Document Type : Research Article
Heart disease is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity during both the
antepartum and postpartum periods. Heart disease occurs less frequently than 1% of the time during pregnancy. Cardiovascular disorders complicate about 1% of all pregnancies.A thorough evaluation of the patient throughout the entire pregnancy may result in the early detection of heart disease. So, the present study was conducted with an aim to assess the effect of heart disease in pregnancy and its outcome.
Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study of the maternal-fetal outcomes of cardiac disease-related pregnancies over the last five years that were followed at tertiary care hospitals in North India. The study was carried out for three months after receiving institutional review board ethical approval. The study comprised pregnant patient files with pre-existing or newly diagnosed heart illness during pregnancy. Maternal age, parity,York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, and materno-fetal outcome were among the variables that were recorded. The collected data was entered in the MS excel sheet. The variables were presented as frequency and percentages.
Results: In our study, a prevalence of 1.5% of heart disease was observed among pregnant women. Four fifth of pregnant women (80.0%) with heart disease were primigravida.Among enrolled pregnant women four fifth of the women were having rheumatic heart disease (84.2%). Among pregnant women with rheumatic heart disease (RHD), the single valvular lesions were seen in 28.7% of pregnant women (20.3% of mitral stenosis and 5.1% of mitral regurgitation).52.9% of pregnant women were having grade II functional class as per NYHA. Congestive cardiac failure as complication was observed in 15.7% of pregnant women. Among alive neonates, 29.2% of neonates were preterm, and 7.7% of neonates were having IUGR, 15.4% needed NICU admission
Conclusion: In underdeveloped nations, maternal and perinatal morbidity from rheumatic heart disease is high and accounts for a large portion of cardiac disease in pregnancy. When congenital heart disease is treated early in life, morbidity and mortality are reduced.