The talk will start from a brief review of the physical basis of microwave imaging for medical diagnostics and of the challenges that have to be faced in this technology, to present three areas which are possibly the most promising ones for a fruitful application of microwave imaging in the medical arena. The first one is the monitoring of brain injuries, which is a topic of increasing importance for its impact on the European health system in the ageing society. In particular, it will be discussed how microwave imaging can play a role both in the detection of the diseases in the early stage and in their clinical follow-up, by filling the gap between current diagnostic modalities and the need of continuous monitoring at the patient's bed. The second one is the potential of enhancing the capabilities of microwave imaging by means of contrast agents. Indeed, while contrast enhancement is a common practice to improve performances in medical imaging, it presents even some remarkable and specific advantages in microwave imaging, provided suitable contrast agents are adopted. Third, and not last, the intrinsically dual nature of microwaves, which are not only a diagnostic tool, but also a therapeutic means (hyperthermia, thermo-ablation), makes them a suitable candidate to address the emerging paradigm of theranostics, wherein the imaging cap- ability provide the basis for truly patient specific treatments.