Document Type : Research Article
Background: Pancytopenia is defined as reduction of all the three formed elements of blood below the normal reference level. It is an important clinical haematological entity encountered in our day-to-day clinical practise. It may be a presentation of wide variety of disorder, which primarily or secondarily affect the bone marrow. This study was under taken to find out the various causes of pancytopenia by bone marrow examination.
Material and Method: The study was carried out over a period of 2 year and 6 months, from May 2019 to October 2021. Total 100 patient who had pancytopenia were included in the study. Based on clinical findings, complete blood count and peripheral blood smear examination, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were carried out. All the aspirate smear were stain with Leishman stain and trephine biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Result: Total 100 cases of pancytopenia were included in study, out of which 63 were male and 37 were female. Most of the patient were in the age group of 3-20 year. Based on the clinical findings bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, the commonest cause of pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia (52%) followed by aplastic anemia (28%), acute leukemia (8%), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (3%), osseous neoplasm (2%), metastatic deposite (2%), haemolytic anemia (2%), renal bone disease 1%, multiple myeloma (1%) and kalazar (1%).
Conclusion: Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy along with physical examination and other haematological investigation is essential in diagnosis of cases of pancytopenia.