Document Type : Research Article
Background:Recently, a number of publications have raised concern about the rising
prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Telangana. The International Diabetes Federation has
named Saudi Arabia among the top 10 countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes
Objective of the Study: To observe and evaluate the incidence and complications seen in
infants of diabetic mothers.
Materials and Methods: It is a prospective observational time bound study conducted
Yashoda Hospital, Telangana, India from December 2019 to November 2020. All live
babies born to mothers with GDM or pregestational DM were enrolled in study.
Maternal history and complications during labour were recorded. APGAR scores
assessed. Investigation for glucose estimation, PCV, serum calcium, serum bilirubin was
sent. Chest X ray was done in babies with respiratory distress. 2D ECHO, USG
abdomen, USG cranium were done in all babies after stablisation.
Results: 70 neonates were born to diabetic mothers. 2 IUD and 6 still born were
excluded from study and 62 neonates were evaluated. 2 neonates died.70.96% were
term babies and 29 % preterm. 40 infants (64.5%) were born to GDM mothers, 20
(32.3%) to mothers with type 2 DM and 2(3.2%) to type 1 DM. 16.2% were LGA while
12.9% were SGA. Hypocalcemia was seen in 4 neonates (6.7%). Hyperbilirubinemia
was seen in 4 (13.3%). Sepsis was seen in 8 neonates. CHDs were seen in 42.9%, most
common being ASD/PFO 21.3%. VSD was seen in 10.7%, PDA in 7.1% and septal
hypertrophy in 3.5%. One case had pyloric atresia and one had RDS. Association
between HbA1c levels and complications like macrosomia, hypoglycemia, congenital
anomalies was not significant in our study.
Conclusion: Neonates born to diabetic mother are at a high risk of developing
complications like hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia and cardiac defects.