Document Type : Research Article
Aim: To investigate the use of ultrasound in diagnosing patients with first trimester bleeding and to prognosis and forecast the outcome of abnormal pregnancies
Methods: The research included all consecutive individuals having a history of vaginal bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy. Age, obstetric history, menstruation history, and specifics of the current pregnancy such as period of amenorrhea at the time of the first episode of bleeding, quantity and duration of bleeding, discomfort abdomen, and history of expulsion of fleshy mass/clots were all recorded. Transabdominal sonography was performed on all patients using a GE Logiq P5 Pro ultrasound equipment. When transabdominal sonography was unclear or ambiguous, transvaginal sonography (TVS) was used. The presence or absence of a gestational sac, the location of the gestational sac, the size of the gestational age in comparison to the period of amenorrhea, the margins of the gestational sac, the presence or absence of a foetal pole, crown rump length (CRL), cardiac activity, and the presence of fluid in the cul-de-sac were all noted on an ultrasound.
Results: Clinical examination revealed that 74 (74%) of the cases were threatened abortions, 6 (6%) were complete abortions, 4 (4%) were incomplete abortions, and 2 (2%) were missed abortions. Clinically, no blighted ovum or molar pregnancy was suspected. On USG, 55(55%) of 100 cases were classified as threatened abortion, 15(15%) as complete abortion, and 9(9%) as missed abortion and incomplete abortion. There were also 6 (6%) cases of blighted ovum, 3 (3%) cases of ectopic pregnancy, and 2(2%) cases of complete hydatiform mole. The total disparity between clinical and USG diagnosis was present in 61% of cases, and clinical diagnosis was confirmed by USG in 62 cases, indicating clinical diagnosis accuracy of 62%.
Conclusions: We conclude that USG is a helpful and readily accessible technique for evaluating individuals with first trimester vaginal haemorrhage. It is quite precise in pinpointing the root of the bleeding problem and helping the doctor decide what course of action to take. In the algorithm for deciding whether or not to intervene and keep the pregnancy going, ultrasound is a useful input.