: The role of prophylactic antibiotics in elective surgical procedures in preventing surgical site infections has been well documented, however, their need continues to be ambiguous.
Aim: To evaluate the role of prophylactic cefotaxime therapy in the prevention of surgical site infection in elective surgery and its side effects
Materials and Methods: 100 patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled in the study after taking informed consent. They were divided into two groups of 50 each. Group A patients (control group) did not receive any preoperative, intraoperative or postoperative antibiotics whatsoever, and Group B patients (study group) received a single dose of intravenous cefotaxime half and hour prior to the induction of anaesthesia.  The severity of wound infection was graded according to Robertson’s Classification into grades 0-IV. Culture and sensitivity was done for the presence of pus.
Results: Of the 100 patients in the study, 7% patients developed surgical site infection. However with the administration of prophylactic antibiotics the rate of post-operative infection fell from 7(14%) to 0% (p<0.001). The duration of hospital stay was prolonged in patients that did not receive prophylactic antibiotics.
Conclusion:The use of cefotaxime as a prophylactic antibiotic is a cost effective method in preventing wound infection following clean, elective surgical procedures.
 

Assessment of the correlation of preoperative ultrasonographic findings and intra operative surgical findings in cases of acute appendicitis

Darshan Jit Singh Walia, Manpreet Kaur, Romel Singh Mohi, Sukhwinder Singh,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2630-2636

Background: Appendectomy for acute appendicitis is one of the most frequently performed surgical precedures. The development of imaging modalities, especially that of ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT), has enabled more accurate diagnostics with a significant decrease in false positive diagnoses, which has led to lower rates of negative appendectomies.Hence; the present study was conducted for assessing the correlation of preoperative ultrasonographic findings and intra operative surgical findings in cases of acute appendicitis.
Materials & methods: This was a prospective study conducted at Department of General Surgery, Rajindra Hospital, Patiala by including 50 patients presenting with acute appendicitis. A structured pre-prepared proforma was used to enter the complete history, investigations-hematological and ultrasound, intra-operative findings and histopathological report. Data collected was entered into MS-Excel 2013 spread-sheet.
Results: Amongst the 50 patients taken up for surgery, 42 were found to have acute appendicitis, while 8 patients were noted to have some other diagnosis. Based on these findings, the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in diagnosing acute appendicitis was calculated to be 92.86% and 87.50% respectively. The positive predictive value of ultrasound, i.e. – its ability to identify acute appendicitis correctly amongst all cases of acute appendicitis diagnosed on ultrasound was 70%. Its negative predictive value, meaning, the ability of ultrasound to accurately exclude the possibility of acute appendicitis amongst all the cases that are negative for acute appendicitis on ultrasound was 97.5%. The accuracy of ultrasound in identifying acute appendicitis was found to be 92% in the current study.
Conclusion: In equivocal cases sonography is better than clinical evaluation, while in unequivocal cases, ultrasound proves helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Effect of Dual Task on Balance in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Basant Said Hegazy; Dr. Mohammad Sadik Badawy; Dr. Usama Mohammad Rashad; Dr. Hanan Helmy El-Gendy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2637-2643

Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a complicated neurological disorder. Imbalance and ataxic features are challenging symptoms in MS.
Objective: To assess the effect of dual task on balance in ataxic MS patients.
Methods: Thirty relapsing remitting MS patients, ataxic type, were assessed under two conditions: single task condition (A) for assessing balance and dual task condition (B)assessing balance while doing a motor task. Two types of motor dual tasks were chosen, "holding a tray task " and " coin transfer task". For balance assessment, Biodex Balance System (BBS) and Timed up and go (TUG) were used.
Results: Condition (B) significantly change balance indices measured by BBS. Such changes were more pronounced under "coin transfer task" in comparison to "holding tray task". Moreover, there was increase in time of TUG-motor in comparison to TUG test.

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-DIABETIC HYPERGLYCEMIA PATIENTS TREATED IN INTENSIVE CARE

Amaliah .; Satriawan Abadi; Andi Makbul Aman; Syakib Bakri; Hasyim Kasim; Khalid Saleh; Himawan Sanusi; Fabiola.M.S. Adam; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2644-2657

Background of study: Hyperglycemia often occurs in critically ill patients even without a history of diabetes. Hyperglycemia, in hospital, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) is defined as a condition in which blood glucose levels are ≥140 mg/dl and HbA1c ≤6.5, without any prior diabetes history. Hyperglycemia results from an endocrine and metabolic response to stress. Studies and literature regarding hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients in Indonesia are deemed limited, especially case studies of non-diabetic hyperglycemia in intensive care and the prevalence of hyperglycemia related to age, sex, metabolic risk (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia), history of parenteral nutrition, history of corticosteroids use, and disease diagnosis.
Methods: The present study is a retrospective descriptive study using medical record data of patients at the HCU, ICU, Brain Center, and CVCU PJT Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital in August 2020 - October 2020. This study involved 90 non-diabetic subjects in intensive care. The inclusion criteria were based on the ADA criteria for non-diabetic hyperglycemia in the hospital.
Results: This study involved 44 non-diabetic hyperglycemic patients and 46 non-diabetic patients without hyperglycemia with a mean age of 53.5 years in non-diabetic hyperglycemic subjects and 57.7 years old in subjects without hyperglycemia. Non-diabetic hyperglycemia subjects with obesity (34.1%), hypertension (61.5%), and dyslipidemia (46.9%). Subjects with hyperglycemia with a history of corticosteroid use (95%). Based on the diagnosis of the disease when the subject was in intensive care, the subject with a diagnosis of CHD had hyperglycemia (36.8%), stroke with hyperglycemia (58.8%), and other diagnoses (infection, tumor, postoperative, and trauma) accompanied by hyperglycemia (57, 1%).

CEPHALOMETRIC VERTICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SKELETAL CLASS II MALOCCLUSION IN SOUTH RAJASTHAN POPULATION

Dr.RONIK NARAYANI; Dr NEERAL BARTHUNIA; Dr SANDEEP SINGH BHATIA; Dr.RISHI MANGAL; Dr.HAJIRA BHANU. S; Dr.RUGHANI DARSH ANIL

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2658-2666
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.08.03.237

Introduction: To describe the cephalometric vertical characteristic of skeletal Class II malocclusion in South Rajasthan population at Daswani Dental College and Research Center. Methods: A total of 100 lateral cephalograms of pre-orthodontic patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion were obtained from Daswani Dental College and Research Center. The lateral cephalograms were taken using digital cephalometric machine and were analyzed by manual tracing with experienced post graduates to determine the ANB, mandibular length, facial axis, Y‑axis, sella to nasion‑mandibular plane (SN‑MP), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), FMA, gonial angle, saddle angle and articulare angle Correlation between mandibular length and other variables was analyzed using Pearson correlation test with P < 0.05. Results: Increased ANB, short mandibular length, negative value of facial axis, large value of MP angle, Y-axis, and LAFH. There was also a significant correlation between mandibular length and various variables, namely, facial axis, ANB angle, and LAFH. Conclusions: Skeletal Class II malocclusion in South Rajasthan population at Daswani Dental College and Research Center was characterized by short mandibular length and large ANB mostly not by the increased of SNA but by the lack of SNB.

Jnanesh M, Dr. B Sadashive Gowda

Jnanesh M; Dr. B Sadashive Gowda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2667-2674

Nanofluids are dilute colloidal suspensions of nanoparticlesin a base fluid that exhibit
thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluid. The application of nanofluids
is to achieve the highest possible thermal properties at the smallest possible concentrations, by
homogeneous dispersion and stable suspension of nanoparticles in the host fluids. Nanofluids
plays vital role in various thermal applications such as automotive industries, heat
exchangers, solar power generation etc. Mostly heat transfer augmentation in solar collectors
is one of the key issues in energy saving, compact designs and different operational
temperatures. In this paper, a comprehensive literature on thermo physical properties of
nanofluids and the application of solar collector with nanofluids have been compiled and
reviewed. Recent literatures indicate the conventional heat transfer using nanofluids and their
specific applications in the solar collector.

FOURNIERS GANGERENE DUE TO FISH BONE MIGRATION

Dr SUDHARSHAN S MURTHY; Dr SARAVANAN SUNDARAM; Dr REKHA ARCOT MS, FRCS (G)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2675-2680

INTRODUCTION
Fournier’s gangrene is described as necrotizing soft tissue infection originating from or limited to the genitals or perineum irrespective of gender.
CASE REPORT
We report a case of 50 years over male presented to the emergency room with fever pain and discharge from perianal and scrotal region since 5 days. At debridement a foreign body was observed. This association is uncommon.
CONCLUSION
Fournier’s gangrene in a non-vegetarian person, foreign body should always be ruled out.

EFFECTS OF LEAD ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ZEBRAFISH EMBRYO

Tuan Van Ngo; Le Thi Lam .; Cang Ngoc Ly; Tram Thi Bich Tran; Huy Nghia Quang Hoang; Chi Nguyen Quynh Ho; Mai Thi Phuong Nguyen; Tram Le Ngoc Vo; Thuan Thi Tran; Nga Thi Nguyen; Long Thanh Le; Thao Thi Phuong Nguyen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2681-2687

This study aimed to assess the effects of lead treatment on zebrafish embryo development. Embryos were treated with lead in various concentration at 0.1 μg/l, 1 μg/l, 10 μg/l, 20 μg/l, 100 μg/l. The results demonstrated that there was no difference in ratio of live embryo between control group and lead treatment group for 24 h. However, the live ratio of embryo was reduced in the high concentration of lead treatment from 72 h to 168 h. Lead treatment induced an increase heart rate in zebrafish embryos for 48 h and 72 h. In addition, the down-regulation of GADD45A (Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45 alpha), GADD45G (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 gamma), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1) and SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2) was observed in zebrafish embryos for 168 h of lead treatment.

Comparison of the Effects of the Leaf Extract and Gum of Pistacia atlantica and Chlorhexidine on the Growth Initiation of S. mutans: An in vitro Study

Saeedeh Mokhtari; Ataollah Ahrari; Zahra Hosseini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2688-2697

Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases, the main etiologic factor of which is Streptococcus mutans. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the leaf extract and gum of Pistacia atlantica on the growth inhibition of S.mutans in comparison to chlorhexidine (CHX).
Methods: In the present in vitro study, the antibacterial effects of the extract and gum of this plant were evaluated in comparison to that of CHX. The microbial sensitivity was evaluated by determining the diameter of the growth inhibition zone. In addition, the turbidity test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the materials against S.mutans.
Results: No growth inhibition zones for S.mutans were detected around the materials derived from P. atlantica, while a 24-mm growth inhibition halo formed around CHX. The MIC values for CHX and the leaf extract and gum of P. atlantica were 1.256, 1.8 and 1, respectively.
Conclusion: In general, the present study showed that the antibacterial effect of CHX on S. mutans was higher than those of P. atlantica derivatives. In addition, the P. atlantica leaf extract exhibited higher antibacterial activity compared to its gum, which is used as chewing gum in some regions

Analysis of Caesarean Section Rate According To The 10 Group Robson Classification in Zagazig University Hospital

Emad Mohammad Ahmad Hassan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2708-2715

Background: Increase rate of unnecessary caesarean sections has been a growing concern in the world. WHO proposed the Robson classification system as a global standard for assessing , monitoring and comparing caesarean section rates within healthcare facilities overtime and between facilities. Aim: To assess and analyze Cesarean Section Rate (CSR) of Zagazig university hospital over the period of six months using the 10 Group Robson classification system .
Patients & methods: This prospective cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology at Zagazig University Hospitals, Zagazig, Sharkia, Egypt, from January 2019 till June 2019. All women admitted for delivery were classified using Robson classification .
Results: 2333 women were admitted for delivery. 854 (36.6%) gave birth by vaginal delivery while 1479(63.4%) by CS. Women classified into Group 5 made the greatest contribution to the overall CS rate (53.2 % relative contribution). The second highest contributors were Women in Group 10, (10.2% relative contribution) to the overall CS rate. Women in group 2 made the 3rd largest contribution (8.9 % relative contribution to the overall CS rate. Then groups 4 ,7 ,8 , 6, 1 , 3 , 9 by relative contribution 8.5 % ,4.2 % , 3.9 % , 3.6 % , 3.5 % , 2.8 % , 0.8 % respectively.
Conclusion: Robson Groups 5, 10, and 2 were identified as the main contributors to the overall CS rate at our hospital.The most common indication of performing Cesarean Section was previous CS. Robson classification can be incorporated successfully into the routine maternal and perinatal data collection system to improve the monitoring and evaluation of caesarean section rate.

Accessory Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (AFCU)

Dr. Amarjeet Kaur; Dr. Seetharama Mithanthaya; Dr. Swati Bedekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2725-2728

Variants of Flexor Carpi Ulnaris(FCU) are clinically important as they cause ulnar nerve
compression. The present article is documented on the anatomical variation found during
routine dissection. FCU had its normal origin and insertion while Accessory flexor carpi
ulnaris (AFCU) was found with absence of palmarislongus (PL). Awareness of variations of
FCU are helpful in reconstructive surgeries of forearm and hand.
Method:
The right upper limb of a male cadaver was dissected during routine dissection in the
Department of RachanaSharir, J.S. AyurvedMahavidyalaya, GujaratAyurved University. All
superficial flexor muscles were exposed. The humeral and ulnar heads of FCU was dissected
and AFCU was found having musculotendinous origin and central muscle belly inserting in
the pisiform bone with the absence of PL. Relevant photographs were taken for
documentation.
Result:
The FCU has its normal origin and insertion. AFCU had a fleshy-tendinous origin having two
heads, the small humeral head arising from the medial epicondyle via the commontendon
whereas the ulnar head had its origin from the medial margin of theolecranon. This common
tendon is long and continuous into the fleshy belly in the middle part of the muscle and
inserted into the pisiform bone. Ulnar vessels and nerve lied lateral to the insertion of the
AFCU. There was absence of PL.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS REGARDING ‘ETHICS IN DENTISTRY’-A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY.

Monisha. K.; Dr. Abhilasha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2729-2736

Ethics comes from the Greek word meaning ‘ethos’ originally meaning character or conduct.
It is typically used interchangeably with the word moral which is derived from the Latin word
‘mores’, which means customs or habits. Together these two terms refer to conduct, character,
and motivations involved in moral acts. Ethics is defined as a branch of philosophy concerned
with the study of those concepts that are used to evaluate human activities, in particular the
concept of goodness and obligation. It is a generic term referring to the moral code of conduct
in a civil society and the rules, customs and beliefs of that society.Dentistry, being one of the
healing professions, has an obligation to society that its members will stick on to high ethical
standards of conductThe purpose of dental ethics is to heighten ethical and professional
responsibility, promote ethical conduct and professionalism in the field of dentistry.It also
advances the dialogue on ethical issues, and stimulate further reflection on common ethical
problems in dental practice. This study assesses the knowledge among dental students
(undergraduates) in dental ethics.

GAME CHANGER IN ORTHODONTICS - A CLEAR ALIGNER REVIEW

DR.SANTHOSH KUMAR SOMI; DR.JAGRITI SETIA; DR.NIVEDITHA SIVANANDHAN; DR. VIDHYASHREE; DR.HAJIRA BHANU SYED

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2737-2750

With the advancing developments in every nook and corner of medical science and
dentistry, the field of orthodontics has also changed in recent years.Digital imaging
and computers have improved the diagnostic process. The introduction of prescription
brackets, bonding, NiTi and other alloy wires have improved the treatment
productivity and efficacy. Adult patients looking for orthodontic treatment are
progressively propelled by aesthetic considerations. Most of these patients reject
wearing labial fixed steel appliances and are looking rather to more aesthetic
treatment alternatives, including ceramic braces, lingual orthodontics and clear plastic
aligners. The change in perspective in orthodontics has led to the introduction of
Aligner System.

Chest Ultrasound for Simple and Complicated Bronchiolitis Differentiation

Ahmad M. Romih; Sanaa M. Abdelsalam; Sameh Saber; Atef Mohamed M. Khalil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2756-2762

Background: Bronchiolitis usually occurs during the first year of life, with a peak
incidence between 3 and 6 months of age. Chest Ultrasound has been proposed as a
diagnostic tool in many diseases in the pediatric and neonatological settings. The
aim of the present study was to differentiate simple versus complicated cases of
bronchiolitis in infant by chest ultrasound. Patients and methods: A prospective
observational study was conducted in Pediatric Department, Zagazig University
Hospitals.Inclusion criteria included infants aged 1 month to 2 years fulfilling
clinical criteria of acute bronchiolitis. Steps of performance included consent from
relatives to participate in the study, complete history taking, full clinical
examination, laboratory investigations, chest X-ray, chest Ultrasound and chest CT.
Results: Our results showed that wheeze was the commonest presentation (100.0%)
of the studied group followed by crepitation (12.3%) of them then Refusal of
feeding (9.2%) and lastly fever (5.0%) of the studied group. There was (55.4%) of
cases were complicated bronchiolitis by U/S and (44.6%) were simple. The
commonest cases (96.9%) were discharged with only (3.1%) death rate. The X-ray
was able to detect only (50.0%) of complicated cases and 29 cases (100.0%) were
excluded by both. Conclusion: Chest ultrasound is considered more sensitive and
specific than CXR in the diagnosis of complicated cases of acute bronchiolitis.
These data suggest that a positive chest ultrasound may avoid the need to perform
CXR in these patients.

A critical review on electro-analysis of clinically important drug Paracetamol

Mamta Latwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2763-2772

Paracetamol have been extensively used in both the human and veterinary clinics due to its
antipyretic and analgesic properties.It is considered as a well-tolerated drug in patients
suffering from aspirin intolerance, ulcers, or difficulty in blood clotting. It is very important to
monitor the doses of paracetamol in the patient’s body under examination since the overdose
results in accumulation of toxic metabolites which may cause severe adverse effects. Due to a
wide use of paracetamol and the adverse effects of its over dose, it is alwaysbeing an
interesting issue to develop suitable techniques for its quantitative as well as qualitative
analysis. The development of simple, convenient, highly sensitive, versatile, fast and economic
techniques is very necessary to control the over uses of this drug causing many side effects.
Various techniques used for the determination and detection of paracetamol have been
reviewed in this paper predominantly focusing on electro-analytical methods.

A COMPARATIVE IN-VITRO DISSOLUTION AND IN-VIVO BIOAVAILABILITY STUDY OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM OF PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE AGAINST THE MARKETED TABLET FORMULATION

JYOTI VARDHAN JAISWAL, RAJENDRA PAL SINGH RATHORE, SACHIN NATHU KAPSE

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2773-2784

Objective: Aim of this study is to compare the in-vitro multimedia dissolution and in-vivo bio availability of mouth dissolving film of Promethazine hydrochloride with marketed tablet formulation.
Method: Solvent casting method was used to prepare the mouth dissolving film. The prepared film was characterized for average weight, thickness, drug contents, mechanical properties and disintegration time. Multimedia dissolution comparison of the film was performed in 0.01N Hydrochloric acid, pH 4.5 acetate buffer and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer to calculate the f2 values in each media. Furthermore, the film was evaluated for bioavailability comparison with the marketed tablet formulation Phenergen-10 in newzealand male albino rabbits.
Results: Value of similarity factor (f2 value) was found more than 50%, in all three dissolution media. There was no statistically significant difference found between the pharmacokinetics parameters; Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞. The 90% CI values for the mean ratios (test/reference) of Cmax (112.245 ng/ml), AUC0-t (106.451 ng/ml.hr) and AUC0-∞ (104.067 ng/ml.hr) suggested that the test formulations is bio-equivalent to the reference tablets.
Conclusion: These finding revealed that the mouth dissolving film of promethazine hydrochloride could be the promising option of the conventional tablet formulation for controlling the motion sickness in elderly and giardiac population.
Keywords: Multimedia Dissolution, Mouth dissolving film, Bio-equivalence study, Promethazine hydrochloride
 

INQUISITION TECHNIQUE OF AYURVEDA SCHOOLING – AN ANCIENT ART

Dr. Shruthi Panambur, Dr. Sri Nagesh K.A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2785-2795

Introduction - Medium of knowledge is education which helps to uplift skills to lead a healthy life. Gurukula was an education system in ancient India through which the knowledge was rendered in a systematic way from guru to shishya. The inquisitiveness to learn, gave a foundation for methodology to teach –learn- evaluate.  Aim – To review on prashnaashtaka - the classical art of inquisition on the content of the text is intended as mentioned in Charaka Samhita. To apply and analyze the technique of questioning and answering-prashnaashtaka and to analyze its significance. Materials and Method –Literary study will be carried out through the available sources of Ayurveda classics there by analyzing the methods of ancient schooling techniques. Application of these techniques for every science and its importance will be discussed. Results – The study clarified the importance of inquisitiveness on the concepts to attain detail knowledge about the topic. Quest to learn from fair and valid question is the main reason for absolute and accurate knowledge. Discussion – classical method of analyzing any literature and a need of study protocol is being discussed. Importance of prashnaashtaka in gaining knowledge is being discussed, application of prashnaashtaka in Ayurveda and in manuscriptology is been dealt. Conclusion- The knowledge is gained by having inquisitiveness and expressing it in proper way by asking meaning full question. The importance of questioning and also answering according to one’s knowledge is understood. Reason behind the structure of a book in known. Prashnaashtaka also helps in the study of manuscriptology.
Key words: Prashnaashtaka, charaka Samhita, manuscriptology

The Effectiveness of Dry Cupping and Hot Pack in Pain Relief and Reduce Functional Disability on Non-specific Low Back Pain

Azira Iqlima Razali, Bsc; Lee Ai Choo, PhD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2796-2810

The objective of this study was to identify the effectiveness of dry cupping and hot pack on pain relief and reduce functional disability for patients with non-specific low back pain. A total of 39 patients with non-specific low back pain from Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were chosen as participants using purposive sampling methods. The participants were randomly assigned equally (N=13) into dry cupping group, hot pack group and control group. Dry cupping group received a session of treatment in a week, hot pack group received twice a week of treatment session and control group had no treatment, but the participants were allowed to continue their previous treatment. Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) was used to measure pain intensity and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to measure functional disability before and after the intervention for all three groups. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with significant level was predetermined at p<0.025 prior to study. The study findings indicated that both dry cupping group and hot pack group showed significant improvement on pain relief (p=0.001) and functional disability (p=0.001) after completing the interventions when compared to control group. Therefore, both dry cupping and hot pack were found to be effective interventions for pain relief and reduce functional disability among patients with non-specific low back pain. Health professional practice are suggested to include dry cupping therapy as another choice of treatment in treating patients with non-specific low back pain.

Knowledge and practices of dental students of Kashmir regarding antibiotic prescription and development of resistance : A cross sectional study

Dr. Iram Kahkashan; Dr. Sana Farooq; Dr. Nazia Lone

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2811-2818

As odontogenic infections have multimicrobial etiology like Gram-positive, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobes, and obligate anaerobic bacteria so major proportion of analgesics and antibiotics are prescribed by dentist. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge , practices and awareness of dentist of Kashmir regarding antibiotic prescription and development of resistance .75% of dentist agreed self medication as a prime reason of antibiotic resistance and abuse. As per the survey there was overprescription of antibiotic by the dentist and over the counter use of these medication by patients.

Convolutional Neural Network Architecture for Skin Cancer Diagnosis

Michael Cabanillas- Carbonell; Randy Verdecia- Peña

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2819-2833

In recent years, Malignant Melanoma Cancer has caused an increased exponential in human diseases, for this reason, it is essential to detect it from its early stages. Deep Learning is one of the most applied technologies for the analysis of images oriented to medicine, facilitating the diagnosis of diseases in patients, allowing them to make accurate decisions about their health. In this paper, we propose a convolutional neural network architecture derived from the evaluation of different convolutional neural networks that meet the objective of obtaining more pressure on the information of the acquired image. The model for the problem is based on a binary distribution, 1 in case of malignant and 0 for benign, so that melanoma can be detected early and is very useful, for this we used 2 different datasets with a total of 2650 images for training the architecture. Finally, a comparison of the results obtained in other research has been made, where the metrics of our project are considerably improved by having 3 layers. This new architecture is a proposed solution for the optimization of training and validation of images.

Thoracolumbar disc herniation: a hidden cause of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

Eric Chun-Pu Chu; Patrick Sim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2834-2840

A 30-year-old male with a 4-year history of chronic back pain complained of recent episodes of sharp mid back pain referred to his right sacroiliac joint and gluteal area, presumably resulting from twisting injury occurred while playing basketball one week prior. Magnetic resonance imaging showed obvious intervertebral disc degeneration and a right paracentra a right paracentra a right paracentraa right paracentra a right paracentra a right paracentraa right paracentraa right paracentra l soft disc herniation l soft disc herniation l soft disc herniation l soft disc herniation l soft disc herniation l soft disc herniation l soft disc herniation l soft disc herniation l soft disc herniation l soft disc herniation l soft disc herniation compressing the spinal compressing the spinal compressing the spinal compressing the spinal compressing the spinal compressing the spinal compressing the spinal compressing the spinal compressing the spinal compressing the spinal compressing the spinal cord cord at the T12/L1 level at the T12/L1 level at the T12/L1 levelat the T12/L1 levelat the T12/L1 level at the T12/L1 level at the T12/L1 levelat the T12/L1 level. The patient experienced significant pain relief and was able to regain significant mobility of his mid back within two weeks after starting chiropractic care. Moreover, the patient also reported a multi-year history of nocturnal enuresis without daytime symptoms. He unexpectedly found that the symptoms of enuresis spontaneously resolved during the course of treatment. Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis under discussion under discussion under discussion under discussion under discussion under discussion under discussion under discussion under discussion was an uncommon consequence of spinal cord compression (conus medullaris syndrome) caused bycaused by caused by caused by caused by thoracolumbar disc herniation

A NEW CHEMO PREVENTIVE TARGET GETTING REVEALED

PHILIPS ABRAHAM; SACHU PHILIP; Dr. MADHAVAN NIRMAL; Dr.SETHUPATHY. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2842-2851

Indigofera Aspalathoides has been an important ingredient to prepare oils used for the skin diseases and studies with the stem extract demonstrates that it has antitumor, antiviral and antibacterial effect. In our study chemopreventive effect of ethanolic and chloroform extract of Indigofera aspalathoides(EIA) and (CIA)was tested on DMBA induced buccal pouch carcinoma in hamster . The biochemical analysis of Phase I xenobiotic enzymes and histopathological examination of oral tissues were done using gold standard methods.The activity of Phase 1 enzymes were significantly elevated in 
the buccal pouch of DMBA painted animals when compared to control animals. The expression of CYP1B1was significantly elevated in the buccal pouch of DMBA painted animals when compared to control animals. Also the expression of AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 in buccal pouch showed a significant elevation in the level of these protein in the DMBA alone treated group when compared to control animals. This study shows that there is a lack induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent responses after exposure to AHR agonists, suggesting an overall down-regulation of the AHR signaling pathway.

EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOXICITY STUDY, AND STANDARDIZATION OF RV FORTE CAPSULE

Dr. Vidhyadhar Vaidya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2852-2863

diabetes, metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. The incidence of such diseases is growing day by day around the globe and causes various complications. The disease not only affects the quality of life but also the mortality rate with this disease is too high. Considering these factors, it is important to come up with a simple yet potential solution for reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, RV New Visions Health Care Pvt. Ltd has developed an RV forte capsule as a potential treatment for reducing oxidative stress and help to fight against cancer.
Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of RV forte capsule was evaluated In-vitro by using DPPH scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging assay, and Reducing power assay. Further, toxicity testing in animal models and the standardization using the HPTLC method was done.
Results: The formulation RV forte capsule showed significant anti-oxidant action when compared with standard ascorbic acid. The percentage scavenging activity of RV forte capsule was found to be 14.2 - 60.05 % at 50 - 500 ug/ml by DPPH scavenging assay,17.57 – 55.27 % by hydrogen radical scavenging assay, and the reducing power was found to be increasing with increased absorbance at 50-500 ug/ml concentrations. In toxicity testing, no toxicity was found at the dose of 100mg/kg.
Conclusion: The study thus proves, RV forte capsule has significant antioxidant activity

Tracheostomy on a COVID-19 Patient:Case report and Review of Literature

Nekwu E. Okolugbo; Ufuoma M. Efole; Onome O. Ogueh; Anastacia O. Ojimba; Ejiro A. Benjamin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2864-2872

A new respiratory illness the severe acute respiratory virus (Sars Cov2), was identified at the beginning of the new decade 2020.
Severe cases present with respiratory distress and tracheostomy has been considered to play a role in their management.
We present a report of a Tracheostomy performed on a Covid-19 patient and also a review of the relevant literature.
A 62 year old man, was brought in on a transport ventilator with a endotracheal tube insitu. From a private clinic after testing positive for COVID-19.
While on admission he desaturated further and subsequently had a tracheostomy done with marked improvement of the oxygen saturation immediate post operative period.
However on the day following the tracheostomy, he desaturated suddenly, resuscitation was commenced immediately but proved abortive, Patient was later certified dead.
Despite the unfavourable outcome, we believe the decision to perform the tracheostomy offered the patient a chance at survival

Covid-19: A Pedodontist Perspective

Dr. Shimoli Shah; Dr. Deep Devendrabhai Patel; Dr. Susheel Kumar; Dr. Rucha Thakkar; Dr. Himani Janakbhai Patel; Dr. Musaib Syed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2873-2880

The COVID-19 outbreak has affected human existence in many ways, with
uncertainty faced globally. The dental practice and orthodontic care during the pandemic
and future practice will require precautionary and selective case evaluation based on the
practitioner’s judgment to reduce cross-contamination and prevent new outbreaks. This
article aims to provide a comprehensive guideline for managing the pediatric dental
patients at a clinical setup, using the currently available guidelines.

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ECONAZOLE NITRATE CONTAINING FILM-FORMING GEL

Shefali Srivastava; Utkarsh Verma; Rohit Kumar; Nidhi Bhatt

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2881-2895

Objective- The aim of present study is to develop a film-forming gel (FIFOGE) formulation of Econazole nitrate with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as a gelling agent, Eudragit RS PO as a film forming polymer and Triethyl citrate as a plasticizer. Tenia pedis is fungal infection of skin occurs in athlete’s foot. Econazole nitrate is broad spectrum antifungal drug used in treatment of tenia pedis having high resistance towards fungal infection. For the treatment of fungal infection of skin, antifungal drug requires to be present for longer duration of action in contact with the skin. Therefore, the formulation having prolonged drug release is required. Method- Film-forming gel forms a thin, transparent film like layer on the skin and provides a prolonged release of Econazole nitrate. So, such formulation reduces duration of therapy and improves patient’s compliance. To optimize this formulation, we applied the Response Surface Analysis technique and evaluated it. In the chosen design (Box-Behnken statistical screening design), 3 factors were evaluated, each at 3 levels and all 13 possible combinations were performed in the experimental trials. The Drug concentration, Eudragit RS (PO) and concentration of Triethyl citrate were chosen as independent variables. Drug content was selected as dependent variables. Result- The optimized film-forming gel obtained was formulated and evaluated for all parameters

Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of PEG - Cardamom Essential Oil Nanoparticles Against Phoenix dactylifera Infesting Insect Pest Oryzaephilus Surinamensis

N. Hemalatha, K. Ramesh Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2896-2912

The study deals with the EO-NP's encapsulated cardamom essential oil for insecticidal activity. The prepared nanoparticles were subjected to characterization studies using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis, Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. The DLS analysis revealed that the size of the nanoparticles had a slight increase in diameter after three months of storage. Similarly, the characterization with TEM showed that the prepared nanoparticles were of round or spherical shape with clear morphology without any crack in the external surface. Considerable mortality was observed from the insecticidal bioassay carried out by contact, fumigant toxicity with cardamom essential oil nanoparticles encapsulated with PEG (EO-NPs) against adult Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus) (Coleoptra: Silvanidae). Further the Cardamom EO-NP's also produced significant repellency effect on the adult insects. About 85% mortality (Contact Toxicity) and 81% mortality (Fumigant Toxicity) was observed with 0.025 mg x cm2 concentration of EO-NP's. The results indicate that the cardamom essential oil encapsulated with PEG nanoparticles could be an effective alternative to chemical pesticides for the control of stored product grain pests. Further this is the first report on the insecticidal efficacy of PEG encapsulated Cardamom essential oil against Oryzaephilus surinamensis.
 

Role of Arsenic Trioxide in understanding its evolution in cancer defense

SamyaMairaj .; Richa Dave Nagar; F. Rehman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2913-2920

Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen that contributes to the progression of multiple cancers and has recently been reported to be one of the most effective new anticancer agents in the treatment of various cancer types, together with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) as well as other solid tumors. However, the effect of arsenic and its compoundson different metabolic processes are still unknown. In cancer therapy, the advancement of arsenic trioxide in the treatment of different cancers has a unique history. The glorious past of arsenic and its different forms with a significant focus on arsenic trioxide as a therapeutic approach along with the mode of action, pathogenicity, pharmacokinetics, health hazards, current clinical studies of arsenic trioxide is illustrated in this study.Besides, how arsenic strengthens its deleterious effects and how it can effectively contribute to new therapeutic developments must also be understood.Therefore an urgent need for a deeper understanding of arsenic's contradictory effect, which could have the potential to be an effective medication for different kinds of cancers. In this review, we emphasized its selective channels that would have been beneficial in focusing attention over its real role in terms of toxicity as well as potential medications for the treatment of various forms of cancer.

HEPATITIS B INFECTION LEADING TO SUB-ACUTE LIVER TRANSPLANT: A CASE STUDY

Sushma Devi, Avinash Kumar, Parvinder Kumar, Viniyendra Pamecha, Anish Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2921-2930

This research paper tries to inform about the unfamiliar and lethal outcomes of missing a simple hepatitis B vaccination and being infected with viral diseases. We have tried to compile various symptoms, ways of transmission, preventive measure and progression of hepatitis B. This is a case study of a 32 year old lady who had symptoms of muscle pain joint pain, jaundice and weakness. Her early symptoms were clearly showing association with significant liver disease leading to liver failure due to viral hepatitis B although she had no relevant medical history. Her symptoms progressed rapidlyuntil liver failure and required immediate liver transplant. We present various symptoms, clinical factors that may have influenced her progression to sub-acute liver failure as described in the literature.

Assessment of dental practitioner’s perception of COVID-19 pandemic effects on their clinical practice: A questionnaire-based study

Sridevi Ugrappa; Ajay Jain; Vijay Kumar Ugrappa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2931-2943

Aim: To evaluate the dentist’s perception regarding the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on
their clinical practice in the post-lockdown period.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among dentists, practicing in
India, through an online close-ended structured questionnaire. Both convenience and
snowball sampling were used for the distribution of online forms. The frequency
distribution test and chi-square test (α=0.05) were performed for the demographics, clinical
expenditure of the dentists & treatment provided to the patients by the dentists and to
evaluate their perception of clinical practice in post-lockdown period, respectively. The null
hypothesis stated that there is no difference in their clinical practices and alternative
hypothesis stated that the dentists did anticipate and felt the change in their clinical
practices amid COVID-19 pandemic. The data were tabulated and analysed using IBM
SPSS for Windows, v. 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, USA).
Results: The response rate was 98.52% and the p-valuefor all the questions related to the
perception of their clinical practice amid COVID-19 pandemic was less than 0.05,
suggested that the dentists have anticipated and felt that there will be a change in their
clinical practice amid COVID-19 pandemic.

Comparative evaluation of bond strength of different dual cure composite core materials with glass fiber post:An in-vitro study

Dr.Nitesh Shrivastava; Dr. Almas Shaikh; Dr. Aushili Mahule; Dr. Jay Dondani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2944-2956

Aim: Toevaluate the retention of glass fiber dental post embedded in three different types
of dual cure core materials namely, Luxacore Z, Compcore AF and Corecem.
Materials and method:Ninety prefabricated fiber reinforced posts (D.T. light Posts) were
taken and divided into three groups. The post surface was treated with silane coupling
agent (Monobond-S, Ivoclar-VivadentSchaan, Liechtenstein) as per the manufacturer’s
instructions. Bonding agent (Prime and Bond-Dentsply, U.S.A.) was applied on post
surface with brush and cured according to manufacturer’s instructions.Each of the three
core build-up materials were manipulated according to the respective manufacturer’s
instructions and a core of 4 mm core height was prepared by using prefabricated matrix.
Thirty specimens for each core build up materials were made.

Complications of chemotherapy port catheters (CPC) in patients with cancer, A 5-year follow up study

Farshidmehr Pezhman; Omrani Zahra; Cheraghali Roozbeh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2957-2963

Totally implanted central venous port systems are widely used for chronically ill patients, who
need long-term access to central veins for prolonged therapy. As we do not have enough data
about the rate of complications in the Iranian population, we designed this study to investigate
our early and late complications related to chemotherapy port catheters (CPC), implanted by
vascular surgeons, assessing some risk factors and proposing ways to avoid or reduce them. In
this prospective study, 160 patients treated for cancer in Sina and 5th Azar hospitals in the
department of chemotherapy from January 2016, were participated. Our inclusion criteria
were age >18 years old, port surgery at our institution by vascular surgeons, ability to
understand the procedure, and provide consent for the study. Patients with serious physical
diseases or mental problems and children were excluded. A total of 160 patients (56 men and
104 women) were included. The mean age (±standard deviation) of patients was 53.5 (±16.49)
years. Forty-six patients (28.8%) had breast cancer and 72 (45 %) had gastrointestinal cancer.
We had 2 missing data in our follow-up, fifty patients (31.2%) still have their
catheters,70(43.8%) died and 38(23.8%) catheters were explanted. We didn’t have early
complications as we did the procedure under ultrasound and fluoroscopy guidance. Our
overall rate of complication was 6.8%. In this study, we reported infection as the most frequent
late complication related to our 160 chemotherapy ports. Future multi-centered studies with
large cohorts are needed to further corroborate our findings

Assessment of cases of placenta accreta, placenta increta and placenta percreta in peripartum hysterectomy specimen

Anam Khurshid; Ishani Gupta; Subhash Bhardwaj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2964-2968

Background: Abnormal placentation can be classified into three distinct entities such as placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. The present study was conducted to assess cases of placenta accreta, placenta increta and placenta percreta in peripartum hysterectomy.
Materials & Methods: 136 peripartum hysterectomy specimen after staining the slide with haemotoxylin and eosin stain, microscopic examination of section was done.
Results: Abnormal placentation was placenta accrete in 71, placenta increta in 45 and placenta percreta in 20 cases. The risk factors was previous LSCS in 84, placenta previa in 40 and pre‑eclampsia            in 12 cases. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). In 50 cases parity was uniparous and in 86 cases multiparous. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Abnormal placentation was placenta accrete seen in maximum cases and it is associated with multiparous parity

Numerical Analysis of the Thermal Behavior of a - Tube Heat Storage Unit Using Phase Change Materials

E. Benchara; S. Ouhaibi; N. Bellougadia; K. Mansouri; O. Bouattane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2969-2975

storage by latent heat systems becomes the appropriate solution in several solar heat
applications. In this context, we lead the proposed study concerning the thermal storage by latent
heat in a solar domestic water heater. A quantitative comparison has been developed to sort out the
performances of a given unit of latent heat storage (LHS) under the effect of some physical
parameters. The inlet velocity and inlet temperature of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and
geometrical parameters like the radius of the storage pipe are considered as the influent parameters
in this issue. The obtained results show that the increase of the inlet velocity and temperature allows
the increase of rate fusion of the PCM and reduces the fusion time. However, the increase of the
radius of the pipe makes the time of fusion relatively long

Study Of Stress And Thermo-Optic In Photonic Crystal Fiber Laser With Tow End Pump Scheme

Mostafa Abouricha; Anas El Kasmi; Said Amrane; Abdelkader Boulezhar; Ali. Nassiri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2976-2981

In this paper, we present a study of thermal, change in index of refraction and
stress in photonic crystal fiber (PCF) lasers with the tow-end pump scheme.
We show the effect of the tow-end pump scheme, small length of fiber and the
large radius fiber on the beam quality is the most suitable choice compared to
large length and small radii of fiber. In addition, we show that management of
thermal effects in (PCF) lasers will success of scaling up efforts and determine
the efficiency.

Proteomic approaches reveal the deregulation of Apoptotic proteins in MCF7 breast cancer cell line treated byred seaweed, Gracilaria corticota

Ananthi Sivagnanam; Balasankar Thangasamy; Ambika Pushparaj; Pushparaj Arunachalam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2982-2987

Background: Breast cancer is always known to be a major health problem globally. Though
many advancements are achieved in treatment strategy for breast cancer, still the patient survival
rate is not promising for all the affected patients. Hence there is an emerging need for an
alternative medicine for treating cancer patients.
Objective: Thus, we aimed to understand the possibility of using commonly available red
seaweed, Gracilaria corticota in treating breast cancer. To analyse this, we aimed to check the
seaweed extract’s efficiency in breast cancer cell lines, MCF 7 using proteome wide analysis.
Method: The MCF7 cells were treated with red seaweed extract and incubated for 48 hrs.
Further the treated cells were scraped and lysed to extract the proteins. The extracted proteins
were estimated and further subjected to proteomic profiling. To analyse the differential protein
expression and identification of the proteins, two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass
spectrometry was adapted.
Results: We found upon seaweed extract treatment in MCF7 breast cancer cell line, important
apoptotic proteins were deregulated. These proteins include the down regulation of
BCL2,BCL2L1 and MCL1 and upregulation of BAX protein upon treatment when compared to
untreated cells.

Health Effects of Cyanogen Chloride and Methods of Controlling its Percentages in Water

REEM N. DABAIBEH

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2988-3004

Cyanogen chloride is a toxic chemical compound with the formula NCCl. This linear,
triatomic pseudo-halogen is an easily condensed colorless gas. More commonly
encountered in the laboratory is the related compound cyanogen bromide, a
room-temperature solid that is widely used in biochemical analysis and preparation.
This paper presents a description for Cyanogen chloride formation and creations, its
effects on animals and human bodies, and finally methods to control its percentages
in drinking water under the acceptable levels. The method of controlling its
concentration in water is summarized by using suitable chemical additives and noting
the time for settlement and then removed from the samples. A comparison between 4
additives in removing Cyanogen chloride is performed for the same sample of water.
It is found that as the concentration of NCCl increases the pOH of the sample
increases while pH decreases. Also, for the four additives NH4+, CN-1, Cl2 and
SO2 for the water samples, it was found that SO2 is the most efficient chemical
additive in removing CNCl since it needs the lowest time of removing CNCl.

A STUDY TO EVALUATE QUALITY OF NURSING CARE PRACTICES AND PATIENT SATISFACTION AMONG PARTURIENTS ADMITTED IN OBSTETRIC UNITS OF A SELECTED TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL AT LUCKNOW

R. Padma Hepsiba; Dr. TAPTI BHATTACHARJEE

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3005-3016

The present study was undertaken to evaluate quality of nursing care practices and patient satisfaction among parturient admitted in obstetric units of a selected tertiary care hospital at Lucknow.
The objectives of the study were:
1. To assess the quality of nursing care practices provided to parturients admitted to the obstetrics unit of a territory hospital at Lucknow.
2. To determine the maternal satisfaction level among parturients admitted to obstetric units of a tertiary care center.
3. To associate the quality of nursing care practices with patient satisfaction in a selected territory care hospital at Lucknow.
5. To associate the relationship between quality of nursing care practices and demographic variables.
6. To associate the relationship between patient satisfaction and demographic variables

SYNTHESIS OF SOME NEW DERIVATIVES OF COUMARIN CONTAINING PYRAZOLINE AND INVESTIGATION AGAINST HUMAN LUNG CANCER CELL LINE

A. S. LUNKAD1, R. L. SAWANT

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3028-3036

: Synthesis of some new derivatives of coumarin containing pyrazoline derivatives, being used as against human lung cancer cell line, 3-acetyl coumarin (I) was prepared by Knoevenagel condensation of salicyladehyde with ethyl acetoacetate in presence of piperidine. A series of 3-[(2E)-3-substituted-prop-2-enoyl]-2H-chromen-2-one derivatives (2a-h) were prepared by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 3-acetyl coumarin with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of piperidine / n- butanol. Treatment of 3-substituted cinnamoyl coumarin with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of ethanol gave [5-substitutedphenyl]-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2H-chromen-2-one (3a-h). Title compound were synthesized and the structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their anticancer activities using SRB assay. The anticancer activity revels that some of the synthesized compounds possesses moderate anticancer activity.
 
KEY WORDS: Pyrazoline, aromatic aldehyde, anticancer activity, SRB assay.
 

Changes in Soft tissue profile of Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with and without extraction – A systematic review and meta-analysis

Ramya Krishna M, BDS; Maria Kuriakose, MDS; Parvathy Ghosh, MDS; Sapna Varma N.K, MDS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3037-3047

Objective: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the changes in the soft tissue profile of Class II division 1 malocclusion patients treated with and without extraction.
Methods: Databases were searched and supplemented by hand searching as well. Studies with prospective or retrospective and randomized or non-randomized design and Class II division 1 malocclusion patients receiving orthodontic treatment with extraction compared to patients treated without extraction were included. Outcomes assessed were changes in soft tissue linear and angular cephalometric measurements. Included studies were retrieved and assessed for Risk of Bias based on a validated checklist. Meta-analyses were done to summarize the overall effects and a Random-effects model was applied.
Results: Ten studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and seven were eligible for quantitative synthesis. Meta-analysis showed a significant increase in Nasolabial angle in both extraction groups (four premolar and two premolar), a significant decrease in overjet in the non-extraction group compared to four premolar extraction, and significant a decrease in overjet in the non-extraction group compared to two premolar extraction. While there was no significant difference regarding the upper lip to E line and lower lip to E line.
Conclusion: A significant increase in the nasolabial angle is associated with both extraction (four premolar and two premolar) protocols while the decrease in overjet and overbite was significant in non-extraction protocols when compared to four and two premolar extraction respectively.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF IN RURAL MOUNTAINOUS AREAS, VIETNAM

Hao Ngo Xuan; Tran Huu Ai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3048-3060

Responsible tourism and nature conservation are gradually becoming a new potential development trend in rural areas with unique natural and cultural resources. In the mountainous region of Vietnam, with its majestic mountainous landscape and cultural heritages imbued with the identities of 54 ethnic groups, it has a remarkable effect in creating jobs, increasing people's income, contributing to protection. environment; conservation of local natural, cultural and historical heritages. Visitor perceptions were analyzed through a questionnaire survey conducted in 2020. The sampling method used in the survey was a random selection. We need an industry that provides a way to mitigate ecological impacts, benefit local communities and reduce poverty - a industry that is reflected in its organization and practice in economic, environmental, and cultural sectors the role of responsible tourism. Therefore, education is especially important through knowledge sharing and awareness building on in rural mountainous areas.

Research in Psychosocial Genomics: A New Perspective of Genes Modulation in Response to Psychological and Social Experiences

Giovanna Celia, Mauro Cozzolino

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3072-3076

In the context of covid-19 pandemics, different studies have reported an increase in the occurrence of psychological symptoms in the population, linking the coronavirus outbreak to a mental health epidemic. Stress and anxiety are the most commonly reported symptoms, along with panic behavior, fear of public events and other less impacting psychological issues. During the pandemic most affected countries have implemented online mental health interventions to deal with social distancing and isolation. To this end, it appears necessary to manage long-term impacts of the pandemic on mental health through effective evidence-based therapies, easily administered online. In the present work, mind-body interventions are discussed as an effective tool to this purpose. Particular focus is paid on the link between mental processes and gene expression, through the application of valid new class of mind-body practices: Mind-Body Transformations Therapy (MBT-T) and Creative Psychosocial Genomic Healing Experience (CPGHE). MBIs have been proven to be effective tools particularly in stress reduction as well as overall well-being promotion, in addition, they are easy to learn and administer both face-to-face and online.

Awareness of Stroke and Thrombolytic therapy in attendants of Neurology Patients

Dr Abhinav Gupta, Dr Ankush Sharma, Dr Nitin Gupta, Dr Ranjana Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3077-3084

Worldwide, stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability and there are substantial economic costs for post-stroke care. Results from the 2015 iteration of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) reported that although the age-standardized death rates and prevalence of stroke have decreased over time, the overall burden of stroke has remained high. As populations age, and low-income and middle-income countries go through the epidemiological transition from infectious to non-communicable diseases as the predominant cause of morbidity, together with concomitant increases in modifiable risk factors, it is expected that the burden of stroke will increase further until effective stroke prevention strategies are more widely implemented.1
In India, age-standardized prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases has increased by 12.2% and the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) has increased by 53% from the period raging between 1990 to 2016. It has been seen as the fifth leading cause for years of life lost and DALYs in 2016. Increasing life expectancy and risk exposure is linked with the increasing prevalence of stroke and disability among the survivors, with significant socioeconomic consequences for patients, care givers, and health services.2
Attitude or outlook towards the stroke is affected by the knowledge along with the practices undertaken by people to prevent and treat stroke. Appropriate knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs, practices of stroke prevention or the immediate action that is necessary in dealing with a stroke patient can arrest both mortality and morbidity among the public.3
Further, in-spite of availability of thrombolytic therapy, patients do not arrive in time for the treatment this may be due to lack of awareness of stroke & its risk factors. Hence, we chose to carry out the survey with the objective to determine the level of knowledge about stroke and its treatment.
 

A Comparative Study of Indian and Western Ethics

Ms. K. Anuradha , Dr. D. E. Benet

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3085-3091

English Studies today include a wide range of subjects that come close to be called literature. Philosophical treatises on ‘all things human’ form the core of literary endeavours. The history of English Literature shows how writers like Robert Burton, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, George Berkeley, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Bertrand Russell and very many others have established a rich tradition of writing or a form of literature that has human happiness and welfare as its focus. Ethical principles and precepts are always regarded as categorical imperatives that govern human lives and are directly related to morals and duties. Literature has always been either didactic or entertaining. The text Hindu Dharma is a selected discourse of the great Acharya, Chandrashekarendra Saraswathi Shankaracharya. It was translated into English by the renowned writer RGK. The book Hindu Dharma (original text Deivattin Kural) translated by RGK into English includes only volume I and II. The text Hindu Dharma not only focuses on Dharmasastra but also guides all aspects of life and by throwing light on all the branches of knowledge.
 
Key Words: Ethical Writings, Didactic and religious literature

NOVEL METHOD IN INTERVENING PULPAL CANAL OBLITERATION WITH 3D - PRINTING: A REPORT OF TWO CASES

Dr. Suhasini Kokat; Dr Asha Jyothi Pachimatla; Dr Shekhar K; Dr Thakur Veerandar Singh; Dr. Kirthi; Dr Kaushik Vihari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3092-3101

Pulp calcification is one of the factors that make endodontic treatment challenging and capable of compromising access of instruments and irrigant solutions to the entire extension of the root canal, making it impossible to disinfect it adequately. Pulp canal calcification (PCC), also known as pulp canal obliteration or calcific metamorphosis, is characterized by the deposition of calcified tissue along the canal walls. PCC cases are associated with luxation injuries of dental trauma and pulpal responses to various insults such as Invasive pulp therapy procedures, Extended carious lesions, Abfractions, and Restorations. 

EVALUATION OF SERUM MIRNA-217 AND MIRNA-143-3P AS POTENTIAL BIOMARKERS FOR ESOPHAGEAL ACHALASIA

Mahin Gholipour; Javad Mikaeli; Seyed Javad Mowla; Marie Saghaeian Jazi; Narges Fazlollahi; Masoud Khoshnia; Abdolvahab Moradi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3102-3108

The use of a low-risk and convenient diagnostic method is important in the early diagnosis of achalasia and could prevent the side effect of delay in initiation of treatment. According to our previous NGS study, two miRNAs, hsa-miR-217 and hsa-miR-143-3p were differentially expressed in achalasia esophageal tissue. The present study aimed to assess two microRNAs, hsa-miR-217 and hsa-miR-143-3p as serum biomarkers for early detection of achalasia. Serum was collected from patients with achalasia and non-achalasia participants. The relative expression of hsa-miR-217 and hsa-miR-143-3p were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of hsa-miR-217 was different in the serum of patients with achalasia and controls, but this difference was not significant (p-value = 0.572). Besides, the results showed that the serum expression of miRNA-143-3p was not significantly different between the patients with achalasia and the control group (p-value = 0.366). Our findings could not support serum miRNA-217 and miRNA-143-3p as potential diagnostic biomarkers for achalasia.

Photobiomodulation in Management of Periodontitis and Periimplantitis - A Review

Mikkili Rajya Lakshmi; NVS Sruthima G; Gautami S Penmetsa; Ramesh KSV; Mohan Kumar P; Vivek Bypalli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3109-3118

Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level laser (or light) (LLLT). Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy has attracted special attention and its applications in dentistry and medicine are continuously growing. Parameters of photobiomodulation, Molecular mechanisms and management of periodontitis and peri-implantitis which includes the healing responses, osseointegration, implant stability were summarized in this review.

AN INSIGHT INTO TELEMEDICINE : A REVIEW

Dr. Vino Tito V Kurien; Dr. Mahitha M C; Dr. Suhana Shamsuddeen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3119-3125

“Tele” is a Greek word meaning “distance” and “mederi” is a Latin word meaning “to heal.” Telemedicine can be defined as the use of telecommunications technologies to provide medical information and services. It is the use of information and communications technology to deliver health care services to people who are some distance from the health care provider. Telemedicine has a wide range of applications in patient care, education, research, administration and public health. It has come a long way in terms of both healthcare delivery and technology. It is a common practice in developed countries; it has been widely used in developing countries to resolve the issues of medical care access. Even though telemedicine cannot resolve all the problems, it can undoubtedly help reduce the burden of the healthcare system to a large extent. In this article, the literature pertinent to telemedicine and its applications are reviewed and summarized.

Case report – An esthetic approach to treat class II subdivision malocclusion using clear aligners

Dr.Muralidharan Dhanasekaran; Dr.Thirunavukkarasu. R; Dr.Tamizhmani J; Dr.Prasanth C; Dr.Bhuvaneswari Mani; Dr.Rakshethaa S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3126-3136

Evolving recent advances in esthetic orthodontic treatment like clear aligners increased a need for esthetic treatment compared to conventional fixed appliances. The clear aligner is a clear, removable and made up of semi-elastic polyurethane material where it uses computer aided modeling technique for the purpose of fabrication and to move the teeth for establishing optimal occlusion. The objective of this case report was to explain an advanced orthodontic treatment method for correction of Angle’s class II subdivision malocclusion with proclined upper and lower incisors, increased overjet, midline spacing in upper & lower anteriors and upper midline deviation towards the left side by 3 mm relating to the facial midline using clear aligners. At the end of aligner treatment, class II malocclusion, spacing and proclination within short period of time was corrected compared to that of fixed appliance. The patient was satisfied about functional and esthetic outcome after 1 year follow up

Left sided Amyand’s hernia in a case of giant inguino-scrotal strangulated hernia of an infant -A rare case presentation.

Poonam Gupta; Anil Kumar; Umesh Kumar Gupta; Rafey A. Rahman; Nand Kishore Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3137-3139

Inguinal hernia containing vermiform appendix as a content is known as Amyand’s hernia. Herniotomy and excision of appendix from scrotal approach is ideal treatment of Amyand‘s hernia. We reported a case of left sided strangulated hernia in an infant, on exploration which was found containing gangrenous caecum, inflamed appendix and small portion of oedematous distal ileum.

Redefining the Aim of Treatment – An Ayurvedic View

Dr.ARPANA PV

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3140-3152

Health is a state where all the bodily constituents are in equilibrium and functioning to their optimum capacity. Maintaining the health of a healthy individual and alleviating the disease to get back health in an individual is the aim of Ayurveda. Though all treatments aim at bringing back the equilibrium, the present treatment practices are limiting themselves at alleviation of diseases. The signs and symptoms of equilibrium of all the bodily constituents though clearly explained, it is not practically assessed in patients by the doctor. It may be because of the lack of knowledge or the current trends of clinical practices. This lack of assessment may be considered as one of the reasons for a consistent and gradual raise in incidence and recurrence rate of diseases. The doctor plays an important role in establishing the equilibrium of bodily constituents. He is considered the reason to initiate, assess and continue treatment till signs and symptoms of equilibrium of all the bodily constituents are established. Once alleviation of disease is done the doctor has to advice certain rules and restrictions of diet and regimen for the patients to follow in order to maintain the equilibrium of the bodily constituents. Equilibrium of all the bodily constituents is the most essential factor to assess for the completion of treatment successfully. Once the signs and symptoms of equilibrium of all the bodily constituents are properly assessed, the doctor can avoid the recurrence of diseases and also avoid the possibility of emergence of new disease. Alleviation of disease can be considered as the stepping stone towards treatment and all the other signs and symptoms of equilibrium of bodily constituents have to be established to call it a successful completion of treatment

ANALYSIS ON THE INDIVIDUAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE FLARE UP OF FOOD POISONING AMONG HOSTEL STUDENTS - A SURVEY

S. Vidyashri; M.P. Brundha; Priyadharshini R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3153-3164

Introduction: Diseases are of two types based on the etiological agents- food borne poisoning and food borne infections. Food poisoning is caused mainly due to Poisonous chemicals or other toxic substances present in food. Ingestion of contaminated drink or food with toxins or bacteria or chemical substances causes acute gastritis. The main problems faced by the students residing in hostels are quality of the food served, sanitation and cleanliness of the hostel, pure water supply and first aid facilities in case of need. Food directly impacts the health of the student and unsanitary food causes a negative outlook of the student which in turn impacts the students desire to stay in the hostel. Potentially risky procedures include preservation of leftovers in an unsanitary environment, reheating of food in a possible unsafe way and food preparation with unprotected wounds on their hands. Student education regarding food poisoning needs to be in focus in an effort to decrease diseases which are food borne.

Study of Factors associated with pathological and aerobic microbial colonization of Neonatal Gastrointestinal System – A hospital based Case control study

Faheem Moideen; Baliga Kiran; Harris M M; Davdidson Devasia; Ali Kumble

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3165-3168

The rate and extent of neonatal gastrointestinal tract colonization depends on various perinatal
and neonatal factors. Colonization of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after birth could be delayed because of
prematurity, caesarean delivery or total parental nutrition. The ill and preterm neonates in NICU acquire
intestinal flora that differ from that of healthy newborn. Objective: Hence we aim to study the factors associated
with pathological colonization of aerobic microbial flora in neonates and find pattern of pathogenic aerobic
microbial colonization of neonates. Methodology: The study was done on 94 neonates in a tertiary teaching
hospital NICU , 51 cases with pathological colonization ,43 control with normal colonization. Data collected
using Performa, Oral and rectal swabs taken Results: 68 neonates who received antibiotics 46 (90.2%) were
cases 22(51.3%) were controls. Staphylococcus aureus was predominant suggesting influence of maternal
colonization. Cases were more in babies born through LSCS and in babies whose mother had received
antibiotics Conclusion: Of all factors influencing establishment of pathological microbiota in neonatal GIT
which are interdependent , neonatal exposure to antibiotics was the most significant . Emergence of MRSA ,
ESBL are of particular concern as these are a constant threat as source of health care associated infection

The Genetic Relationship of Piper nigrum L. of Central Highlands and South Vietnam Assessed by rbcL gene

Thuy T K Dang, Trang T H Nguyen, Duoc T Nguyen, Tuan T Tran, Giap D Do, Long T Le

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3169-3179

The genetic relationships of Vietnamese black pepper varieties in the Central Highlands and Southern were evaluated by comparing the rbcL gene sequences of the collected black pepper varieties and the reference sequences on the base source NCBI data. Analysis results of nucleotide gene sequence variable rbcL of black pepper varieties showed Vietnamese varieties have much variable in nucleotide sequence compared to Asian varieties. The important characteristic variable areas of the Vietnam II black pepper group occurred at position 59292 (except for varieties SDL, VLDN5 and VLDN6), positions 59282 and 59295, variable appeared in 5 varieties (VLPQ1, VLVT1, VLGL3, VLDN4 and VLDN5), accounting for 41.67% of total samples collected. Genetic distances of black pepper varieties collected in the Central Highlands and the Southern, Vietnam (Vietnam II) (0.024 ± 0.005) with the Asian group were higher than those of black pepper group researched (Vietnam I) (0.001 ± 0.001). The phylogenetic tree demonstrated the difference between the two groups of Vietnamese black pepper. Among the varieties in the Vietnam II group, only the VLDN6 pepper variety has a close relationship with the Asian group. Analyzing the variable positions, the group Vietnam II was divided into 3 groups: Group I: VLPQ3; Group II: VLGL3, VLDN4 and VLDN5; Group III: SDL, VLVT1, VLVT2, VLDS1, VLGL1, VLPQ1 and VLPQ2. Thus, black pepper in the Central Highlands and Southern regions of Vietnam will be potential region for genetic diversity research in Asian pepper populations.

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CORTICAL BONE THICKNESS AT INFRAZYGOMATIC CREST, BUCCAL SHELF AREA, ANTERIOR MAXILLA FOR PLACEMENT OF BONE SCREWS IN NORMODIVERGENT, HYPODIVERGENT AND HYPERDIVERGENT PATIENTS PROTOCOL FOR CBCT STUDY

Dr.Rashmi Jawalekar; Dr.Neha Badole; Dr.Aman khan; Dr.Eshita Jaiswal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3180-3193

Craniofacial morphology is determined by genetics, environmental factors
and functional demands. Craniofacial system involves maxillary-mandibular region,and
muscles surrounding it. Hard and soft tissues are affected by strain from masticatory
forces. Cortical bone adapts to the strain it is subjected. Strain on muscles maintains the
form and the mass of the bone. Higher strain induces production of bone while lower
strain values lead to bone loss. It is observed that strain on muscles varies in individuals
having different facial forms, bite force and malocclusion. Thus, one can relate between
muscle function, cortical bone thickness and facial divergence. 1,2 Anchorage can be
served by using sites other than teeth without unwanted side effects. With the advent of
implants for replacing missing teeth, its use for orthodontic anchorage was also
introduced.Temporary anchorage devices (TADS) are the Mini-implants commonly used in
orthodontics with versatility, minimally invasiveness and cost effectiveness. Use of TADS
as the means of absolute anchorage is one of the most important revolution in anchorage
considerations over last few years. 4

Classifying Covid-19 Chest X-ray Images Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Deep Learning: A Comparative Analysis

A. Veronica Nithila Sugirtham, Dr. C. Malathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3194-3207

More than a year since the novel coronavirus was first discovered, its presence is
still prevalent throughout the world. In such grave situations if technology can help
humans combat the spread, then why not explore it. Therefore, keeping this in mind,
several researchers have already started investigating artificial intelligence algorithms to
find solutions to predict coronavirus using X-ray images of chest. But due to lack of
dataset during the initial days of their research, many came up with framework using pre
trained image classification models such as VGG-16, Inceptionv3, ResNet-50 and others.
In this paper, the performance of two machine learning algorithms which are support
vector machine and decision tree has been evaluated. Further developed deep learning
model applying convolutional neural network to classify the chest x-ray images as covid-19
or normal. The final CNN model was also integrated with a user interface and hosted on
web server for easy access which allows anyone to upload the chest x-ray image from his
computer or mobile and check the result.

Synthesis, Characterization and anti-tubercular activity of substituted thiosemicarbazones and their Ni(II) complexes

Qurat Ul Ain, Sheikh Insha, Rekha Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3208-3214

Complexes of substituted isatin-3-thiosemicarbazones (H2itsc-N1-Me, H1L; H2itsc-N1-Ph, H2L)
and substituted indole-3-thiosemicarbazone (HIntsc-N1-Ph, H3L) with Ni (II) and
triphenylphoshine of formula, [NiCl(L)(Ph3P)] (anionic form of L = 1L, 1; 2L, 2, 3L, 3) have
been synthesized. The ligands and complexes have been characterized using spectroscopic
techniques (IR, 1H NMR). 1HNMR of complexes supports binding of thio- ligands in anionic
form. All the ligands (H1L – H3L) and their complexes were evaluated for their antitubercular
activities. The enhancement in anti-TB activity of ligands on complexation with Ni(II) has
been observed.

Phylogenetic relationship of mouse deer from the Southern of Vietnamassessed by Cytochrome b

MaiThi Phuong Nguyen, Cang Ngoc Ly, TungThanhHa, HuyNghiaQuangHoang, HuyenThiThuongNguyen, MinhThiTran, ThaoThi Phuong Nguyen, Quan Minh To, SonNghiaHoang, Chi Nguyen QuynhHo, LongThanhLe

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3215-3221

This study aimed to assess the phylogenetic relationship of Vietnamese mouse deer from the
Southern ofVietnam using cytochrome b. Eleven mouse deer samples (CT1 to CT9, and LD1-
LD2)from Lam Dong Province and Cat Tien National Park of DongNaiProvince were used
for this investigation. The sequence analysis revealed 37 polymorphic sites,in which 13
variable positions (14328, 14337, 14400, 14427, 14436, 14466, 14523, 14526, 14530, 14537,
14541, 14544, 14550) were observed in Vietnamese mouse deer.Moreover,Vietnamese mouse
deer showed the lowest genetic distance withTragulusjavanicus (0.031 ± 0.014)compared
toTragulusnapu (0.051 ± 0.022)andTraguluskanchil (0.035 ± 0.016). Phylogenetic tree
building showed that Vietnamese mouse deer were clustered in distinct group with 100%
bootstrap probability. In addition, the variable position at 14325 (A  G) contributed to the
separation of CT2, CT4, CT7, and CT8 in one group with 64% bootstrap probability.

Influence of Psychological Capital on Employee Engagement and Explored the Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment

Fr. Reginold John

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3222-3231

This study tested a conceptual model of the influence of psychological capital on employee engagement and explored the mediating effects of mediating role of organizational commitment. The hypothesized relationships were investigated using structural equation modelling. The results also show the positive significant relationship between psychological capital and employee engagement, psychological capital and organizational commitment and also between organizational commitment and employee engagement. Theoretical and operational effects of these results are addressed in this paper. The data for the study were collected using an online questionnaire survey with a sample of 153 employees working in UVJ Technologies, CSEZ, Kakkanad.
 

Review: The Effect Of Iron Homeostasis During Pregnancy On Maternal And Fetal Body

Ali Jabbar Abdulhussin, Shihab Hattab Mutlag, Mahmood Kahtan Salih, Abdul-Hafeed H. Abdul-Wahab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3232-3244

Millions of people suffer from iron deficiency which can lead to anemia annually. Most of those population are low income, and poor diet intake which leads to health and function implications. Interestingly, woman and particularly pregnant female are increase their demand for iron supplement to avoid the serious health consequences on their body and fetus. The iron deficiency and anemia have a great risk on pregnant women and fetus heath which can induce many health defects during perinatal period. On the other hand, the excessive iron level in the mother body can lead to Fenton reaction and generation of free radical which can damage fetus tissue specially in brain, liver and kidney. Therefore, adjusting iron dose and level during pregnancy are a crucial medical intervention to avoid multi organ damage either by deficiency or excessive intake of iron. In this review, iron metabolism and its effect on mother and fetus health will be discussed with the appropriate intervention to control the low and high level of iron during pregnancy.
 

To study the changing pattern of bacterial flora and their sensitivity patterns in grade IIIB open fractures of long bones: a prospective study at a Tertiary Centre in North India

Dr.Gursagardeep Singh; Dr. Mandeep Singh; Dr. Anshul Dahuja; Dr.Rashmeet Kaur; Dr.Radhe Shyam; Dr.Haramritpal Kaur; Dr. Shipra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3245-3259

Primary goal in management of open fractures is prevention of infection of bone and soft tissue by early debridement, irrigation of wound and administration of broadspectrum antibiotics with stabilization of fractures. The pattern of organisms found in open fractures is important in the selection of antibiotics for prophylaxis and empirical treatment. In this prospective study, 50 consecutive patients of all ages, both the sexes, with open fracture of grade IIIB as per Gustilo- Anderson classification were evaluated for bacterial isolates. Higher rate of infection was found in patients with farm injuries and leg was most common site. The most common gram negative and gram positive bacteria isolated were E.coli and S.aureus respectively (19.5% each). On analysis of the predebridement, post-debridement, and third culture, positive pre-debridement culture showed maximum growth of Gram-positive bacteria. However, majority of these patients were found to have growth of different organism in their post-debridement culture reports.

The Effect of Empowerment Education on Prevention of Incontinence Associated Dermatitis in Immobility Patients

DyahWulan Ramadhani; Ridha Dharmajaya; Asriza .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3260-3265

Incontinence can cause serious complications such as skin damage in the perineum.
Incontinence Associated Dermatitis (IAD) is skin damage caused by exposure to urine or faces.
Health education is sometimes not optimal because of its inaccurate purpose and lack of patients'
involvement and empowerment. Patient or nurse empowerment-based-health education or
educational empowerment is a reciprocal relation between professional health care providers and
patients in which patients develop their skill, knowledge, and self-confidence to determine the focus
on health care. The study aimed to find out the effect of empowerment education on preventing the
incident of IAD in immobility patients. The study was quasi-experimental with two groups pre-test
and post-test. Thirty-six were sample divided into two groups (control and intervention) and
collected by purposive sampling. Data were analyzed by using paired t-test and an independent ttest.
The results showed that there was a difference between pre and post-intervention so that there
was the effect of empowerment education on prevention of the incident of IAD in immobility
patients.

study on the Role of Social Capital in Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience Building evidence from the coastal communities, Odisha, India

Jaya Krishna Behera

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3266-3284

The purpose of this study is to highlight the role Social capital played in protecting the
most vulnerable families and individuals in emergency and carried out series of preventive
and preparedness strategies to effectively manage risk and crisis situation during the wake
of disaster. The researcher primarily engaged qualitative methods of data collection like
focused group discussion, key informant interview and observation. Men and women from
the different occupation very much affected by disasters like flood and cyclone in the year
2011(great flood), 2013 (cyclone Phailin) and 2019 (cyclone Fani) participated in the data
collection process. The empirical results suggest that social capital in the form of bonding,
bridging and linking extended humanitarian support to the individuals, families and
communities in pre, during and post disaster situation especially providing relief, rescue,
and evacuation and above all solaced the people suffered from psychological and physical
shocks due to horrendous loss of livelihood and infrastructure they witnessed. The
immediate support, cooperation and help that the disaster victims received are they
themselves. Before the govt. administration or any external help reaches, people in the
communities helped each other for survival. Social capital for and with the most
vulnerable people is like an informal insurance in cases of disasters.
These findings may be eye-opening fact for the readers, researchers, developmental
professional and policy makers to formulate a road map to build resilient communities

EVALUATION OF THEIMPLEMENTATION OF CASE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS AT RSUP HAJI ADAM MALIK MEDAN

Detty Silalahi; Bustami Syam; Roymond H. Simamora

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3285-3295

Hospital is one of the strategic elements to improve the public health status.
Therefore, a hospital needs a design or strategy to carry out a sustainable service
process. One such care model is case management. This study aims atevaluating the
implementation ofcase management programs at Central Public HospitalHaji Adam
Malik Medan. This type of research is mixed-method research with a sequential
explanatory design approach. The instruments used at the quantitative stage were
demographic data, perception questionnaires of room nurses about the implementation
of case management programs, and observation sheets for the implementation of case
management programs. Meanwhile, at the qualitative stage, the focus group discussion
(FGD) interview guides were used. This research had been conducted within two
months.The samples were 46 nurses consisting of heads of rooms and team leaders.
For the qualitative stage, there were 9 participants. The results based on the perception
questionnaires showedthat respondents’major characteristics were educated with
Nurse Profession Certificate (95.7%), female (100%), positioned as team
leaders(69.6%), and had worked for 17—22 years (60.9%). Characteristics based on
the observation sheets were educational background with NurseProfession Certificate
(66.7%),gender of female (100%), and work experienceof 17—22 years (66.7%). The
results of the questionnairesalso revealed that nurses’perceptions about the
implementation of case management programswere good (87%). The results of the
observations showed that the implementation of case management had been carried
out well (100%). However, the activities were carried out orally, were not structured,
and were not documented according to standards. The results of FGD obtained 4
themes, namely: 1) case management programs that have been carried out in hospitals,
2) obstacles in implementing the case management programs, 3) supporting factors for
the implementation of case management programs, 4) future expectations for case
managers.

Omphalomesenteric Duct Remanent with Urachus (Double Anomaly) in a Child with Umbilicus Discharge –Arare presentation.

Rafey A. Rahman, Poonam Gupta, Umesh Kumar Gupta,Nand Kishore Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3296-3299

Umbilical disorder are most frequently seen in infantile age group. Complete or partial
developmental defect in umbilical cord leads to variety of clinical presentation. We
reported here a rare case of umbilical disorder having omphalomesenteric duct and
urachus remnant.

PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PATIENTS VISITING DIFFERENT OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENTS(OPDs) OF A PRIVATE DENTAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, CHENNAI, INDIA - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Vaishnavi Devi. B, Pratibha Ramani, Delphine Priscilla Antony. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3300-3316

Diabetes mellitus is a group of physiological dysfunctions characterised by increased blood
glucose level resulting directly from insulin resistance or impaired insulin secretion leading to
micro and macrovascular complications. The oral complications of diabetes mellitus includes
increased incidence of dental caries, dry mouth, burning mouth syndrome and periodontitis.
Assessment of blood glucose levels is essential prior to any specialised procedure to avert any
further oral and systemic complications. Screening of diabetes mellitus condition has become
a necessity in developing countries and study of this nature will have enormous public health
impact. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients visiting
different outpatient departments of private dental college hospital, Chennai. All the cases
referred from the month of June 2019 to March 2020 for random blood sugar tests were
chosen for the study. Data was collected from the dental hospital record system. Result data
was tabulated in excel and imported to SPSS for correlation and association. P<0.05 was
considered to be the level of statistical significance in this study. Within the limits of the
present study, diabetes mellitus prevalence in random blood sugar tested patients is 33.3 %
with a higher male incidence and more prevalent among the age group of 41 to 60 years.
Knowledge about the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the patients visiting dental hospital will
be helpful to the clinician to prevent any further complications before any specialised
procedure.

FIBEROPTIC BRONCHOSCOPY FINDINGS IN ENDOSCOPICALLY VISIBLE BRONCHIAL CARCINOMA

Ravi Bhaskar, Seema Singh, Pooja Singh, Amit Bhagat, Sanchit Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3317-3320

Flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 60 proved patients with lung cancer. Tumors were endoscopically visible in 38 (63.3%) of patients. Of the endoscopically visible tumors, the primary sites of involvement were: main bronchus in 21 (55.3%), lobar bronchus in 14 (36.8%), and segmental bronchus in 3 (7.9%) of patients. Histopathological examination of bronchial biopsies yielded positive diagnosis in 31 (81.6%) of patients, and a combination of bronchial biopsy, bronchial aspirate cytology and postbronchoscopic sputum smear examination yielded diagnosis in 35 (92.1%) of patients with lung cancer. Squamous cell and small cell carcinoma were the common central tumors found in 60% and 28.5%, respectively. Flexible fiber optic bronchoscopy is a valuable technique for the diagnosis of endoscopically visible bronchial carcinoma.
 
 Keywords: fibreoptic bronchoscopy, lung cancer, histopathological, endoscopically.
 

Vertical Ridge Augmentation Using “Bone Ring” Technique along with Simultaneous Implant Placement in Patient with Nephrectomy- A Case Report

Pallavi Yawale,Kaustubh S. Thakare,Pooja Khatri,Dhanashree Chaudhari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3321-3328

Although chronic kidney disease (CKD)has been considered a global publichealth problem,
itseffect on dental implanttreatmentis largely unknown. Atrophic or severely deficient
edentulous single tooth dental implant sites require osseous augmentation before any dental
implant placement.However, due to complications of CKD, bone grafting procedures, and
dental implant treatment for renal failure patients and patients with nephrectomy is more
challenging. This article presented a successful case of vertical ridge augmentation using
DFDBA allograft “Bone ring” along with simultaneous implant placement in a patient with
nephrectomy.

NUSMILE ZIRCONIA CROWNS: PEDODONTIST PERCEPTION TO RESTORE ESTHETIC SMILES

Dr. Susheel Kumar; Dr. Kanumuri Pratej Kiran; Dr. Ganga Achutha; Dr Karuna Muthe; Dr Pratik Surana; Dr. Shweta Vijaykumar Sagare

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3329-3334

For a pediatric dentist restoring the esthetic smiles is an immense challenge, much of the
literature highlights on class V restorations and composite strip crowns. This article presents
an overview on Nusmile ZR crowns and its clinical implications in children with esthetic
disturbances.

Double Immunohistochemical Expression of FAK and PCNA in Odontogenic Keratocyst, Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst, Dentigerous Cyst and Glandular Odontogenic Cyst

Seham Hazem El-Ayouti, Heba Mahmoud Dahmoush, Hatem Wael Amer

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3335-3345

Background: Odontogenic cysts are distinctive disorders that affect oral and maxillofacial
tissues.The majority of odontogenic cysts such as dentigerous cysts and orthokeratinized
odontogenic cyst show an indolent course, whilst others demonstrate an aggressive behavior
and may have higher recurrence rate like odontogenic keratocysts and glandular odontogenic
cysts.Here wecompared FAK and PCNA expression in the previously mentioned cysts and
attempted to correlate the findings to their variable clinical behaviors.
Aim of the study:This study aimed to clarify the role of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in
invasion potential, proliferation and aggressiveness of these lesions, which had been achieved.
Methods: Double Immunostaining technique for FAK and PCNA was performed on the same
tissue specimens using two types of chromogens. DAB chromogen was used for the assessment
of nuclear expression of PCNA, while AEC chromogen was used for the assessment of
cytoplasmic expression of FAK.
Results: The greatest mean of the nuclear immunoexpression of PCNA was recorded in
glandular odontogenic cyst group, followed by the odontogenic keratocyst, while the greatest
mean area percent of the cytoplasmic expression of FAK was recorded in odontogenic
keratocyst group, followed by the glandular odontogeniccyst

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STRESS AND PERIODONTAL DISEASE

Oksana Kononova, Anatoliy Borysenko

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3353-3361

Introduction. The severity and nature of periodontal disease depend on a number of factors. An
important place is occupied by the general condition of the body, the presence of systemic
diseases, environmental influences, and chronic stress and so on. A number of clinical studies
have examined the possible relationship between psychological stress and periodontal disease.
Objectives. To determine the influence of psychosomatic state on periodontal tissues of the
examined residents.
Material and methods. To conduct the study, a questionnaire of 350 residents of Kyiv and several
other cities of Ukraine was conducted. Diagnosis of anxiety self-assessment was performed by
determining the Spielberger-Khanin test of reactive and personal anxiety and DASS-21. The
subjects examined the oral cavity and assessed the condition of the periodontium.
Results. A higher level of systemic diseases was found in residents with insufficient living
conditions. It also affected the higher level of personal anxiety of residents. High levels of
personal anxiety affect the prevalence and structure of periodontal disease. Thus, the study of the
impact of psychoemotional stress on the course of periodontal disease and further development of
appropriate schemes of rational treatment of periodontal disease (periodontitis) in people with
psychoemotional stress.
Conclusions. Analysis of the levels of reactive anxiety in the subjects depending on the presence
and type of periodontal diseases showed that the subjects with the presence of chronic gingivitis,
the level of reactive anxiety was quite moderate. A slightly higher level of reactive anxiety was
found in patients with periodontitis. The level of personal anxiety is higher if the subjects have
periodontitis.

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic On Mental Health Of Medical Students During Second Wave In Puducherry, India.

Dr.V.R. Sridhar; Dr. Agila Chandran; Ms. Janani Sivaramalingam; Dr. Rohit Balakrishnan; Dr. Arun Seetharaman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3362-3377

Mental health has taken a toll during this on going pandemic. Emerging research assessing
then mental health implications of COVID-19 has identified an increased prevalence of
depressive and anxious symptomatology among the general public. The on going second wave
has led to a further deterioration of mental health. Studies also showed an increase in
prevalence of psychiatric disorders among young adults and also in medical students.
AIM: The aim of this study is to identify major stressors associated with the COVID-19
pandemic and to understand their effects on college students’ mental health.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Participants were recruited from the student population of
our institute, Sri Lakshmi Narayana institute of medical sciences, Pondicherry. 250 medical
students both undergraduate and postgraduate and students of Allied health sciences were
included in this study. Pre-final, final and postgraduate students, first year students of the
allied health sciences participated in the study.
DATA ANALYSIS
Demographic variables were expressed using Descriptive statistics. DASS 21 questionnaire
items were expressed in frequencies and proportion. Chi-square test was used to test the
significance. Analysis was done by using SPSS version 23. P value < 0.05 will be considered as
statistically significant.

IN VIVO DEPOSITION AND INHALATION TOXICITY OF CEFDINIR LOADED FUNCTIONALIZED CARBON NANOTUBES AS NOVEL APPROACH OF FORMULATION OF RESPIRABLE PARTICLE.

Krishnat D. Dhekale, Ravindra N. Kamble

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3378-3392

A dry-powder inhaler (DPI) is a device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder which are commonly used to treat respiratory diseases. Present work was attempted to investigate the potentialities of Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as a pulmonary carrier for targeting Cefdinir tolung infection. Functionalization of MWCNTs by reported method and loaded with Cefdinir using the Incipient Wetness impregnation method to formulate Cefdinir loaded respirable particle(CLRP) which has efficient treatment against lung infections.This is evaluated by particle size, flow properties in vitro release kinetics, in vivo deposition study, acute inhalation toxicity study and Ex-vivo antimicrobial study. The results indicated that CLRP are nontoxic and 95% entrapment with better flow properties was achieved. The optimized formulation had particle size is6.482±0.09 μm. The release pattern of CLRP was shown to release in a controlled manner for 24 hours (i.e. after 24 hours it was 88 %). In vivo lung deposition study showed that maximum amount of drug is present in lung. Formulated respirable particle show better antimicrobial activity against gram (+ve) andgram (-ve). This work established a novel, easy to prepare with better drug loading efficiency.
 
Keywords: Respirable, Cefdinir, Deposition, Functionalization, Wetness Impregnation Method.

Comparative analysis of clinical, radiological and operative findings in Acute Abdomen Cases

Dr.Sumitoj Singh, Dr. Ashok Kumar, Dr.Nandu unnikrishnan, Dr.Narinder Pal Singh, Dr Vandana Sidhu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3393-3401

AIM: The present study was carried out as an attempt to correlate and emphasize the
salient approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of the various acute abdominal
conditions.
Material and methods: This study was a prospective observational study consisted of 50
patients with non‑traumatic acute abdomen presenting to the ED that were clinically
diagnosed acute abdomen. Detailed history was taken followed by clinical examination
and radiological investigations for all the patients. Comparative analysis of all
investigations and clinical features were made and a provisional diagnosis was derived.
Results: The results showed that mean age of the patient is 38± 13.6 years with M: F ratio
of 1:3.5. Acute cholecystitis was the most common cause of acute abdomen, accounting
for 36% of total cases followed by perforation peritonitis (24%) which included peptic
perforation and intestinal perforation. The accuracies was recorded for clinical features,
ultrasonography andXray for acute abdomen cases.
Conclusion: We concluded that Plain X rays and ultrasonography can be used for
diagnosing acute abdominal emergencies; they are the cheaper, non-invasive, quick,
reliable and highly accurate modality in diagnosing the exact cause of pain and its origin
in a patient presenting with an acute abdomen and thus helps the physician or surgeon to
plan the timely management

Surgical outcome of poor GCS patients of acute subdural hematoma with decompressive craniotomy alone v/s decompressive craniotomy with cisternostomy

ArvinpreetKour,Ajaydeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3402-3409

Aim and Objective: To evaluate the outcome of the poor GCS patients operated for Acute
subdural hematoma with decompressive craniotomy alone vs decompressive craniotomy with
cisternostomy.
Materials and Methods:Fifty four consecutive cases of poor GCS of Acute SDH were operated
at Medical College Hospital by decompressive craniotomy alone vs decompressive craniotomy
with cisternostomy in order to assess the outcome.
Observation and Results:Fifty four patients divided in 2 groups of 27 patients each consisting
of 21 males and 6 females in each group were randomly selected. Mean age of the patients in
group A was 42.25 years (Range: 19 - 72 years) and Group B was 50.33 years (Range: 28 - 71
years).In group A mortality was 33.33% and in group B mortality was 11.11%.
Conclusion: We may conclude in our study that patients with cisternostomy with
decompressive craniotomy have better prognosis than patients with decompressive craniotomy
alone in view of mortality and morbidity

TOBACCO CESSATION- “IT’S TIME TO QUIT”

Dr Rakesh Kumar Pandey; Dr Jeevan Josh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3410-3419

Tobacco consumption is one of the major health problems in public health sector. Among
tobacco consumption smoking is a leading preventable cause of death in developed as well as
developing countries. Cigarette smoking contributes to oral as well as general health issues
including Asthma, COPD and Cancer. A dynamic comprehensive approach is required for
breaking the habit of tobacco consumption in any form. Various studies conducted in the past
proposed that intensive tobacco cessation interventions involving behavioral support plays an
important role in the treatment of addiction. Public health professionals can play an important
role in creating awareness among people regarding the ill effects of tobacco consumption.
Public health professionals can create awareness through printed materials, newspapers,
magazines, media etc. Advertisement and promotion of tobacco products are needed to be
banned throughout the country. Government should take initiatives at central and state level
to establish tobacco cessation clinics (TCCs).In this review we discussed the efficacy of various
behavioral and pharmacological medications in tobacco cessation

A Study on Consumer’s Attitudes and Satisfaction Towards Advertisement on Himalaya Products in Tirunelveli District

S. Arockia Nancy, Dr. M. Fatima Rathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3420-3428

Marketing Is An Art Of Getting Things Done Through Human Beings To Satisfy Needs And Wants.  In Marketing Process, The Element Of Advertisement Is Important. A Good Advertisement Must Stimulate The Customer’s Wants And Satisfaction. This Research Paper Carries Customer’s Attitude And Satisfaction About Himalaya Product’s Qualities Availability And Advertisement Impact On Himalaya Product Among Customers. Customer Satisfaction Is A Term Which Is Frequently Used In Marketing And It Measures Of How Products And Services Supplied By A Company Meet Or Surpass Customer Expectation. Customer Satisfaction Is Defined As "The Number Of Customers, Or Percentage Of Total Customers, Whose Reported Experience With A Firm, Its Products, Or Its Services Exceeds Specified Satisfaction Goals. "Customers Play An Important Role And Are Essential In Keeping A Product Or Service Relevant So It Is In The Best Interest Of The Business To Ensure Customer Satisfaction, And Build Customer Loyalty. A Customer's Expectations About A Product Tell Us How He Or She Anticipates How That Product Will Perform. As It Is Suggested In The Literature, Consumers May Have Various "Types" Of Expectations When Forming Opinions About A Product's Anticipated Performance. C In This Moment How Advertisement Stimulate Customer To Buy Himalaya Products That Is Question Mark. So The Researcher Wants To Know The Impact Of Himalaya Product’s Advertisement In Tirunelveli District. At A Glance, Customer Satisfaction Is A Crucial Component Of A Business Strategy As Well As Customer Retention And Product Repurchase. To Maximize The Customer Satisfaction Companies Should Sell Ideas And Methods After The Completion Consumer Is A Person Who Decides On The Purchase Of A Good Or A Service For Personal Use, Based On Personal Preferences, Beliefs, And Needs Or The Influence Of Advertising. To Know The Customer’s Attitude On Himalaya Product’s Advertisement This Paper Has Chosen The Topic On A Study On Consumer’s Attitudes And Satisfaction Towards Advertisement On Himalaya Products In Tirunelveli District. So, The Human Being’s Attitude Is Always Changing Time To Time And Place To Place And Product To Product. So The Researcher Wants To Know To Customers Attitude Going To Change While They Are Purchasing Himalaya Products For That The Researcher Has Fixed Two Objectives Namely To Find Out Consumers Demographic Factors Of The Respondent In Tirunelveli District To Know What Type Of Factors Influence The Respondents, To Know The Customer’s Attitudes And  Level Of Satisfaction Of The Respondents And To Offer Valid Suggestions And Recommendations To  Himalaya Products  .In Order To Fulfil The Objectives Of The Research Study The Two Type Of Data Has Been Collected From The Study Area That Is Primary And Secondary Data. Moreover, That Raw Data Has Been Collected And Framed To Well-Prepared Questionnaire For Obtained The Objective Of The Research. Then The Collected Data Has Been Converted With Help Of The Various Statistical Tools Like Percentage, Standard Deviation, Mean Value, Frequency Of The Factor, T-Test, Etc.,
The Data Have Been Carefully Scrutinized And Edited In Order To Ensure Accuracy, Consistency, And Completeness. Most Of The Analyses Are Based On The Responses Presented In The Form Of Frequency Tables. The Data Tabulated Are Systematically Processed And Interpreted On The Basis Of The Objectives Formulated. To Foster The Business Opportunities, There Are A Number Of Services Being Offered On The Internet. In This Context The Research Has Been Chosen The Topic On A Study On Consumer’s Attitudes And Satisfaction Towards Consumer Goods With A Special Reference To Himalaya Products, Tirunelveli District.

A study on changing pattern of consumers behavior while making online purchase in Rathapuram Taluk, Tirunelvelli District

S. Shelton, Dr. M. Fatima Rathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3429-3439

Before to start the research paper work, the researcher having a question himself about the study area of Rathapuram Taluk in Tirunelveli District that is how the remote area people are making online purchase through internet and what are the factors influencing them and their level of satisfaction. In order to answer for the question  he framed two objectives that is 1  To study the demographical profile of the online shopping consumers in Rathapuram Taluk and  To find out the major factors influencing online shopping behaviour of consumer goods. For that he made a descriptive in nature with single cross sectional data research. Specific objectives of the study as stated earlier require using of both primary and secondary data. The profile of  the study unit shows that the total respondents demographic factor, level of education, purchasing pattern, major competitors, factors influencing etc. The research paper is purely based on primary data for that the minimum required sample size is 384. Sample sizes of 550 respondents were selected for this study for the accuracy of the result. Out of 550, 520 filled questionnaires received, 478 were found to be completed. So Researcher fix the sample size as 478 and applied the convenience sampling method to collect the primary data for online shoppers. After completing the data collection, relevant statistical tool were used in the research.  Statistical tools such as percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation are used for basic analysis and Weighted Score Ranking Techniques are used for hypothetical analysis.  Finally the researcher, in the light of the research work he found that some research findings, suggestion and recommendation based on demographical profile and factors influencing of the online consumer.  To conclude the research work, there is no need high level education on computer but the basic level of computer literacy is enough.

Pre-Hospital Medical Emergency Service Systems Models for Ethiopia

Ibsa Mussa Abdulahi (PhD)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2698-2707

Background: Pre-hospital emergency medicine also referred to as pre-hospital care, immediate care, or emergency medical services medicine is a medical subspecialty which focuses on caring for seriously ill or injured patients before they reach hospital, and during emergency transfer to hospital or between hospitals to providing timely care to victims of sudden and life-threatening injuries or emergencies in order to prevent needless mortality or long-term morbidity. Therefore, the aim of this paper to review the available pre-hospital emergency system model in relation to the contexts of Ethiopia with implication of selecting the model suits to the country.
Methods: Initial search of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were systematically searched for studies of Pre-Hospital Medical Emergency Service Systems Models from 2005 until January 30, 2021. Studies evaluating Pre-Hospital Medical Emergency Service systems with evidence of widespread adoption (Anglo-American, Franco-German, Dutch, Sarajevo and the Japanese models and uniform and tiered response). This approach began from the philosophical perspective that prehospital services should be performed and reported in adherence to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines.
Results: The result of this study showed that resource constraints and cost-efficient emergency medical service affecting the utilization of pre-hospital services.
Conclusion: Given resource constraints, considerations and cost-efficient emergency medical service our finding suggest that Anglo- American model and two-tiered pre-hospital ambulance system consisting of semi advanced and basic life support for emergency and nonemergency patient care that support by trained Emergency Medical Technicians were effective for resource less developed country including Ethiopia.

Estimation of soil moisture using SAR and Optical imagery in Area with Semi-arid and rainy seasons

Mounir Abassi; El M’kaddem Kheddioui

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2708-2716

The objective of this work was to find a model to estimate surface soil moisture
by using the available andfree satellite imagery data of synergy of single polarized C-band
sentinel-1 and Optical Sentinel-2 Data acquired in dry and wet seasons on study site in
Niger.Water cloud model (WCM) was selected in this study due to its ability to describe
backscattering coefficients interms of soil proprieties and vegetation proprieties. First, we
founded the relation between Sentinel-1 backscattering coefficients𝝈𝑽𝑽
𝟎 and 𝝈𝑽𝑯
𝟎 in Cbandthat
are adjusted to minimizevegetation effect, and ground measurement of soil
moisture [downloaded from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN)], using linear
regression with Gradient descent. The sensitivity of the SAR backscatter to in situ
measurement was estimated as 0.7 and 0.43db/Vol% for VV and VH polarizations,
respectively. Second, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used as
vegetation descriptor in the WCM, it is extracted directly from the preprocessed sentinel-2
optical images. The Calibration of WCM consists in fitting the model against ground
measurements and estimated parameters for VV and VH polarization by minimizing the
sum of squares of the differences between the simulated and measured radar signal

Effects of laser therapy versus laser acupuncture on rheumatoid arthritis elderly patients

Afnan Sedky Adly; Zahra M. Serry; Mohamed Shehata; Mohamed Amr; Heba Ahmed Ali Abdeen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2717-2725
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.08.03.316

Objective
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is regarded as the commonest and one of most known
inflammatory arthritis. Our study was to determine the effects of laser therapy and laser
acupuncture therapy on RA elderly patients.
Subjects and Methods
Forty patients with age of 65 to 75 years were being randomly allocated to 2 groups. Group(A)
included twenty participants having RA treated via low level laser therapy. Group(B) included
twenty participants having RA treated via laser acupuncture. All the patients underwent
treatment by methotrexate. Treatments were provided three times each week to the two groups
for twelve weeks.Independent laboratory technician and statistician were blinded to the study
groups.

Association between Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness Measurement at Fetal Abdomen and Expected Fetal Birth Weight

Ali Elshabrawy Ali, Safaa Abdel Salam Ibrahim, Basem Mohamed Hamed, Ehab Mohamed Awadallah Mohamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2744-2751

Background: In the diagnosis and treatment of macrosomia, which is related to
birth pain, asphyxia, and maternal morbidity, estimating foetal weight may be
critical.Fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness (FASTT) is one such
ultrasound parameter that is an independent consideration in predicting big
babies and can estimate foetal weight for high for gestational age babies when
substantiated with other ultrasound parameters.The aim of this study was to
determine the importance of using ultrasonography to measure subcutaneous
tissue thickness in predicting foetal birth weight.
Patients and methods: This prospective observationl study included 276 pregnant
women at term admitted to the obstetric ward and scheduled for elective Cesarean
section or induction of labor or during labor. Ultrasonographic evaluation was
done immediate before delivery for measurement of the thickness of the
subcutaneous fat tissue at the anterior abdominal wall was done three times and the
average was taken. Ultrasonic estimation of fetalweight , actual birth weight
immediately after delivery by a neonatologist in the delivery room using (SECA
digital medical weighing) and the thickness of the subcutaneous fat tissue were
recorded.
Results:FASTTand birth weight were found to have a positive association. A
responsive measure to predict large babies is the FASTT of 6.85 mm. The FASTT
test is not accurate enough to estimate the birth weight of small babies weighing
less than 2500 grammes.
Conclusion:Along with other established birth weight markers, FASTT may be used
as a secondary predictor to forecast big for gestational age infants.

Prediction of Oesophageal Varices in Compensated Cirrhotic Patients

Hoda Mohamed Saleh and Mostafa Ezzat Mostafa, El Sayed Saad Abd Elbaser and Ahmed lotfy Sharaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2752-2763

Background: The prevalence of gastro-esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis
ranges from 40 to 80%.The most lethal complication of cirrhosis is Upper GIT
Bleeding (UBG) caused by rupture of oesphageal and gastric varices, with a mortality
rate of 17 to 57 percent.We aimed at evaluation of platelet count splenic diameter ratio
(PSR) and Liver stiffness, spleen size to platelet count ratio risk score (LSPS) for
prediction of oesophageal varices.
Patients and methods: this study included 51 patients with compensated cirrhosis.
Screening upper endoscopy was done for detection of OV. They also evaluated by
transient elastography, laboratory tests and divided according to the presence of OV.
We compared both groups based onLSPS,ALBI-PLT score and PSR.
Results:LSPS ratio had sensitivity 87.88% and specificity 88.89% for prediction of
OV.Regarding Platelet count /Splenic diameter ratio the cut off value for prediction of
OV was 909.09 with sensitivity 87.9% and specificity 88.9%.ALBI-PLT scorehad
sensitivity 75.8%and specificity72.2%.
Conclusion: ALBI-PLT score, PSR and LSPS provided good diagnostic toolfor
prediction of oesophagealvarices. The combination of LS with PSR did not have
valuable increase in sensitivity or specificity.

Evaluation of Colonic Wall Thickness in Ulcerative Colitis Using Trans abdominal Ultrasound: Cross Sectional Study

Mostafa Ezzat Mostafa, Alaa Magdy Mohamed, El Sayed Saad Abd Elbaser Tarik Ibrahim Zaher

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2764-2773

Background: ulcerative colitis is one type of IBD and its prevalence is increasing
worldwide and in Egypt and the disease itself carries a lot of sufferings and burden
on the patients due to its chronic course and periods of relapse, ulcerative colitis
needs regular follow up and monitoring, the use of ultrasound is being increased in
diagnosis and follow upof IBD patients as a simple, reliable and non-invasive
method.
Patients and methods: this study included a group of 30 ulcerative colitis patients in
different disease activity and tested by the trans abdominal ultrasound to measure
the wall thickness of sigmoid colon as marker of disease inflammation and activity.
Results: the study showed that there is a significant difference in the colonic wall
thickness between different disease activity and showed that ultrasound is sensitive
to detect this change in colonic wall thickness.
Conclusion: ultrasound in the hands of the trained personnel is a valuable tool to
assess the activity of ulcerative colitis by detection of changes in the colonic wall
thickness.

Treatment of Extra Articular Distal Third Tibia Fracture: Plating Versus Nailing

Mohamed Mansour El Zohairy, Mahmoud Saad Ebeid,Yousuf Mohamed Khira and Sherif Mohamed El Aidy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2774-2783

Background: The management of the fracture of lower third tibia remains a great
challenge to the surgeon. The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the
intraoperative and postoperative outcomes between plate fixation, and
intramedullary nail for identifying proper indications of both methods of fixation.
Patients and Method: During 2015 - 2019, 96 cases with distal tibial fractures had
been treated using either M.I.P.O technique or Expert intramedullary nailing
technique, in a prospective study conducted in Zagazig University Hospitals. 48 cases
had been treated by M.I.P.O technique and 48 cases had been treated by Expert
intramedullary nailing technique.
Results: The results suggest that M.I.P.O technique was not always the best choice for all
types of fractures of lower third tibia. Expert I.M.N, with less soft tissue disruption, good
coronal, and sagittal alignment, was considered a standard operative treatment for
diaphyseal tibial fractures. However, cases with I.M.N should follow weight-bearing
restrictions until there is obvious callus formation in order to prevent malunion, broken
distal screws, or propagation of nail into ankle joint.
Conclusion: The study suggests that both Expert I.M nailing, and M.I.P.O.
techniques were appropriate treatments of distal tibial fractures. M.I.P.O. fixation,
and Expert I.M nailing were safe, and effective treatment options for fractures of
lower third tibia, because both of them could provide similar good function
outcomes. Expert I.M nailing must have the priority for distal tibial fractures with
soft tissue injury, or fractures that occurred more than 5 cm from the tibial plafond.
M.I.P.O should have the priority for distal tibial fracture with good skin condition,
soft tissue condition, or fractures that occurred less than 5 cm from tibial plafond.

Prediction of Failed Coronary Reperfusion after Thrombolytic Therapy in ST - Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients.

Mahmoud Hassan Shah, MontaserMostafa Al-cekelly, Mohamed Salah Ghareeb, Mona SabryAbd El-Rahman El-Sayed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2784-2794

Background: Around the globe, acute myocardial infarction is the primary cause
of congestive heart failure and death.There is currently no rating system in place
to predict thrombolytic failure in STEMI patients .The aim of the study was to
demonstrate that CHA2DS2-VASc-HS scores would predict missing reperfusion
in STEMI patients on thrombolytic therapy.
Patients and methods: This is a cross sectional prospective study conducted on
70 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who were treated with
streptokinase who were grouped into two groups. Group I: STEMI patients with
successful thrombolysis (30 patients). Group II: STEMI Patients with failed
thrombolysis (40 patients). The CHA2DS2-VASc-HSF score was formulated and
Coronary angiography was performed .Gensini score estimation for relative severity
of these lesions and compared to CHA2DS2-VASc-HSF score for achieving the aim
of the study.
Results:There was a statistically significant difference between both group
according to CHA2DS2-VASc-HSF and Gensini score There was strong positive
correlation between CHA2DS2-VASc-HSF score and Gensini score. The cut-off
value of CHA2DS2-VASc-HSF score that can predict failed thrombolytic therapy in
STEMI patients was 4 (AUC= 0.93%, CI 95% ranged from, sensitivity=95 %,
specificity= 76%)
Conclusion:This score may help doctors working in non-PCI hospitals
determine the risk of failed reperfusion using a well-documented formula that takes
into account a variety of risk factors related to the severity of CAD in STEMI
patients.

FAK and PCNA Double Immunohistochemical Expression among Different Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Grades

Hatem Wael Amer, Sally Ibrahim Mohamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2795-2805

Objective:
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a tyrosine kinase that belongs to the focal adhesion complex that proved to
have a serious role in cancer progression through its upregulation, while proliferating cell nuclear antigen
(PCNA) is a proliferation indicating marker that involved in tumors behavior regarding invasiveness. Our
aim is to assess the synchronization in the upregualtion of both markers through double immunostaining
and their correlation with prognosis worsening in well differentiated and poorly differentiated oral squamous
cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Study design:
A total number of 60 OSCC lesions distributed equally (n= 30) between the first group (well differentiated
OSCC) & second group of (poorly differentiated OSCC). Double immunostaining with FAK &PCNA was
carried out to determine their localization. Area percent measurement of FAK and nuclear count for PCNA
were performed and analyzed.
Results:
Both area percent measurement of FAK and nuclear count of PCNA are higher in the poorly differentiated
OSCC group than that of the well differentiated OSCC group, results showed statistically significant
difference between the groups.
Conclusion:
Our results indicate that both FAK and PCNA are upregulated in poorly differentiated OSCC than in the
well differentiated OSCC supporting their role in cancer aggressiveness & progression together with poor
prognosis in higher grades of same tumor

Mean Platelet Volume as a Prognostic Factor in Acute Kidney Injury

Venu Gopala D MD; Shyamala KV MD; Rashmi K S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2806-2813

Introduction: Acute kidney injury is a global health burden that is associated with high incidence of morbidity and mortality .There are not much studies about the already available parameters of complete blood count. Mean Platelet Volume can be an investigation that can be put for in-depth study to know the prognosis of acute kidney injury. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in acute kidney injury patients for a period of 2 years from September 2016 to September 2018. Blood report of mean platelet volume including red blood cell distribution width were collected. Result: It was seen that patients belonging to middle age between 31-50 years constituted the majority of the cases of acute kidney injury. It was shown that patients having a lower values of Mean Platelet Volume are more prone for the requirement of dialysis when the two groups were compared to look for significance in predicting the requirement of dialysis (P=0.03) Improvement after dialysis was better in patients with higher values of Mean Platelet Volume than patients with lower values of Mean Platelet Volume even though the difference between the values of Mean Platelet Volume were not significant. (P=0.568) There is a negative correlation between values of creatinine and Mean Platelet Volume (P <0.001). Conclusion: Mean Platelet Volume could be inexpensive and superior investigation to creatinine in early detection of acute kidney injury which needs to be studied further with larger sample size .

Estimation of the global horizontal solar irradiation GHI for the Moroccan national territory from meteorological satellite images of the Second Generation Meteosat series MSG

AHMED.EL OUIQARY, EL MKADDEM KHEDDIOUI; MOHAMED.FAOUZI. SMIEJ

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2814-2826

Illuminance is the power of radiation per unit area (W/m2). Its projection on the ground on a horizontal plane named GHI (Global horizontal irradiance) is the meteorological quantity commonly used to estimate and forecast photovoltaic production. The GHI at a given location varies mainly according to the zenithal solar angle and the transparency of the atmosphere. The first variable can be calculated with good accuracy, the second depends on the cloud cover and the concentration of optically active atmospheric components. Apart from clouds, solar radiation modeling for solar energy generally retains aerosols, water vapor and ozone as significant components. A few Moroccan researchers have been able to estimate the global horizontal GHI irradiance using ground-based measurements. These data are insufficient because the measurement stations are located in well-defined geographical sites and therefore do not cover all the Moroccan national territory. The scientific literature specifies that images taken by geostationary satellites are a reliable source to obtain solar irradiance data with a quasi continuous spatial coverage. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the GHI for the whole Moroccan national territory from the images of the second generation MSG meteorological satellites by the procedure of the two methods Heliosat-2 and ARSC (Atmospheric Science Research Centre).

ROLE OF CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSING MAXILLARY SINUS PATHOLOGIES - A REVIEW

DR RESHMA V J, MDS , DR MUHASEENA MUHAMOOD, MDS , DR ASIM MUSTAFA KHAN, MDS, DR ARISHIYA THAPASUM, MDS, DR SONALI VEDRAJ SHARMA

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2877-2833

The most common disease affecting the maxillary sinus is of odontogenic origin. Dental practitioners should be aware about the pathologies related to maxillary sinus and its relationship to maxillary dentition and supporting structures. After the introduction of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), it has become the imaging modality of choice for clinicians in evaluating maxillary sinuses and maxillofacial structures. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be achieved by  CBCT, which offers volumetric data about sinus pathologies and relationship between the  maxillary teeth roots and the antrum with relatively low radiation doses and costs. CBCT is also capable of guiding the clinicians in final diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up. This review aims to emphasize the role of CBCT in the detection of maxillary sinus pathologies in day to day dental practice. Further studies using 3-D visualization in sinus pathologies will yield a fundamental data & guidelines for future research. However, more research is required to authenticate its use in odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

ESTIMATION OF C REACTIVE PROTEIN LEVELS AND STUDY OF THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN PATIENTS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

Dr. Ishan Koushal , Dr. S. Nagendran , Dr. Gajal Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2834-2849

Bipolar disorder is predominantly a regular psychological disorder with recurring periods of (hypocritical) mood changes. Past experiments have shown that multiple neuroscience pathways play a crucial role in BD patients' molecular pathogenesis. There is, still, a shortage of specific biomarkers that better detect or forecast patients with BD. The goal of the research is to determine CRP levels in bipolar patients and equate the results of the study with levels of C - reactive protein in safe controls. Moreover, the present thesis also analyzed whether there was a disparity in CRP degree in bipolar disorder (i.e., acute mania, acute depression and asymptomatic patients and maintenance) Patients attended or admitted to TMM&RC TMU in Moradabad obtained this prospective examination. Inclusion requirements and demographic specifications were then recorded. Patients were included. A total of 86 patients included 46 (53.5%) male patients and 40 (46.5%) female patients. The average ño-SD of patients with CRP with bipolar disorder (6.57 ± 4.05) are substantially greater than the mean ± SD of patients with CRP with non-bipolar disorder (2.26 ± 1.53) (P<0.0001) and this analysis shows that C-reactive protein levels was slightly higher than in the patients with bipolar disorders as compared to controls. However, no such substantial correlation of demographic variables was identified in this analysis of bipolar disorder. More validated and accurate results will be collected from further trials of more patients.
Keywords: C-reactive protein, bipolar disorder, depression, psychotic mood.

Frequency of Diabetic Nephropathy in Diabetic Children and Adolescents at Children Hospital of Zagazig University

Shimaa Saad Mohammed Emam, Rabab Mohammed El -Behiedy,Aml Saeed Elshal, Mayy Abd-AlFatah Mohammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2850-2861

Background:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is defined as kidney disease attributed
to diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common micro vascular complication
of diabetes .DN develops in 15-20% of subjects with T1DM and in similar or higher
percentage of T2DM patients, causing increased morbidity and premature
mortality. American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends screening for
nephropathy 5 years after diagnosis for type 1 diabetes and at diagnosis for type 2
diabetes.Aim: To estimate the occurrence of diabetic nephropathy in children and
adolescent diagnosed with diabetes Method: A case control study was carried on
one hundred and fifty of children went to pediatrics clinics of zagazig university
hospital. They were classified in to 75 diabetic children who were type 1DM for
more than 4 years and their age less than 18 years old and 75 non diabetic children
of the same gender and age. Both groups under go full history, clinical and
laboratory investigations during the period from December 2018 to November 2019.
Result: frequency of persistent microalbuminuria and hypertension among diabetic
patients were 293 per 1000 and 160 per 1000patient respectively.Conclusion: Type1
diabetic children and adolescent are liable for the occurrence of early diabetic
nephropathy so intensive diabetes therapy is needed, regular screening for MA and
measurement and interpretation of BP and GFR

Primary Intracranial Ewing Sarcoma: Case series and review of literature

Dr.Oshin Suri; Dr.Manraj Singh Kang, Dr.Pardeep Garg; Dr Gaurav Jaswal; Dr.Shipra Garg

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2872-2878

Ewing sarcoma, along with peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour, belongs to a
tumour family that shares clinicopathologic and molecular genetic features, including the
characteristic chromosomal translocation that results in the fusion opf EWS gene on
22q12 to either FLI1 gene on 11q24. In contrast , such translocations are not found in
central primitive neuroectodermal tumours(cPNETs). Ewing sarcoma has only rarely been
noted to primarily involve the central nervous system- extraoseus Ewing sarcoma(CNSESS).
We report a case series of three patients with intracranial extension

Intramedullary Nailing Versus Plating for Treatment of Humeral Shaft Fractures in Adults

Mohammed Othman Mohammed, HosamFathiMahmmod, Ahmed Hatem Farhan Imam, Faraj Abdulsalam Faraj Almantasir

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2879-2889

Background:A fracture of the humerus shaft is commonly encountered by orthopedic
surgeons and the successful treatment of a humeral shaft fracture demands a knowledge
of anatomy, surgical indications, techniques and implants, patient functions and
expectations. The aim of the current study was to compare the outcome of interlocking
intramedullary nailing versus plating of diaphyseal humeral shaft fracture in adults
Patients and Methods: This prospective clinical trial was carried in Orthopedic
Department, Zagazig Universityin Egypt Hospitals and Alwahda Hospital in Libya, on 36
cases with Humeral shaft fractures Group 1: included 18 patients managed by
Intramedullary Nailing, Group 2: included 18 patients managed by plating during the
period from March 2020 to December 2020.Patients were followed post operatively for
union, and clinical assessment was done using The American Shoulder and Elbow
Surgeons scale.
Results:Radial nerve injury was significantly higher in plate group and delayed union and
nonunion was higher in nail with no significant.Excellent represent 72.2% in nail group
and 66.7% in plate group, good represent 11.1% of both groups and fair founded 16.7% in
plate group and 5.6% in nail group 2 cases were poor in Nail and 1 case was poor in plate
Nail group was significantly associated with satisfaction.
Conclusion: The intramedullary nail fixation for humerus is treatment of choice in
osteoporotic bone, less rate of infection less blood loss, however it associated with higher
incidence of shoulder discomfort, and more malunion and non unuon rate

Role of ultrasound and MRI in patients with shoulder pathologies: A correlation study

Dr.Paramjit Singh, Dr.Amanpreet Kaur, Dr.Suman Bhagat, Dr. Gurinder Bir Singh, Dr. Nikhil Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2890-2899

Introduction: The rotator cuff disorders constitute the most common cause of shoulder
pathologies. Ultrasonography and MRI are widely used in evaluating various shoulder
pathologies. USG of shoulder is simple, cheap, fast and non-invasive imaging technology
for detection of rotator cuff and non- rotator cuff abnormalities. In this study we have
assessed the usefulness of USG in diagnosing the shoulder pathologies and have correlated
with the MRI.
Aim: Evaluation of a patient with shoulder pathology with ultrasonography as the initial
line of imaging technique as compared to MRI, assessing the accuracy of ultrasonography
in diagnosing shoulder joint pathologies, especially rotator cuff abnormalities, using MRI
as a reference standard and correlating findings wherever possible.
Materials and Methods: Hundred patients were studied prospectively over a period of two
years. Study subjects included both men and women in all age groups with suspected
shoulder pathology, suspected to have musculo-tendinous origin. All patients underwent
USG evaluation of the shoulder joint followed by MRI of the affected shoulder.
Results: USG showed a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100% and NPV of
97% in diagnosing full thickness tear of rotator cuff using MRI as reference. For partial
thickness tears, it showed a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 69%, PPV of 82% and NPV of
54%. Overall accuracy of USG in detection of any tear of rotator cuff with MRI as
reference was 82%. The strength of agreement between USG and MRI for the diagnosis of
any tear of rotator cuff is considered to be ‘substantial’ in our study (Kappa=0.635).
Conclusion: USG showed comparable results to MRI in assessment of rotator cuff
abnormality and should be used as first line of investigation in patients presenting with
shoulder pathologies. It proved to have high sensitivity and specificity for full thickness
tears with relatively less sensitivity and specificity in detection of partial thickness tear.

Protective Effects of Propranolol and Carvedilol on ExperimentallyInduced Ulcerative Colitis in Male Albino Rat

Nermeen Ramadan Ali Shaaban, SohairHanem Samir El-Menshawy,Amal Elsayed Salem, and Shireen Sami Mahmoud Othman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2900-2914

Background:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of large intestine.
Overproduction of free radicals, lowered antioxidant capacity, inflammation and
abnormal apoptosis are involved in its pathogenesis. Propranolol and carvedilol, β-
blockers with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects which may have a protective role
in UC.
The study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of propranolol and carvedilol on UC
development and to distinguish which of them have greater beneficial effect on
experimentally-induced UC in male albino rats.
Methods: Fifty male albino rats were randomly allocated to five groups with each group
comprising eleven rats except control group composed of six rats. Group (1): control
group, Group (2): ulcerative colitis group, Group (3): propranolol-pretreated (30
mg/kg/d), Group (4): carvedilol-pretreated (30 mg/kg/d) and Group (5): mesalazinepretreated
(300 mg/kg/d). Treated groups received drugs by oral gavage for seven days
before and three days after induction of colitis. UC was induced in groups 2 to 5 by
intrarectal administration of 1ml of 4% Acetic Acid (AA), while group (1)received 1 ml of
normal saline solution administered intrarectally instead. To estimate the severity of AAinduced
UC and the effect of propranolol and carvedilol, the following parameters were
measured: colon weight/length (W/L) ratio, colon weight/body weight (CW/BW) ratio,
colonic malondialdehyde (MDA) and colonic markers of inflammation [tumor necrosis
factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)] and macroscopic and microscopic
scorings.
Results:In UC group, colon W/L ratio, CW/BW ratio, macroscopic and microscopic
scorings and colonic levels of MDA, TNF-α and NF-κBwere significantly increased.
Pretreatment with propranolol, carvedilol and mesalazine significantly reduced these
parameters when compared to UC group. However, colon W/L ratio, CW/BW ratio,
macroscopic scoring of mucosal damage and colonic MDA, TNF-α and, NF-κB levels in
carvedilol-pretreated group were significantly lower than propranolol-pretreated group.
Conclusion:Both propranolol and carvedilol had a coloprotective effect againstAAinduced
UC depending on their ability to decreases inflammation and oxidative stress
state in rat colon; butcarvedilol had better effects than propranolol. Thus, carvedilol can
be considered the β-blocker of benefit in patients with UC who have other co-existing
diseases indicatingthe use of β-blockers.

Assessment of Intracranial Pressure in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Using Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter and Transcranial Doppler

Mohammad Ali Sedek; Youssef Gaafar,Sahar SaadeldeenElgammal; Abdel-Monem Abdel-Aziz Salem

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2915-2925

Background:Head trauma is defined as any physical hit or blow towards the head, which may
or may not lead to an injury of the underlying brain. We consider a traumatic brain injury
(TBI) to be a possible consequence of the traumatic event towards the head.
Severe trauma is responsible of more than 5 million deaths every year worldwide and this
incidence is expected to increase in the coming decades.
TBI is the most severe condition observed in trauma patients, given that nearly 33% of patients
with TBI die in hospital and another 33% have poor neurological recovery.
Prevention and treatment of intra-cranial hypertension (ICH) are the cornerstones of treatment
for patients with TBI in intensive care units (ICUs), as uncontrolled ICH worsens brain
damage and remains the most common cause of death after severe TBI.

Assessment of AgomelatinePossible Protective EffectinUlcerative Colitis Patients; An Overview

Amira Sobhy Mahmoud,Dalia M. Abd El Motteleb,Nevertyty Mohamed Mahmoud, Shireen Sami Mahmoud Othman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2926-2937

Background: Ulcerative colitis, a life-long recurrent relapsing-remitting disorder, is a type of
debilitating chronic IBD of the colon that causes a superficial mucosal inflammation in a
continuous fashion extending from the rectum to the more proximal colon, in varying extents.
The hallmark symptoms of UC include bloody diarrhea with rectal urgency and tenesmus.
Many UC patients experience extra intestinal manifestations (EIM) that involve multiple organs
like erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum and arthritis. mucosa of the GIT is exposed to
millions of antigens from the food, environment and microbiome. The epithelial barrier,
covered by a mucinous layer, is the first-line defense of the mucosal immune system, because it
provides physical separation between host immune cells and luminal microbes.
Treatment of UC consists mainly of 5-aminosalycilates (5-ASAs), corticosteroids,
immunosuppressive drugs, and monoclonal antibodies to TNF-α. Treatment success is
dependent on several factors, such as use of the right drug for the right indication (induction vs
maintenance), optimization of the dose, and maximization of drug adherence (non-adherence to
mesalazine is associated with increased rates of relapse).Treatment should be tailored to disease
activity (mild, moderate, severe) and the extent of colonic involvement (proctitis, left-sided
colitis, or pancolitis).
Agomelatine is an atypical antidepressant with a unique receptor profile, as a melatonin
receptor (MT1 and MT2) agonist and a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist.

Study of effect of smoking on Forced expiratory flow during 25-75% of expiration (FEF25-75%)

Dr Arunkumar H K, Dr Triveni A J, Dr Avdhut Deshpande, Dr Anupriya Avdhut Deshpande

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2938-2944

Cigarettes, the most popular method of smoking, consist of finely shredded tobacco rolled in light-weight paper. Smoke from the average cigarette contains around four thousand chemicals, some of which are highly toxic and at least 43 of which cause cancer. Nicotine, a major constituent of tobacco smoke is both poisonous and highly addictive1. FEF25- 75 %(L/sec) is the average flow rate over the middle of vital capacity. This test indicates the patency of smaller airways less than 2 mm in diameter. Aim of this study was to estimate effect of smoking on Forced expiratory flow during 25-75% of expiration (FEF25-75%) in asymptomatic smokers. The study was designed as cross section study which included 449 subjects of which 224 were in group 1 ( 0-10 Pack Year), 139 were in group2 (11-20 Pack Years), and 87 were in group 3 ( 21- 30 Pack Years ). The mean value of FEF 25-75% POST in group 1 (0-10pack years) is 3.197+1.153, Group 2 (11-20 pack years) is 2.397+1.162, and Group 3 (21-30 pack years) is 1.368+0.663 respectively. Smoking causes significant deterioration of lung function which can easily detected by using a spirometer. FEF25-75 % (L/sec) is a simple test that could be useful in early diagnosis of peripheral airway obstruction and its treatment, thereby improving the quality of life.

Concomitant invasive mycoses and bacterial infection as causes of encephalitis

Rinawati W; Sukartini N

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2958-2963

Invasive mycoses is fungal infection in the blood, normal sterile body fluids, deep tissue, and organ.
Concomitant invasive mycoses and bacterial infection of the central nervous system are relatively rare.
We describe a case of a 32-year-old female patient who presented seizure and decreased consciousness.
Diagnosis of encephalitis was made base on the fulfillment of major (required) and minor criteria.
From the clinical examination, there was no sign of neck stiffness. Laboratory results were suggested
Cryptococcus sp based on cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and Candida tropicalis, and Streptococcus sp α-
hemolytic group based on cerebrospinal fluid culture. Whereas CT-scan showed brain edema.

Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus with Intra-lesional Steroid Injection: Comprehensive Overview

Marwa Tarek Mohamed Ali Elsherif,Sahar Mohamed Abd El fattah Al Mokadem, Kamal Ahmed El khashishy,Mohamed Ibrahim EL-GhareebEL. Ganainy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2964-2976

Background:Oral lichen planus is a T-cell-mediated chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease of unknown etiology. These lesions contain few B-cells or plasma cells and minimal deposits of immunoglobulin or complement. There are no consistent serological changes associated with OLP.It predominantly occurs in adults older than 40 years, although younger adults and children can be affected. It affects women more than men in a ratio of 1.4:1. The disease affects 1-2% of the population and there is no racial predilection.It presents as white striations, white papules, white plaques, erythema, erosions, or blisters affecting predominantly the buccal ucosa, tongue, and gingivae and it is the most common non-infectious oral mucosal disease in patients referred to oral medicine and oral pathology clinics.Lesions are usually bilateral, and atrophic and erosive lesions are often sensitive or painful. There may be co-incident skin lesions that present typically as flat-topped violaceous papules affecting the wrists, ankles, and genitalia. There is ongoing concern that OLP may be premalignant. In patients who do not use tobacco products, squamous cell carcinoma may arise at the site of a pre-existing OLP lesion in less than five percent of cases, most frequently in atrophic, erosive, and plaque lesions. Hence, OLP patients are at slightly increased risk of oral cancer, although it is unlikely that OLP is inherently pre-malignant.The most commonly used group of drugs for the treatment of OLP, they have the ability to modulate inflammation and immune response. They act by reducing the lymphocytic exudate and stabilizing the lysosomal membrane. Topical mid-potency corticosteroids such as triamcinolone acetonide (TA), high-potent fluorinated corticosteroids such as fluocinonide acetonide, disodium betamethasone phosphate, and more potent halogenated corticosteroids such as clobetasol are used based on the severity of the lesion. The greatest disadvantage in using topical corticosteroids is their lack of adherence to the mucosa for a sufficient length of time

COMPARISON OF DYNAMIC LUNG FUNCTIONS AMONG FEMALE WORKERS OF BALLARI JEANS INDUSTRY WITH NON-WORKING GROUP OF FEMALES

Dr. SATISH. M , Dr. BASAVARAJ. R ,Dr. NOORJEHAN BEGUM , Dr. ARUN KUMAR. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2977-2999

Among various health assessment tools for industrial workers, Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) is one of the most popular tools. PFT results are closely related to people’s lifestyle. People who perform regular exercises are found to have good results in PFT. Physical activity demands strong cardiopulmonary system that is again responsible for the body’s physiological condition. The objective of this study is to compare pulmonary functions among the female workers of jeans industry in Ballari with normal healthy subjects.50 females working in various jeans manufacturing units of Ballari and 50 housewives, each between ages 18-35 years were selected for the study. This study is a comparative study and was conducted over a period of 3 months i.e., December 2020 to February 2021, When Covid-19 crisis (first wave) had subsided completely. The study requires onetime assessment of lung functions of the 100 female participants (50 jeans factory workers and 50 housewives) using RMS Helios-401 PC based Spirometer which is owned by the principal investigator. In the research, the same effect has been observed among females working in a factory and the females not working in a factory.  Here these females are potentially exposed to dirt and toxic chemicals, due to which the working of their respiratory function has reduced.

Assessment of Response to Anti Leukotriene Among Children with Bronchial Asthma

Naser Miftah Asmaydeh Al Shehibi; Khalid Mohamed Salah,Mohamed Mohamed Abdel Salam, Rania Mohamed Mohamed Ibrahim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3000-3008

Background:Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of airways in which many cells and
cellular elements play a role in particular, mast cells, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, macrophages,
neutrophils and epithelial cells. Inflammation causes recurrent series of wheezing,
breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing, particularly at night or in the early morning.
These episodes are usually associated with widespread and variable airflow obstruction that is
often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment.The inflammatory process can lead to an
associated increase in bronchial hyper- responsiveness (BHR) to a variety of stimuli (e.g.,
allergens, respiratory viruses and some occupational exposures). Reversibility of airflow
limitation may be incomplete in some asthmatic patients.Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder,
with different mechanism of disease processes. Many clusters of demographics, clinical and
pathophysiological characteristics are often called "asthma phenotypes"The
antibronchoconstrictor efficacy of antileukotriene drugs provided the main impetus behind their
introduction as the first novel class of asthma therapy in more than 20 yr. However, clinical
trials also provided surprising evidence for a hitherto unsuspected role of cysteinyl-leukotrienes
in promoting persistent eosinophilia in the airway and blood of patients with asthma, and
possibly influencing pathways involved in airway wall remodeling. A better under

Treatment of Extra Articular Distal Tibial Fractures Using Plating and Intramedullary Nailing

Abde lrahim Elmabrouk Muftah Salem; Elsayed Abdelmoty Mohammed , Mohamed Elsadik Attia, Sameh Mohamed Holyl

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3009-3022

Background:Distal tibial fractures are the most common long bone fractures. An incidence of 17 per 100 000 person-years, although more recent data indicate that the incidence may be declining.The tibia is the second largest bone in the body. There are two concave condyles at the proximal aspect of the tibia. The medial condyle is larger, deeper, and narrower than the lateral condyle. An elevated process, the tibial tubercle, located between the two condyles is the site of attachment of the patellar tendon. The shaft of the tibia is prismoid, with a broad proximal extent that decreases in size until the distal third, where it gradually increases in size. The tibial crest is prominent medially from the tibial tubercle to the tibial plafond and is subcutaneous without any overlying muscles.The slightly expanded distal end of the tibia has anterior, medial, posterior, lateral and distal surfaces. The distal end of the tibia, when compared to the proximal end, is laterally rotated (tibial torsion). The torsion begins to develop in utero and progresses throughout childhood and adolescence till skeletal maturity is attained.minimal invasive plate fixation (MIPO) is recommended to limit this complication and given more stability. The basic principles of this technique include in direct closed reduction, extra periosteal dissection, anatomic alignment. Plate length and screw density are key factors for the stability of fixation.Comminuted fibular fractures fixed with MIPO technique using a long bridging plate, or intramedullary fixation of the fibula with a small diameter flexible nail

Management of Patients with Spondylodiscitis: An Overview

Sufwan Elbasher Alsadiq Algrmi; Mahmoud Mustafa Mohamed Taha ,Ibrahim Metwaly Abdel Fattah,Essam Mohamed Elsayed Youssef

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3023-3034

Background:Spinal infections can be described etiologically as pyogenic, granulomatous (tuberculous, brucellar, fungal) and parasitic spondylodiscitis, a term encompassing vertebral osteomyelitis, spondylitis and discitis, which are considered different manifestations of the same pathological process; epidural abscess, which can be primary or secondary to spondylodiscitis and facet joint arthropathy.When infection affects the intervertebral disc, the term to describe this condition is usually spondylodiscitis. If invades the endplates or the vertebral body, the infection is more correctly designated for vertebral osteomyelitis or spondylitis. However, at the time of diagnosis in many cases, the infection has already compromised these two structures; therefore, both terms are frequently used.Conservative treatment is the standard of care for patients with spondylodiscitis, using multidisciplinary approaches involving microbiologists, infectious disease consultants, anaesthetists, intensivists and geriatricians, with public health physicians for contact tracing. The morbidity and mortality of patients with spondylodiscitis treated conservatively has fallen from 56% to 25% over the last 15 years.However, careful selection of patients who need surgical treatment is necessary. Surgical treatment is absolutely indicated in patients with spinal cord or cauda equina compression with progressive neurological deficits. Relative surgical indications include spinal instability due to extensive bone destruction, significant deformity or conservative treatment failure

Treatment of Proximal Humerus Fractures:Comprehensive Overview

Mohammed Othman Mohammed Abdurabbah; Yousof Mohamed MohamedKhera,Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Nahala, Hossam Fathi Mahmoud

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3035-3045

Background:Proximal humerus fractures are one of the commonest fractures occurring in the
skeleton. They account for approximately 4 – 5% of the all fracture. The incidence of fracture of
the proximal humerus is bimodal in geriatric due to osteoporosis and in adolescents due to highenergy
trauma. A conservative treatment in a sling followed by functional rehabilitation under
supervision yields satisfactory results in minimally displaced fractures. The proximal humerus is
adapted to allow for the large range of motion of the shoulder joint. The proximal humerus
consists of the humeral head, the greater, lesser tuberosities, and shaft. The region of transition
between the articular cartilage and surrounding bone is defined as the anatomic neck and serves
as the site of attachment of the articular capsule, whereas the region immediately inferior to the
tuberosities is termed the surgical neck. The incidence of proximal humerus fractures is
increasing, especially in the elderly. Proximal humeral fractures account for 4% to 5% of all
fractures in adults and less than 1% of children's fractures. Approximately 3% of physeal
fractures occur through the proximal humerus.Operative management can consist of closed
reduction and percutaneous fixation, suture fixation, operative fixation with plate and screw
construct, or intramedullary fixation. The goals of operative fixation are to restore the anatomy of
the proximal humerus to allow for successful union, maximize function and early
rehabilitation.The articular surface’s relationship to the shaft must be restored to maximize range
of motion as well as stability. The tuberosities must also be reduced to their anatomical position
especially Isolated fractures of the greater tuberosity may be managed surgically even with less
displacement to maximize function of the arm by re-establishing the insertions of the rotator cuff

Plating Versus Conservative Treatment in Mid Shaft Fracture of Clavicle

Yousuf Mohamed Khira,Mohamed Abdel Fattah Mohamed , Hossam FathiMahmooud, Rabe Ali Nasar Altomi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3046-3056

Background: A Clavicle fracture is a common traumatic injury as it positions
directly under the skin. Both conservative and operative methods are used for the
treatment of this fracture. But there is no uniform agreement on the best choice of
treatment. So, this study aims to assess the outcome of the conservative treatment
and operative treatment by using plate and screw of midshaft fracture of clavicle
and comparing the two treatment methods. Patients and methods: This study was
done at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery of Zagazig University Hospital from
April 2020 to December 2020 on 18 patients are involved then these patients were
subdivided into two groups, Group A (9 patients) for conservative treatment and
Group B (9 patients) for operative treatment by using a plate and screw fixation.
Assessment of the outcome using the constant shoulder score. Results: The time of
union was 5.33±0.70 months in the conservative group and 4.66±0.86 months in the
operative group. Constant shoulder score was in Conservative group 4 patients had
excellent score (44.4%), 2 patients had good score (22.2%), 3 patients had poor
score (33.3%) While in Operative group 6 patients had excellent score (66.6%), 1
patient had good score (11.1%), 2 patients had poor score (22.2%). Conclusion: The
non-surgical methods still the best treatment of simple nondisplaced mid-shaft
clavicular fractures. The operative methods donate a good result in active athlete's
patient with displaced or comminuted fracture.

Management of Extra Articular Distal Tibial FractureUsing Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Technique

Hasan Ali Qanaw,Mohsen Mohamed Abdo Mar'éi ,Reda Hussein ElKady , Ahmed Mohammed Abdelwahab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3057-3069

Background:Distal tibia fractures are challenging injuries. They are often caused by high
energy axial compressive, direct bending or low energy rotation forces. These fractures
constitute less than 10% of all tibial fractures. The aim of treating the fracture is to preserve
normal mechanical axis, ensure joint stability and restore a near full range of motion. This is a
difficult task to accomplish in each and every case due to compromised soft tissue condition,
variable bone quality and associated medical conditions. Distal tibia fractures are devastating
injuries that are usually due to highenergy
mechanisms such as falling from heights or motor
vehicle accidents. They may also occur from lowenergy
mechanisms, which are seen in
rotational injuries around the ankle. Results of conventional osteosynthesis with plates have
been suboptimal with reported complications of wound infection, skin breakdown and delayed
union or nonunion,
requiring secondary surgical intervention. Locking compression plating
has gained popularity and is being used frequently for fixation of distal tibia fractures. With the
use of minimal invasive techniques excellent results are obtained in complex fractures

Clavicle Fracture Management: An Updated Overview for Recent Options of Fixation

Ali Abdallah Ali Alghazzawi,ElsayedAbdelmoty Mohammed,Mohammed Mansour Elzohairy,Mohamed Ismael Abdelrhman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3070-3078

Background:Clavicle fractures are common fractures, comprising 5% to 10% of all fractures
seen in emergency departments. Fractures of the middle third, or midshaft, are the most
common, accounting for up to 80% of all clavicle fractures. They occur due to falls on the
lateral aspect of the shoulder, the outstretched hand or due to high-energy direct impact over
the bone. The incidence of clavicle fractures has increased in recent years and the operative
treatment of these fractures has increased disproportionately. Clavicle fractures are most
commonly classified according to the Allman classification and the Robinson classification. The
location and type of fracture are important in decision-making as it influences management
strategies. The clavicle acts as the only osseous link between the upper extremity skeleton and
the thorax. In animals that do not bear weight on their forelimbs, it is absent. In such animals,
the scapula is stabilized to the thorax by numerous powerful muscles. The absence of a clavicle
improves running and agility on four limbs. In brachiating animals however, including man, it
serves as a solid strut to position the upper limb away from the trunk and enhance more global
positioning and use of the limb. Intramedullary fixation is often preferred over plate fixation
because it is a simpler procedure. Intramedullary fixation has a smaller surgical incision, less
invasive, easier hardware removal, and shorter hospital stay. Various devices can be used with
this surgical option including Knowles pins, Hagie pins, Rockwood pins, and minimally
invasive titanium nails. Devices need to be very flexible; the implant needs to be very stable, and
it must be small enough to pass through the medullary space at its most narrow point in the
midclavicle.

Management of Dislocated Total Hip Replacement overview guidelines

Mustafa Mohamed Mustafa Eljiru1,Yousef Mohamed MohamedKhaira,Reda Hussein Elkady, Mohamed Ismael AbdelrhmanKotb

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3079-3094

Background:The hip joint is multi-axial, and synovial ball and socket variety, in general, it can
be said that; in all joints, stability and range of movement are in inverse proportion to each
other; the hip joint provides a remarkable example of a high degree of both. Its stability is
largely the result of the adaptation of the articulating surfaces of acetabulum and femoral head
to each other and its great range of mobility results from the femur having a neck that is much
narrower than the equatorial diameter of the head.Total Hip Replacement (THA) dislocation is
defined as the complete loss of articulation contact between two artificial joint components.
Postoperative dislocation is still the most common early complication after THA and one of the
most common causes of early revision of primary THA.THA dislocation can be caused by 3
mechanisms or a combination of 2 mechanisms .Depending on the mechanical cause 3
dislocation directions can be observed, even though dislocation direction and component
positioning are not necessarily related, the direction of dislocation of THR is usually posterior
(77%) ,while anterior (23%) whereas superior or lateral dislocation has also been described.

Options for Management Choice Evidence-Based Treatment of Cavus Foot Deformity

Akram Ali Attaib Beshna,Mohsen Mohamed Abdo Mar'éi,Mohamed Abdelazeez Mohamed Ghieth, Mohamed Nagy Elalfy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3095-3105

Background:Cavus foot encompasses a wide range of deformities, from a subtle flexible
deformity to severe rigid cavus foot. The prevalence of cavus foot is reported to be 10 to 25% of
the population or as common as flat foot. With increasing awareness of the milder or subtle
cavus, the whole disease entity may be more prevalent. The term “pes cavus” or “cavus foot” is
used to describe a wide spectrum of foot shapes that have an abnormal elevation of the medial
longitudinal arch. High arch of the foot is frequently associated with hindfoot varus, forefoot
adduction and plantar flexion, and ankle equinus. The etiology is most frequently attributed to
the neuromuscular disorders involving brain, spinal cord, or the peripheral nerves. Two thirds
of adults with symptomatic cavus foot have an underlying neurological condition. Among them,
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, a hereditary sensory motor neuropathy, is most frequently
reported. The probability of a patient who has bilateral cavovarus feet being diagnosed with
CMT is 78%. The surgical procedures are combinations of bony reconstructions and soft tissue
procedures. As for the joint-sparing corrective osteotomies, calcaneal osteotomy, 1st metatarsal
base dorsiflexion osteotomy (1MTDFO), and midfoot dorsal closing wedge osteotomy at
cuneiform-navicular and cuboid level are considered. As for the soft tissue procedures, mainly
plantar fascia release, Achilles' tendon lengthening, and peroneus longus to brevis tenodesi s
are most frequent surgical procedures performed

The Expression Profile of Circular ANKRD36 as a Genetic Biomarker for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Related Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

Nearmeen M. Rashad , Gehan A. Ebrahem, M.N. Ayman Abd-Elrahman, Marwa A.E. Ahmed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3106-3115

Background:Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs)
with covalently closed single-stranded structures. The epigenetic regulatory role of
ncRNAs in diabetes-associated cardiometabolic diseases is still evolving. This study
aimed to investigatewhether therelative expression level ofcirc. ankyrin repeat
domain36 (circANKRD36) are altered in Egyptian patients with T2DM and whether
they correlatedwith othercardiometabolic risk factors.
Methods: case-controlled study was conducted on forty patients with T2DM, and 20
healthy subjects were included in the study. Diagnosis of T2DM was based on ADA
Criteria.The expression profile of circANKRD36 was measured using quantitative realtime
(qRT) PCR.
Results: The relative expression levels of circANKRD36wassignificantly increased in
patients with T2DM compared to control. p˂0.001*.The relative expression levels of
circANKRD36 were significantly positive correlated with cardiometabolic risk
factorsand linear regression test revealed that hba1c as well as BMI, were
independently correlated with epigenetic markers. Our results revealed that the
sensitivities and the specificities ofcircANKRD36 expression levels to diagnosis of
T2DM were 87% and .99.15.
Conclusion: the relative expression levels of circANKRD36were significantlyincreased
in patients with T2DM.Also,the relative expression levels of circANKRD36 were
significantly positive correlated to cardiometabolic risk factors.

Microleakage of porcelain laminate veneers to tooth surfaces prepared withEr: YAG laser

Mohamed Abd-Ellatif El-Patal, Mohamed I. Ebrahim,Barakat IF, Adel Fathi, 1AbdulazizSamran3,Yousef H. Abokhlifah4Salah A. Yousief, Abdullah Albarkheel, Mohammed A. Alodhaib, MohammedHashem

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3116-3128

The Er:YAG laser was proven to ablate enamel successfully. This study was aimed to
investigate the applicability of using this laser in preparing the enamel surface for
porcelain laminate veneering in comparison with the high-speed handpiece regarding
the fracture strength loading of the veneers. Twenty human maxillary central incisors
extracted were selected. They were divided into two equal groups [group I and group
II], group I: High-speed handpiece prepared specimens and group II: Er:YAG laser
prepared specimens for measuring microleakage by a binocular stereomicroscope.
The microleakage assessment results showed a significant difference in the
microleakage scores at the incisal margins of [Gr. I (group I)] the high-speed
handpiece compared to [Gr. II (group II)] the Er: YAG laser and significance
comparing the microleakage scores at the cervical margins of both groups (Gr. I) and
(Gr .II). Also, there were significant differences comparing incisal to those at the
cervical margins of (Gr.I) the high-speed handpiece and while in (Gr.II) the Er:YAG
laser group, a marked significant difference were present between the microleakage
scores at the incisal margins compared to the cervical margins.

Financial performance analysis of banking sector in India

Dr. Divyang Joshi, Mr. Samir Thakkar, Ravina Machhi, Devyesh Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3129-3136

The banking industry is important to a country's economic growth. With a large network of
branches and a diverse range of financial services, India's banking system is large. The
aim of this research is to study the financial results of India's two largest private and two
public banks. The financial performance of banks was analyzed using net profit, assets,
liabilities, income, expense, margin ratio, and return on equity ratio. After evaluating
financial data from 2015 to 2019, the study concluded that the private banks performed
better than public banks. The results of this study will benefit bank, shareholders and
customers, as well as bank management.

Management of Traumatic Fibroma in the Esthetic Zone: A Case Report.

Dr. Vandana Daga, Dr. Deepa G. Kamath

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3137-3142

Background: Traumatic/Irritational fibroma is an inflammatory hyperplastic reaction of the
soft tissues to traumatic factors such as nail-biting, ill-fitting dentures, over-hanging
restorations etc., and may present with esthetic, functional and psychological concerns.
Case description: A 28 year old male patient presented with a soft tissue overgrowth in relation
to his mandibular anterior teeth (labial gingiva). The lesion was localized, well-circumscribed,
firm in consistency with a smooth surface and painless. However, it was a major concern for
the patient both esthetically and psychologically. Thus, the lesion was excised using the scalpel
method and sent for histopathological assessment.
Conclusion: Traumatic fibroma are very common benign, intraoral, soft tissue lesions which
arise due to chronic trauma/irritation. A detailed history taking and histopathological
assessment is paramount in deducing the correct diagnosis and treatment plan.
Clinical Significance: Proper diagnosis and treatment in the form of excision of these soft
tissue lesions are pivotal to ensure the patient’s functional, esthetic and psychological
rehabilitation.

Biofilm production and antimicrobial resistance in catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) pathogens isolated from ICU patients

Chirag Patel, M B Shah, Suman Singh, Chirag Modi, Purvi Shah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3143-3152

Background & Method: Biofilm production is considered to be a major virulence factor associated with health care associated infections particularly with Catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) pathogens. This study is done to find out prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm production capacity in CAUTI pathogens in patients admitted to various ICUs of Shree Krishna Hospital, Karamsad, and diagnosed to be suffering with CAUTI based on NHSN definitions were included in study and subjected for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and in-vitro biofilm production test using micro-titre plate method. On the basis of same criteria 55 patients were included in this study. The clinical history of the patients and other details taken for various patient variable factors like age, gender, co-morbid conditions, indoor days, device days, final patient outcome and other lab based investigations done as indicator of active infection or sepsis from the electronic hospital database available on hospital information system, to determine the incidence of antimicrobial resistance, biofilm forming capacity, to determine risk factors associated and final patient outcome with biofilm formation in CAUTI pathogens isolated from ICU patients. Chi-square test was used to check the relation between the categorical variables while t test was applied in case of continuous variables. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Result: Among total 61 isolates recovered from 55 patients, 52.4% were biofilm producer. Most common isolates were pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.95%) followed by Enterococcus faecium (13.11%). Candida tropicalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae were seen among 11.47% each. Among gram negative organisms, most common resistant drug was ciprofloxacin (95.12%), followed by cefipime (87.80%), meropenam, piperacillin-tazobactem (85.37%).  Deaths were seen more in biofilm negative patients (14.29%) as compared to biofilm positive (7.41%).
Conclusion: It is evident that the CAUTI remains major indwelling device associated infection in ICU patients. The biofilm production is associated with 32 (52.4%) out of total 61 isolates of CAUTI in present study.

A prospective study and Correlation between Glycosylated Haemoglobin and Serum Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in KBN Hospital, Karnataka, India

Dr. Anand Shankar, Dr. Girish Ronad, Dr. Ravi Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3153-3160

Introduction: Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased prevalence of lipid abnormalities, contributing to their high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study is an attempt to evaluate the diagnostic value of Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in predicting diabetic dyslipidemia.
Aims & Objectives: To study the correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipid profile in Type 2 Diabetics
Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at Department of General Medicine, Khaja Banda Nawaz University, Kalaburagi,Karnataka  from December 2018 to February 2019. In our study 50 patients of Type 2 diabetes mellitus were taken for the study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, and after obtaining written and informed consent from them. HbA1c and Fasting Lipid profile were done using appropriate tests. Correlation (Pearson’s) test was used to interpret the result
Results: Mean total cholesterol was 155.76±13.41, mean total triglyceride was 180.52±17.21, mean LDL was 99.09±12.72, Mean HDL was 36.94±4.28 and mean HbA1c was 9.76±1.46. HbA1c negatively and significantly correlated with HDL (r= - 0.13). HbA1c positively and significantly correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.20) and LDL (r=0.24), did not show any show correlation with VLDL (r=0.03) and total triglycerides (r=0.02).
Conclusion: It was concluded from the results of this study that HbA1c can also be used as predictor of dyslipidaemia in Type 2 Diabetics in addition to as a glycaemic control parameter

A prospective study on proximal humerus fractures treated with locking compression plate (LCP) in adults with clinical and functional outcome

Dr. Chokka Ramesh Harish

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3161-3166

Background: The aim of this study is to explore the clinical outcomes of locking compression plates (LCPs) Philos in elderly patients with 2-4 parts proximal humerus fracture (PHF).
Material and Methods: This is a Prospective, observational and descriptive study conducted from (March 2009 to June 2017) at Department of Orthopaedics, chalmeda Anand Rao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar .  Sampling methods: After confirmation of the proximal humerus fracture, patients were taken for study, if they fit into the above said criteria. Patients had undergone open reduction internal fixation with philos locking plating under GA for the sustained fracture. Post-operative physiotherapy followed according to protocol, to evaluate the functional outcome. Fractures were classified using Neer’s classification.
Results: In the present study, the most common mechanism of injury was found to be road traffic accidents with a total of 25 (62.5%) patients and rest 15 (37.5%) were injured due to accidental fall on the ground. In the present study, the right side proximal humerus fracture occurred in 22 (55%) patients and left side proximal humerus fracture occurred in 18 (45%) patients respectively. All fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification system. 17 (42.5%) patients were two-part, 13 (32.5%) were three-part and 10 (25%) were four-part. The Constant -Murley score achieved at the end of study period (6 months) was 66.32 ± 6.47.
Conclusions: The proximal humerus locking plate seems to be an adequate device for the fixation of displaced two-part, three part and four-part proximal humerus fractures. Due to stable fixation, early functional aftercare is possible and allows the patient to regain good shoulder function and resume normal activities much earlier.

MINIMAL INVASIVE DENTISTRY- A NARRATIVE REVIEW

MANSI MENDIRATTA, MANJUNATH B.C., ADARSH KUMAR, VIPUL YADAV, MADHAVI WIG, AMIT KUMAR

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3167-3179

Background and Objectives: Scientific advances in cariology, dental products, and diagnostic
systems have altered dentistry's approach to the diagnosis and management of dental caries
over the last few decades. The review was undertaken to discuss the scientific rationale for
early diagnosis, a modified classification of caries based on the location and size of lesion
remineralization, the reduction of cariogenic bacteria, and the design, techniques, and
material selection for minimally invasive cavity preparation. Materials and Methods:
Literature survey was carried out in April 2021 in electronic databases such as PubMed,
SCOPUS, EMBASE, COCHRANRE library, Science Direct and manually using key words
such as “Minimally Invasive Dentistry,” “ART,” “MID,” “Minimum Intervention Dentistry”.
The searches revealed 911 articles out of which 34 were selected after reading the full text
articles. Conclusions and Practice Implications: Scientific advancements have led to the
development of minimally invasive dentistry. Emerging technology will aid the transition to
primary caries prevention, but there are still technological, cultural, and economic barriers to
their full adoption in clinical practice.

Distal Femoral Fracture Fixation with Retrograde Nailing versus Plating: Femoral Alignment Outcome

Tarek AbdElsamad ElHewala, Alaa Ahmed Elngehy,Mohamed Khaled Engim , Osam Mohamed Metwally

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3180-3188

Background:Distal femur fractures occur following high-energy impact in young
patients or low-energy injury in elderly patients with osteopenic or osteoporotic
bone.This study is aimed to compare the results of retrograde Nailing versus plating
technique in distal femoral fractures regarding both clinical and radiological
alignment. Patients and methods:This study was conducted on 18 patients with
distal femoral fractureswho divided into two groups; Group A treated by retrograde
femoral nail (RGN) and group B treated by Plating technique. All patients were
subjected to clinical and radiological measurements to assess the outcomes after
surgery. Results:Clinical measurements in normal limb was 4.66±1.32 in
retrograde nail group while it was 4.88±1.58 in plating group, the MAD in
fractured limp clinically was 5.38±1.89 in retrograde nail group while it was
6.48±2.31 in plating group. The radiological MAD showed significant difference
between the normal and operated side. Mechanical Lateral Distal Femoral Angle
(mLFDA) in fractured limb was 88.66±2.54 in retrograde nail group while it was
89.33±3.67 in plating group (P=0.663). Medial Proximal Tibial Angle (MPTA) in
fractured limb was 87.77±1.85 in retrograde nail group while it was 87.88±3.48 in
plating group. In spite of the excellent results in RGN group compared with group
(B), the overall results showed no significant difference statistically between the two
groups. Conclusions: Retrograde nailing is a good fixation system for fractures of
distal femur with better outcome in terms of range of movements, less infection rate
and early mobilization.

A comparative study of 30 cases of intertrochanteric fracture femur in elderly patients treated with Proximal Femoral Nailing Anti Rotation-2(PFNA-2) and Proximal Femoral Nailing (PFN)

Dr.ManjitSingh, Dr.DilmohanSingh Karday,Dr. DharminderSingh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3189-3196

Increased life expectancy has led to a considerably increased incidence of proximal femoral
fractures. The standard of peritrochanteric fracture treatment is stable fixation, which allows
early full weight-bearing mobilization of the patient. A prospective, observational and
randomized study was carried out with a total of thirty patients with intertrochanteric femur
fractures admitted in Govt. Medical College and Rajindra Hospital Patiala after fulfilling the
inclusion criteria and were treated with osteosynthesis with proximal femoral nailing antirotation-
2 (PFNA-2) and proximal femoral nailing (PFN) after dividing them into two groups
randomly i.e. Group A and Group B with 15 cases in each. Harris Hip Score was used as criteria
for evaluation of results and functional outcome was graded accordingly. The authors conclude
that PFNA2 gives better results than PFN in intertrochanteric fractures in terms of the amount of
blood loss during surgery, duration of surgery, postoperative complications. However, there is no
difference between the two modalities in terms of duration of hospitalization, fracture union, and
early rehabilitation (mortality and morbidity).

Role of MRI in detecting female infertility

Dr. A Antony Jean,Dr. K. Karthikeyan,Dr.Ajit Kumar Reddy, Dr.AnnithaElavarasi J

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3197-3201

To assess role of MRI in detecting female infertility.
Materials & Methods:Eighty- six women age ranged 20- 40 years were included in the
study. All underwent MRI using 1.5 Tesla unit equipped with a 32 phased-array surface
coil. Causes of female infertility was recorded.
Results: Age group 20-30 years comprised of 50 and 31-40 years had 36 patients. Various
causes of female infertility was PCOS in 12, tubal disease in 18, pelvic inflammatory
disease in 10, endometriosis in 8, leiomyoma in 6, adenomyosis in 12 and endometrial
polyps in 20 cases. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: MRI is an excellent non-invasive, radiation-free modality for the evaluation
of female infertility; its superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar evaluation
generate exquisite anatomical details.