Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Colorectal Cancer


1Gaurav D Saxena, 2Dr. SHAIK JUMLESHA, 3K.Susmitha, 4Mekala R, 5ABHAY R. SHIRODE, 6Dr. Amit Chauhan, 7Mr. Shailendra Singh Bhadauria ..

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 4561-4570

Colorectal cancer is a well-known tumour that affects both men and women across the world and is quite common. According to a study published by the World Health Organization in 2018, colon cancer ranked third, with 1.80 million people afflicted. To be more specific, it is the cancer that comes after it that is the second most frequent cause of cancer in women and the third most common cause of cancer in men. Colorectal cancer is thought to be caused by a lack of control over the integrity of epidermal cells, which may occur in the intestine or during a malignancy. A reliable method of detecting colon cancer at an early stage, followed by intensive treatment, has the potential to significantly lower the mortality rates that result. A Gastroenterologist may resort to cancer diagnostic tests for pathological pictures in order to do Screening of Morphology of Malignant Tumor Cells in the Colon during a colonoscopy. Due to the unlimited number of glands in the gastrointestinal system, any Histology procedure will require a large amount of time, and the results may be incongruous. By diagnosing using computer algorithms, it is possible to get practical and beneficial outcomes.. In order to get trustworthy and useful morphological imaging data, correct gland segmentation is a critical pre-processing step that must be completed first. In recent years, researchers have used deep learning algorithms to pathological image analysis in order to improve the accuracy of cancer illness detection. According to our findings, diagnostic test characteristics that are provided as input to a deep learning architecture that is utilized in conjunction with a semantic segmentation algorithm may provide results that are more accurate than those produced by conventional picture segmentation methods. This paper presents an in-depth examination of deep learning architectures used for semantic segmentation on histological pictures of the colon, as well as their applications.

Study of role of preoperative colonoscopy in patients with haemorrhoids at a tertiary hospital

Samir Deshpande, Rohan Patil, Sandesh Gawade

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 2007-2012

Rectal bleeding in patients with hemorrhoids requires exact diagnosis because it may be not simply a hemorrhoidal bleeding and can be an early sign of severe bowel diseases, such as colon carcinoma, or inflammatory bowel diseases that could be discovered by colonoscopy.The present study was thus conducted to assess the role of preoperative colonoscopy in patients with haemorrhoids. Material and Methods: Present study was prospective, observational study, conducted in patients of age > 18 years, either gender, clinically diagnosed with haemorrhoids, underwent colonoscopic evaluation. Results: In present study, out of 50 cases of hemorrhoids, most common age group affected was between 41-60 years of age (64 %) with mean age of 48.32 ± 10.16 years. Male predominance was seen in present study with 64% males to 34% females. Male to female ratio being 1.78:1. Most common presenting complaint was bleeding (86%) followed by constipation (72%) and pain (18%). On colonoscopy examination, grade I and II haemorrhoids were seen in 28% cases while grade III and IV were observed in 48% and 24% cases respectively. Associated pathologies were reported in 30% cases with benign conditions in 22% and malignant condition in remaining 8% cases. Benign pathologies include: ulcerative colitis (10%), polyp (10%) and rectal ulcer (2%) while colorectal carcinoma was seen in 8% cases. Only 1 patient complained of pain after the procedure while bleeding was not reported in any case. Conclusion: Rectal bleeding warrants a complete colonic investigation, preferably by total colonoscopy. Avoiding colonoscopy in these patients can lead to missed-diagnosis or delay in diagnosis.


Dr. Ravindra M. Yadav, Dr. S. J. Bhosale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1585-1594

To figure out how well pre-operative (neo-adjuvant) chemo-radiotherapy works for patients with
locally advanced rectal cancer by looking at the rates of radiation enteritis after both preoperative
and post-operative treatment. Follow-up continues until November 2019. The research
required appropriate biochemistry, pathology, radiography, and medical/surgical management.
Since June 2019, outpatients are assessed. Rectal cancer research studied age, sex, diagnosis
delay, mortality, treatment options, death causes, surgical complications, and hospital stay.
Typical, pre-validated, semi-structured case record proformas recorded the data. CBC,
biochemical profile, serological sample, upright abdominal X-ray, CT scan, transrectal, pelvic, or
abdominal ultrasound. After staging, patients received chemotherapy (625 mg/m2 capecitabine
orally in 4 doses) and radiation (50.4 Gy in 28 parts) and were reevaluated for surgery after 4
weeks. The majority of cases had adenocarcinomas in the middle and lower rectum. 17.5% of
neo-adjuvant patients developed radiation enteritis. To make neoadjuvant treatment standard,
more experience, competence, and patients are needed.

Short-chain fatty acids and volatile organic compound pattern examination as a diagnostic marker for evaluating Colorectal Cancer and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Dr.P.Jayakala, Dr. J S Mounika Mounika

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1632-1641

CRC and IBD have been linked to the volatolome, which is a mixture of volatile organic
compounds (VOCs). The volatolome seems to have promise as a non-invasive biomarker
for the identification of CRC and IBD. Multiple researches have been conducted on the
volatolome's potential, utilising either chemical analysis or pattern-recognition approaches
to determine its potential. The existing literature on the potential of the volatolome as a
cancer and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) biomarker was examined. The survey
examines 23 journal papers that were obtained electronically through major scientific
databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, IEEE, and Science Direct, which
were searched using sets of keywords. The papers were obtained through major scientific
databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, IEEE, and Science Direct, which
were searched using sets of keywords. Publication of the articles was made possible by the
use of major scientific databases such as Pubmed and Google Scholar, as well as the IEEE
and Science Direct. VOC analyses appear promising for future screening of CRC and IBD,
with potentially improved test performances allowing for earlier detection of IBD and CRC
and consequently earlier initiation of treatment, potentially reducing morbidity and
mortality rates as well as lower rates of (unnecessary) colonoscopies, according to the
studies included.

Relation between Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) Staging of Colorectal Cancer

Nouralddeen Ahmed Kareemeed, Alaa Mohamed Ibrahim Khalil, Wael Elsayed Lotfy Mokhtar, Hassan Rabea Galal Ashour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3369-3377

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer
and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide with steadily increasing
mortality rates. The aim of the present study to highlight any relationship between
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage in
colorectal cancer (CRC) patients that would help in diagnosis and staging of the
disease. Patients and methods: A total of 36 patients with stages IV CRC were
admitted to department of General surgery, Zagazig university hospitals and
underwent surgery. Full medical history, clinical examination, General and specific
investigation were performed for all patients preoperatively.The CEA levels for all
patients were examined preoperatively. Results: Our study showed the mean age of
the studied cases ranged from 29 to 83 years with mean 54.36 years. Regarding sex
63.9% were male. Finally 38.9% were smoker. Most common sites of lesions were
rectum, sigmoid colon & descending colon (44.4%, 19.4% & 13.9% respectively).
The diameter of lesion among cases ranged from 1 to 15 cm with mean 5.94 cm and
38.9% had diameter from 3 to 6 cm. Regarding differentiations most frequent was
moderate and mild (41.7% & 30.6% respectively). CEA level among the studied cases
ranged from 0 to 23 ng/dl with mean 6.39 ng/dl and median 4.5 ng/ml. Also 58.3%
had CEA level ≤ 5 ng/ml. Conclusions: There is a meaningful link between TNM
stage and CEA level. However, normal levels of CEA will not rule out CRC
diagnosis, and it can be concluded that these patients should be investigated in

Histopathological Spectrum of Lower Gastro-Intestinal Colonoscopic Biopsy Lesion With Special Reference To Her-2/Neu Expression In Carcinoma Colon

Debahuti Mohapatra; Rupanita Biswal; Mitu Mohanty; Prateek Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1150-1159

Introduction :
Cancer associated with colon is one of the principal risk factors from decease in women and men. Although importancegrowing aspect of human epidermis receptor2 (Her2)as atherapeutic target is rising butits role as a biomarker in form of predicting indicator indicatorwithin colorectal cancer(CRC)is stilla mystery.Present research isundertakenfor evaluating the of Her2/neu description in cancer of colon.
Material & Method :
This research comprises 256patientswith spectrum of histopathological treatment ranging from colitis to colorectal carcinoma at our department between 2015- 2017. Her2/neu Immunohistochemistry was done in the colorectal carcinomaand scores based on Ruschoff et al (2012) Her-2 testing in gastric cancer.
Result :
Out of total number of 256 cases enrolled in our study group, majority belonged to the age group of 40-60 years, with M:F ratio being 1.4:1. Commonest site of lesion occurred in rectum (43.75%) followed by ascending colon and caecum (12.08%). Non neoplastic lesions constituted about two third of all cases, the commonest being inflammatory bowel disease(21.48%). In benign neoplastic lesions of tubular adenoma was thecommonest type, and in malignant commonest type was colorectal adenocarcinoma NOS(64.44%) followed by mucinous adeno carcinoma (22.22%). Because of more prominent membranous staining observed in high grade colorectal cancers, Her2neu expression is found to be an important predictive marker of carcinoma colon, especially the adenocarcinoma,NOS.
Conclusion : Like Breast carcinoma, target oriented therapy can be instituted especially in Her 2/neu positive high grade and metastatic tumors.