Over the past few decades public health has been immensely improved by preventing various types of diseases using vaccination, a method implying attenuated, killed or part of a microorganism to activate the immune system against it. Recently, nanovaccines have attracted a lot of attention as a new approach for enhancing the immune responses against immunogenic molecules. A wide variety of nanomaterials are reported as proper candidates for nanovaccination. Currently, the focus is the development of new formulations that trigger strong anti-cancer responses by presenting tumor antigens either directly to T immune cells or indirectly to antigen-presenting cells, holding great promise for safe, non-invasive, and cost-effective therapy of cancer. This review focuses on the critical aspects in the design of biomaterial based nanovaccines and reviews the state of the art of the formulations in clinical development and those currently available in the market.