Document Type : Research Article
The embryonic head development, including the formation of dental structures, which is a complex and delicate process guided by specific genetic programs. The development of the face involves a coordinated complex series of embryonic events. Recognizable features of the human face develop around the 4th week of gestation and are closely related to cranial neural crest cells. Genetic changes and environmental factors can disturb the execution of these programs and result in abnormalities in the facial and dental structures. Orofacial clefts and hypodontia/ oligodontia are examples of such abnormalities frequently seen in dental clinics. This review article focuses on the mechanisms and genes involved in the formation of dental structures. The development dental pathological conditions depends very much on a detailed knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes that are involved in orofacial formation.