Document Type : Research Article
Introduction: In addition to having a small carbon footprint and the capacity to endure high temperatures with little water, millets are recognised to be very nutrient-dense foods. Millets are well known for helping to treat diabetes because of their low Glycaemic Index (GI). All of the evidence was compiled in this meta-analysis across all millets and cooking/processing methods.
Methods: 39 papers with 111 observations were chosen from the 65 research that were gathered globally to examine GI outcomes. In a meta-analysis, results from 56 trials were examined for fasting, post-prandial glucose level, insulin index, and HbA1c levels. The descriptive statistics make it clear that millets have a mean GI that is 36% lower than that of popular staples like refined wheat and milled rice.
Results: The descriptive, meta, and regression results demonstrated that the millets with the lowest mean GI were Job's tears, fonio, foxtail, barnyard, and teff. A meta-analysis revealed that all millets, with the exception of small millet, which had contradictory data, had considerably lower GI than white rice, refined wheat, conventional glucose, or white wheat bread. In diabetic patients, long-term millet eating significantly decreased fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels by 12 and 15%, respectively. A significant decrease in HbA1c level was observed in pre-diabetic patients who consumed millets over an extended period of time. Compared to milled rice and refined wheat, less processed millets were 30% more successful at lowering the GI of a meal.
Conclusion: As a result, millets may be utilised to create appropriate meals for diabetic and pre-diabetic patients as well as for persons without diabetes as a preventive measure. Millets can also be helpful in treating and reducing the risk of acquiring diabetes.