Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Co-Infection


Serological Evidence of Co-infection of Dengue, Leptospirosis and Scrub Typhus in Patients Presenting with Acute Febrile Illness in a Tertiary care Hospital

Rupinder Bakshi, Satinder Kaur, Tanveer Kaur, Ritika Ghai, Karashdeep Kaur, Ramanpreet Kaur, Jaspreet Kaur, Palika Sharma, Amritpal Kaur, Harbhajan Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2009-2020

Background: Acute febrile illness (AFI)is specified as sudden onset of fever of unknown
origin lasting for 1-14 days. AFI may be caused by pathogens like bacteria, viruses,
parasites, and fungi leading to infectious diseases. Dengue is a vector-borne viral disease
that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue NS1 Ag is released into the
blood during viral replication in infected patients and is detectable from the first day
after fever. As NS1 Ag can be identified promptly, it acts as a beneficial biomarker for
the early detection of dengue, allowing rapid management of dengue fever.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on blood samples of
patients presenting with acute febrile illness in OPD/IPD of a tertiary care hospital from
September 2019- December 2019. Out of 694 samples, the samples which were 2 mL in
quantity, non-hemolytic, non-lipemic, maintained in cold chain along with complete
demographic data were selected for the present study i.e. n=270.
Results: Blood samples of 270 patients who presented with acute febrile illness and met
with our inclusion criteria were tested for dengue NS1 antigen/IgM antibodies based on
their fever history. Out of 270, 120 patients tested positive for dengue.
Conclusion: To conclude, patients in tropical countries presenting in the post-monsoon
season with acute febrile illness not responding to appropriate and adequate therapy
aimed for a suspected tropical infection such as dengue should be evaluated for
concurrent infections with other microorganisms.

A Study on Haematological Profile in Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Tertiary Care Centre

Shaik Khaja Rassul

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11651-11661

Background:Tuberculosis is an ancient disease observed during the Neolithic period and remains a serious problem in developing countries. Tuberculosis is a disease that can affect all age groups and all genders and can affect all organ systems in our body. Tuberculosis can affect most of the body's hematological parameters. TB affects hemoglobin levels, total number, red blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and platelet count, causing anemia, leukopenia or leukocytosis (extrapulmonary TB), thrombocytopenia, and increased ESR. Along with HIV, tuberculosis exacerbates the scenarios of thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia, and pancytopenia. Aim: This study was done in NRI medical College Guntur to find out the haematological manifestation of pulmonary TB and to compare it with the hematological manifestation in HIV –TB co-infected patients.
Materials and Methods: 80 patients of more than 15 years of age group was selected for the study, who willingly consented to participate in the study. They were divided in 2 groups of 40 patients with only pulmonary TB and 40 patients with HIV – TB co-infected, according to ELISA positivity. Statistical comparison was analysed usng CHI square test.
Results: In our study, patients with tuberculosis had an elevated ESR count, but TB-HIV coinfection reduces the ESR count. 48% of TB with HIV anaemic men and 25% of women had 11 gm/dl. 46.25 percent of anaemic TB patients without HIV were male and female (27.02 percent). 56% of men had TB with HIV and 48% had TB without HIV. In the TB without HIV group, 51.1% of males and 27.9% of females had total RBC counts ≤ 3.8 million cells/cumm, compared to 51.3% of males and 35.1% of females in the TB with HIV group.
Conclusion: The study concluded that ESR is a marker of chronic inflammatory conditions such as tuberculosis and that HIV is an immunosuppressive state, and that co-infection with tuberculosis and HIV significantly reduces ESR scores in these patients.

Relationship of Blastocystis subtypes and its co-infection with other parasites to the infection symptoms

Hossein Soleymanpoor; Andrea Giacometti; Zeno Bisoffi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2605-2615

Background: One of the common gastro-intestinal parasites worldwide is Blastocystis. Diverse
subtypes are employed to detect this microscopic parasite but there is not enough information on
the issue if these su-btypes may exhibit diverse clinical symptoms or not. This research aimed at
the evaluation of the clinical symptoms of the disease like itching and gastro-intestinal symptoms
in various subtypes as well as in Blastocystis co-infection with other parasites.
Methods: We extracted DNA from the fecal specimens of the cases that had been referred to the
Center for Tropical Diseases in Verona-Italy. Moreover, real-time PCR (RT PCR) was employed
to identify the available parasitic infections and nested PCR to detect the subtypes. Then, SPSS
was used to analyze data.
Results: Any significant relationship did not exist between the subtypes and clinical symptoms. In
addition, co-infection did not significantly related to the disease symptoms and a number of
parasites. The small statistical population may influence such results.
Conclusion: Further investigations must be conducted for determining the effects of Blastocystis
sub-types and their co-infection on the disease symptoms.

Case Report: Covid-19 And Severe Malaria Co-Infection

MuhammadJunaedi .; Sudirman Katu; Muh Ilyas; Numan Daud; SahyuddinSaleh .; HaeraniRasyid .; NurjannahLihawa .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 961-968

Background:A mysterious pneumonia case was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) later named this pneumonia Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The massive spread of Covid-19 increases the risk of co-infection with other pre-existing pathogens including malaria
Case Report: A 32 years old woman was admitted to the hospital due to complaints of jaundice, fever, dyspneu and andominal pain. On further examination of the malaria smear, plasmodium falciparum was found in the form of trophozoites and gametocytes, the parasite count was 119,902 U/L and a nasopharyngeal PCR swab was positive for SARS CoV-2. The patient conditionimprove after administering artesunate and oseltamivir.
Discussion: Several clinical manifestations are overlapping between Covid-19 and malaria, especially extrapulmonary manifestations of Covid-19 infection, including thrombocytopenia, elevated transaminase enzymes, increased bilirubin, and impaired kidney function. Management was carried out to deal with malaria and Covid-19 simultaneously and continuously.