Document Type : Research Article
Cardiac dysfunction is a predominant complication of hypertensive disease complicating pregnancy especially affecting left ventricular systolic and diastolic function example Ejection fraction, Fractional shortening, E/A ratio, Isovolumetric relaxation time, Deceleration time. These changes usually return to normalcy after delivery by six weeks postpartum in Normotensive patients.
Aim: To study the cardiac function in preeclamptic pregnant women by transthoracic echo in comparison with normal pregnant women in 32-38 weeks of gestation.
Methodology: This is a prospective observational study conducted in government institute of obstetrics and gynaecology hospital Egmore, chennai and government ISO Kasthurba Gandhi hospital chennai in 125 pregnant women and 125 preeclamptic women. The study subjects underwent echo at 32 38 weeks by using parameters such as ejection fraction l, factional shortening isovolumetric relaxation and deceleration time. This study also evaluated bmi, age, gestational age blood pressure and time of delivery. All preeclamptic patients were followed up to 6 weeks postpartum with echocardiography
Results: The average values of the following parameters were high in preeclamptic women as compared to normotensive controls.
BMI in preeclampsia women 28.71 +/- 4.89 and in Normotensive 27.9 +/- 2.9 (with p value 0.13). Fractional shortening was 28.5 +/- 2 in preeclamptic women and in Normotensive 33.26 +/- 1.62 with P value <0.01.
Isovolumetric relaxation time was in 126.02 +/- 58.6 in preeclamptic women and in Normotensive 99.76 +/- 4.66 with P value <0.001.
Deceleration time was in 230.06 +/- 17.23 in preeclamptic women and in Normotensive 203.34 +/- 6.74 with P value<0.001.
All echo values were highly significant.
Conclusion: Echocardiograph was rarely performed on all preeclamptic pregnant patients in developing countries like India. By performing echo on preeclamptic patients we will be able to detect left ventricular dysfunction early, start treatment, prevent complications and reduce morbidity and mortality. This study shows that echocardiography is extreme valuable and should compulsorily be made a part of all antenatal investigations..