Comparison of Subjective and Objective Symptoms of Halitosis in Patients with liver and Kidney Diseases
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1703-1710
AbstractIntroduction: Halitosis means bad breath from the oral cavity. Halitosis has its origin in systemic diseases such as hepatic, pancreatic, renal. It can also occur due to oral reasons such as xerostomia and poor oral hygiene.
Objective: This study compared the objective and subjective symptoms of halitosis in patients with liver and kidney diseases and to measure the oral hygiene status of the same patients.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on liver and kidney patients in the Private Dental College of Central India in collaboration with tertiary hospital, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha. Forty four patients were included in the study. The subjective symptoms were measured with the help of questionnaire and objective symptoms were measured with
the help of halimeter. The oral hygiene status of patients was assessed by using the criteria of Silness J. and Loe H. Data was analysed using SPSS version 21.
Result: In the study conducted 81.81% of the patients showed evidence of true halitosis whereas 18.18% of patients showed no evidence of halitosis. Also 100% of the patients had fair oral hygiene out of which 40.90% of the patients had mild gingivitis and 59.09% of the patients had moderate gingivitis.
Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference between the subjective and objective symptoms of halitosis in liver and kidney diseases patients
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