Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Lipid profile


A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile & HbA1c in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in a tertiary care hospital in Indore, Madhya Pradesh

Mohmmad Imran, Shreya Nigoskar , Shilpa Mittal , Shubham Girdhar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 3709-3719

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Dyslipidaemia in diabetes commonly manifests as raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels or elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. Many studies have proposed HbA1c to be used as a biomarker of both glycaemic control and dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study aimed to observe the lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and to find out the correlation between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), FBS and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

CLINICAL STUDY OF DERMATOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN OBESITY

Dr.GontiPrakash,Dr. V.Siva Subramanian,Dr.C.Abhirami, Dr. Sowmya Machugari, Dr.T.Surya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 141-152

Background and objectives. Obesity is a major concern in our era with many adolescents and adults being obese.Obese patients with metabolic syndrome are more prone for cardiovascular risk. Obese individuals have numerous physiological changes which predispose them to many dermatological conditions. This is of concern to us as many of these conditions can act as markers for obesity and impending systemic consequences of obesity. This study was done to find the common dermatoses associated in adults with a BMI of > 30 kg/m2 who presented. Methodology All adult patients, of both sexes, who have a BMI > 30.0 and/or waist circumference > 90cm in males and > 80cm in females were included in the study.A detailed history of the patients was taken Morphology of skin lesions, sites of involvement, number of lesions were noted. A complete systemic and dermatological examination was carried out in all patients. ResultsThe age range of patients in this study was 18-85 years and the mean age was 40± 12.50. Acanthosis nigricans and skin tags had a strong correlation with obesityand Metabolicsyndrome. It was noted that in patients with acanthosis nigricans and skin tags, who were found to have metabolic syndrome, had elevated fasting plasma leptin levels but no elevation in fasting plasma Insulin levels.

Association Of BMI And Lipid Profile In Overweight Young Adults After 3 Months Of Yoga Practice

Jay Prakash Singh Rajput; Asha Gandhi; Sanjiv K Bansal; P.N Singh; Nimarpreet Kaur; Deepti Dwivedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1426-1433

Background: Many studies have applied aspects of Yoga to different health conditions. Obesity is a major health problem and the 5th leading risk for death globally. Reasons for these health problems are improper lifestyle and stress, which cause hormonal and chemical imbalance and disturb the proper coordination of metabolic and biochemical functions. So, the aim and objective of the present study is to assess the beneficial effects of 3 months of yoga practice on BMI, and lipid profile as well as correlate BMI with lipid parameters in overweight medical students between the age group 18-24 years.
Material and Methods: This prospective follow-up study included 50 Medical students having overweight of either sex (male & female) as per the inclusion criteria. Their BMI, and Lipid Profile were estimated before the start of yoga, after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of yoga practice, and their mean values were compared from baseline by using student t-Test, and correlation was done by using Pearson correlation test.
Results: Statistically significant decreased mean values of BMI, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL were recorded when compared from baseline. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis between the BMI, TC and TG at three levels of yoga practice was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Yoga therapy is useful to overcome the complications of obesity. It is one of the non-pharmacological and cost-effective therapies to maintain better health by regulating BMI and other biochemical functions of the body.

Characterization and Comparison of oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in psoriatic arthritis patients

Dr. Rajashekar Danda; Dr. Madas Ravichandra Yadav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1838-1846

Background: The aim of our research was to evaluate the oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) in blood samples of patients with Psoriatic Arthritis compared to healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: Our study involved 40 patients with Psoriatic Arthritis and 40 generally healthy subjects matched by age and gender to the study group patients. In this study we have evaluated the haematological and lipid profiles in healthy control and patients group. We have also assessed the concentration/activity of antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT) and total antioxidative status (TAS), and lipid oxidation products: Malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated. Serum ADA, hsCRP, SUA, and ESR were evaluated for patients and controls. The extent of disease severity was assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Quality Of Life Index (DLQI) and patients were grouped into having mild, moderate and severe disease using these scores.
Results: Comparison among healthy control and psoriasis patients; there were no statistical differences concerning age, body mass index, and fasting serum glucose level. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide end products (NOx) and hsCRP levels (p<0.001) was noted in Psoriasis patients as compared to controls. The concentration of GPx, CAT, and SOD was significantly higher in patients with Psoriatic Arthritis compared to healthy subjects.
Conclusions: Systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress can be relevant for assessment of psoriasis severity, for prediction of the outcome of therapy and of the development of co-morbidities. Our findings revealed that an imbalance of oxidative stress and antioxidant factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Therefore, treatment based on antioxidant strategies might be beneficial in psoriasis management.

Study of Serum Lipid level on Obese and Non-Obese Young Adult Subjects in Central India

Dr. Om Prakash Garg, Prof. (Dr.) Sunil Kumar Khare, Prof. (Dr.) Maninder Bindra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4538-4545

Background: Obesity is a major public health problem that results in decreased life expectancy, especially in younger age groups. Both lipid and blood sugar are found to be deranged in people who are obese for a long period of time. Obesity is a metabolic disorder and its outcome is due to multiple interactions between genes, lifestyle and the environment. This study aims at measuring and correlating values of serum cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels in obese and non-obese individuals.
Material and methods: A total number of 100 individuals of the age group between 18-29 years, coming for health check-ups at L.N. Medical College and J.K. Hospital, Bhopal were selected for the study. They were divided into groups. One group with BMI over 25 is considered an obese group, and another with a BMI less than 25 is considered a non-obese group. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for blood cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
Results: A significant increase in levels of Serum Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL and a significant decrease in HDL in obese young adult males and females were observed. The young adult obese have relatively larger changes in serum lipids at any given level of obesity. The study has documented several lipid profile abnormalities among obese and non-obese subjects.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the presence of statistically significant changes in fat proportions is considered a risk factor for Heart, blood vessels and obesity in central India

PATTERN OF LIPID PROFILE IN ANEMIC PATIENTS - A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

Dr. Keshav Kumar Garg, Dr. SankarKalairajan, Dr. K. Praveen Gandhi, Dr. Sasmita Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7208-7215

Background: Anemia is common disorder in India, although there are plenty of reasons attributable to anemia. There are studies reporting the beneficial effect of anemia on lipid profile. This research was conducted to study the pattern of lipid profile in anaemic patients.
Material & Method: Present hospital based cross sectional study was conducted among the patient more than 18yrs of age attending the OPD or admitted in medicine department Aarupadai Veedu Medical college & Hospital with diagnosed anemia. Study was done over a period of two years on patients with proven cases of anemia. After informed & written consent from the patients, detailed history, clinical assessment & laboratory investigation was done.
Result: In present study total of 280 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria are included in the study. The mean age of the patients was found to be 39.44±14.92yrs, among them 60% were female and 40% were male patient with female preponderance. There was significant positive strength of association of hemoglobin with the lipid profile which included the total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol(p<0.05).
Conclusion: The present study showed a significant strength of association between the hemoglobin level and the lipid profile parameters. Also lower mean level of lipid parameters with severity of grade of anemia.

The Comparative study of Homocysteine level and its association with lipid profile in smoker and Non smoker healthy adults of Udaipur city

Ms Rashmi , Dr A K Verma, Ms Anita Yadav, Ms Harpreet kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5900-5908

Background: Smoking is strongly and independently associated with cardiovascular disease and is the biggest single avoidable health habit contributing to chronic diseases in the western  world.
Objectives: The objective of this study is to find out the correlation of lipid profile & Homocysteine and their                                           comparison in smoker and non-smoker.
Methodology: Total 300 patients were include in this study, in which patients ranging within age 20-40 years, they were further  categorized according to use of tobacco smoking. Group A- This group consist of tobacco smoker patients between ages 20- 40 years. (n=150).Group B-This group consist of tobacco non-smoker patients between ages 20-40 years. (n=150). 10 ml blood was drawn through vein puncture. From all collected blood samples serum lipid pofile, Liver function test  and Homocysteine levels measured. All collected data were analysed statistically to calculate p value to see the difference of significance.
Results: The Mean concentration of Total cholesterol  in smoker  group was  205.31 ±39.47 while that of  Non smoker control group 189.69 ±36.81 and the difference among them found to be  highly significant .The Mean concentration of S.HDL  in smoker group was 35.3±7.89 and 42.56±39.85 in Nonsmoker  group respectively and the difference among them found to be  highly significant. similar to that  S.LDL concentration in soker group was 128 ±30.57 and in non smoker  group 115.31 ±26.27 and difference among them found to be  highly significant . Serum Triglyceride  concentration in case group was 170.10±25.60while that of control group 147.21 ± 67.36 and p value is <0.001 so the difference among them is also  significant.The Mean concentration of S.homocysteine in smoker  group was 27.32±17.41 and 6.66±3.09  in control group and the difference among them found to be  highly significant.
Conclusion: In conclusion, smoking produces adverse effects on lipid profile and homocysteine, thus increasing the cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are needed to establish that smoking-related alterations have influences on the atherosclerotic lesions of smokers

A Case control study on the Association of Serum Ferritin levels with Acute Myocardial Infarction

Vadiga Ramana Kumar, Atul Pundlik Ramteke, Guguloth Prem Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2647-2655

Background: To evaluate the serum ferritin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To inspect normal healthy individuals with non-cardiac chest pain for serum ferritin levels. To distinguish ferritin levels persisting in both the study population. Comparing serum ferritin levels to the probability of developing acute myocardial infarction. To study relevance of serum ferritin level to acute myocardial infarction.
Material and Methods: A case controlled study was held by Department of General Medicine, Government General Hospital, Suryapet, Telangana, India from December 2021 to September 2022. The study consisted of male patients with myocardial infarction for determining the association of serum ferritin to acute myocardial infarction.
Results: The statistical analysis data for the evaluation of study details for different diagnostic test between cases and control group and determines significance between them. Comorbidities associated with cases and control shows that evidence of diabetes mellitus. The comparison of ferritin and lipid profile no significance existed. On differentiating ferritin administrated value to that of day 3 shows statistical significance. While comparing ferritin and glycaemic control, correlation prevailed. A mixed results were obtained from performed study that proved insufficient to correlated ferritin with myocardial infarction.
Conclusion: The study contradicted the hypothesis. Neither of the tested iron biomarkers confirmed the iron hypothesis, based on the meta-analysis. These finding suggest that the evidence is not robust enough to support the connection among iron and cardiovascular disease. This discrepancy in results could be due to the study's use of different iron markers. Despite the large amount of data that has been published to far, the importance of iron in CVD is still up for debate.

A cross sectional observational study to determine the baseline lipid profile in the first, second and third trimester among pregnant women of North India

Dr. Divyanee Gulati, Dr. Manjit Kaur mohi, Dr. Karan Kukreja, Dr. Jasvir Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 496-504

Aim: To evaluate Lipid profile of pregnant women during all the three trimesters of pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: This prospective observational cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rajindra Hospital, Patiala in 1000 women attending antenatal clinic and labor room. Their lipid profile was done and proportion of dyslipidemia during pregnancy was recorded. Samples from all subjects were collected under aseptic precaution; 5 ml of non-fasting venous blood was collected in plain vacutainer from antecubital vein. After the clot retracts the sample was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 5 min the serum separated and stored at 4°C pending assay for lipid profile. Serum TGs, TC, and HDL cholesterol was analyzed by enzymatic methods with the help of Glaxo kits on ERBA Chem-5 plus semi-auto analyzer in the department of biochemistry, GMC, Rajindra hospital Patiala.
Results:  Out of 1000 patients, 5.6% patients were from <20 years age groups, 31.6% patients were from 20-25 years age groups, 35.7% patients were from 25-30 years age group, 20.9% patients were from 30-35 years age group and 6.2% patients were from >35 years age group. 20.5% patients came from rural area and 79.5% from urban area. The mean cholesterol levels in first second and third trimester were 187.86 mg/dl, 252.36 mg/dl and 294.43 mg/dl respectively showing significant rise in levels of TC with subsequent trimester. The mean TG levels in one, second and third trimester were 142.2 mg/dl, 252.33 mg/dl and 309.97 mg/dl respectively showing a significant rise in levels with subsequent trimester. The mean HDL levels in one, second and third trimester were 53.78 mg/dl, 57.12 mg/dl and 54.07 mg/dl respectively. Levels rise in 2nd trimester and there is significant fall in values between 2nd and 3rd trimester. The mean LDL levels in one, second and third trimester were 105.6 mg/dl, 144.8 mg/dl and 178.4 mg/dl respectively. Values increases with subsequent trimesters. The mean VLDL levels in one, second and third trimester were 28.4 mg/dl, 48.5 mg/dl and 57.6 mg/dl respectively showing significant rise in levels with subsequent trimester. The mean TG/HDL ratio in one, second and third trimester was 0.16 mg/dl, 0.68 mg/dl and 1.73 mg/dl respectively.
Conclusion: After three months of pregnancy, there was a substantial increase in total cholesterol, triglyceride level, HDL, LDL, VLDL and TG/HDL ratio in the serum. Values of HDL rises in 2nd trimester and there is seen a decline in 3rd trimester.

A study of Metabolic Profiles in Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Vijaitha SM, Dr. Aparna Varma Bhongir, Sapna Vyakarnam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 153-159

Background: The most common kind of diabetes in the world is type 2 diabetes mellitus. Most instances in western nations include obesity. The situation can be different in several regions of India. A significant frequency of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus has been noted in studies with a body mass index under 19 kg/m2. To connect biochemical markers with anthropometric measurements and to assess the metabolic state of lean vs. overweight/obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.Materials and Methods: Body mass index (BMI) was used to classify 100 T2DM patients into lean and overweight/obese groups; 50 healthy controls with similar ages and sexes were chosen. BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist:hip ratio (W:H) anthropometric measurements were taken. Fasting blood samples were analysed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), nonesterified free fatty acids, serum total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides (NEFA). The Friedewald algorithm was used to compute low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and TG:HDL was evaluated to assess insulin resistance (IR).Results: Compared to lean T2DM and controls, overweight/obese individuals had substantially greater anthropometric parameters of total (BMI 33.22 ±5.9 , 20.35±2.22 vs 21.49±3.88 ) and visceral adiposity (WC 93.42 ±6.4, 76.45±4.14 vs 75.2 ±4.1 and W:H 0.98 ±0.14 , 0.8 ±0.22 vs 0.78±0.32 ). In comparison to controls, T2DM patients had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and NEFA while having lower levels of HDL. However, the values in the overweight/obese group were substantially higher than those in the lean group. Triglycerides: HDL levels were substantially higher in obese individuals compared to lean patients (4.42 ± 1.6 vs 7.88 ± 3.22 ), indicating that obese diabetics had much worse insulin sensitivity than non-obese diabetics. BMI, WC, W:H, TG, LDL, NEFA, and TG:HDL showed positive correlations whereas HDL in the obese group showed negative correlations. Lean people with normal BMI, WC had abnormal lipids, and IR.
Conclusion: T2DM in obese and lean people has dyslipidemia and IR. Poor metabolic profile is not connected with lean T2DM patients' total and visceral obesity.

STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE AND MACRO MINERALS -CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM ANDPHOSPHOROUS IN SERUM IN CASES OF TYPE II DIABETES MILLETUS

N. Chandralekha, P. V. Rajini, N. Jyothi, T. Arunmanas, T. Krishnasri Vathsav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1211-1221

Background:Diabetes Mellitus is the most common metabolic disease and is posing as a major public health problem in the world, developing countries like India in particular. India has the second highest number of diabetics worldwide after China. Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion and / or insulin resistance. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for more than 85% of the all the diabetics. It can occur at any age but is most common between 40 to 80 years of age. Macro minerals (calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphur and phosphorus) play an important role in intermediary metabolism and cellular function, including enzyme activities and electrical gradients. The present study of these parameters is essential in clinically diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus to show their role in the pathogenesis and to ascertain their role as possible biochemical markers of the disease progress.
Materials and Methods: Observational cross-sectional study was done. STUDY SUBJECT AND SIZEA total of one hundred patients aged between 30 years to 60 years, both male and female patients were selected from King George Hospital attached to Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. Fifty patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending OP at Department of Endocrinology and fifty healthy non-diabetic subjects were selected. The subjects are divided into two groups, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A (Cases): consisting of 50, type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed patients Group B (Controls): consisting of 50 healthy non diabetic subjects. Study Period: This study was conducted between December 2020 to November 2021 in the Department of Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. Sample Collection: After 12 hours of fasting, 5ml of venous blood is collected from the antecubital vein from each subject under aseptic conditions. Blood was collected in a clot activator vacutainer (red cap tubes) and allowed to clot spontaneously in the tube, and then centrifuged for about 10 minutes at 3000rpm. In case of delay, the sample was stored at -20 degree Celsius for further analysis on the next working day. Carewas taken to prevent hemolysis.The findings were recorded and then tabulated in excel sheets, statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Unpaired t-test was done and expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation. A p-value of < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant.
Results: The (mean±SD) serum triglyceride levels in T2DM cases were 228±116.03 mg/dl and in healthy controls 103±18.23 mg/dl. The (Mean±SD) serum total cholesterol levels in T2DM cases were 208.26±48.14 mg/dl and in controls 164.18±12.71 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum HDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 33.82±7.89 mg/dl and in controls 45.16±3.35 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serumLDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 128.36±44.80 mg/dl and in controls 99.74±9.23 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum VLDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 45.68±23.20 mg/dl and in controls 20.47±3.31 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum calcium levels in T2DM cases were 9.12±0.79 mg/dl and in controls 9.83±0.53 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum magnesium levels in T2DM cases were 1.87±0.35 mg/dl and in controls 2.30±0.36 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum phosphoruslevels in T2DM cases were 2.92±0.64 mg/dl and in controls 3.06±0.70 mg/dl. There is no statistical significance in the serum phosphorus levels in between the two groups.
Conclusion: in this present study. The serum triglyceride (TG) levels, serum total cholesterol levels, serum LDL-C Levels,VLDL-C Levels were significantly increased in the T2DM cases compared to the controls. The serum HDL-C levels were significantly decreased in the T2DM cases when compared to the controls. The serum calcium levels, Serum magnesium levels and serum phosphorous levels were significantly decreased in the T2DM cases when compared to the controls.
 

BIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF SERUM PARAOXONASEAND SERUM LIPID PROFILE AS PREDICTOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN PATIENTS OF PSORIASIS

D.SoundaryaMahanthi, P. V. Rajini, N. Jyothi, T. Arunmanas, T. Krishnasri Vathsav, T. Anvesh Buddha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1222-1232

Background:Psoriasis is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory disease, with an approximate worldwide prevalence of 2-3% [1]. The etiological factor is yet to be known but the genetic factor, trauma, skin infections, drugs, emotional stress like anxiety, alcohol, smoking etc greatly impact the clinical evolution of Psoriasis [2]. Oxidative stress which is induced by the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines that play a significant role in the evolution of severe psoriatic plaques. Serum Paraoxonase is synthesized by the liver and is related with HDL particles.
Materials and Methods: Sample Collection– After 12 hours of fasting, a morning sample of 5 ml of venous blood has been collected from the antecubital vein from each subject under aseptic conditions. Parameters Serum Paraoxonase using paranitrophenol substrate by spectrophotometric method. Serum Lipidprofile Serum totalcholesterol by CHOD-PAP Enzymatic photometric method. Serumtriglycerides by GPO-POD method. Serum Hdl- cholesterol by Direct Enzymatic Cholesterol- DL estimation in the presence of detergent. Serum LDL-Cholesterol estimated by Friedewald formula. Serum VLDL- Cholesterol is estimated automatically by dividing triglyceride by5.
Results: The [mean ± SD] age of the cases was 43.67±11.069 and in the controls 42.8±11.679 years. Statistical analysis showed that there was no statistical difference in age between the two groups (as the P-value is > 0.005). The [mean±SD] basal PON activity in cases was 69.08±13.03 and in controls was 74.46±9.79. There is statistical significance in the basal PON activity between the two groups. The mean serum total cholesterol is increased incases (p value is 0.630) when compared with controls, but it is not statistically significant. there is a high significance in the serum high densitylipo protein (HDL-C) between the two groups: 1. The mean increase in the levels of serum low densitylipo protein (LDL-C) cases are statistically significant when compared with controls. There was a high statistical significance in the serum triglycerides levels between the two groups.
Conclusion: This study was undertaken to study the levels of serum Paraoxonaseandserum lipid profile in 40 patients who are diagnosed with psoriasis to assess the irrole in causing cardiovascular diseases. 2. Inpsoriasis, the elevated levels of triglycerides, low densitylipo protein and very low-density lipoprotein are due to lowered levels of hepatic lipase at acute phase reaction, results in elevation of triglycerides in serum. Decreased levels of HDL-C levels are observed because the systemic Inflammation caused by cytokines. As PON is associated with HDL. The PON levels are affected by the decrease in HDL levels and results in lipidperoxidation along with formation of Oxidised LDL. This OX-LDL accumulates in the smooth muscle of artery and causes atherosclerosis.

EVALUATION OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN CHILDREN WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY FROM NORTH INDIA

Bangalia, Satyendr Sonkariya, Chethan C.S., Laxman Singh Charan, Anil Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1706-1712

Background: Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of clinical findings due to kidney damage. This includes protein in urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant edema. The main cause of hyperlipidemia in patients with NS is probably increased hepatic lipogenesis, a non-specific reaction to falling oncotic pressure secondary to hypoalbuminemia. Hyperlipidemia is usually observed during the active phase of the disease and disappears with resolution of proteinuria. However, it may persist in some cases, leading to increased risk of atherosclerosis in later life and development of progressive renal injury. The current study was carried out to evaluate dyslipidemia in children with nephrotic syndrome.
Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out at outpatient and inpatient units of Department of Pediatrics, JLN Medical College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India during January 2020 to December 2020. A total of 60 consecutive children aged between one year and 18 years with newly diagnosed nephrotic syndrome or presenting with relapse of the disease. All patients were routinely monitored with daily weight, BP, abdominal girth, intake/output chart and urine albumin. Patients previously diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome with relapse were also admitted. Serum lipid profile was done by standard methods at three points of time: during disease activity, after attainment of remission and two weeks after completion of steroid therapy in steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome.
Results: Lipid parameters including mean total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were elevated at admission and these levels reduced significantly at remission and at completion of steroid therapy (All p values<0.001). There was significant elevation of mean total cholesterol level in case of relapse as compared to the first episode of nephrotic syndrome (p=0.048), however, LDL, VLDL and HDL were not significantly different. There was significant elevation of total cholesterol level at admission in subsequent relapses as compared to first episode of nephrotic syndrome (p=0.01).
Conclusion: In children with nephrotic syndrome, lipid parameters including mean total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were elevated at admission and these levels reduced significantly at remission and at completion of steroid therapy. Total cholesterol level was significantly elevated in children with relapse as compared to those with first episode of nephrotic syndrome.

A Hospital Based Prospective Study to Evaluate the Lipid Profile in Patients Having Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Type-II Diabetes Mellitus

Usha Rangey Chouhan, Pradeep Kumar Chouhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2324-2330

Background: Both Hypothyroidism and Diabetes alter lipid levels and are the leading causes of dyslipidemia in the current era. However, the pattern of altered lipid profile varies in the two diseases. Hence, the glycemic control in diabetics with Hypothyroidism (overt and subclinical) may not be good despite strict dietary and lifestyle modifications, and there are conflicting reports regarding this observation. The aim of this study to evaluated the lipid profile in patients having subclinical hypothyroidism and type-ii diabetes mellitus.
Materials& Methods: A hospital based prospective study done on 100 Patients aged above 40 years with a past history of type-2 Diabetes mellitus attending medicine OPD in government district hospital, Sirohi, Rajasthan, India during one year period. Lipid profile included Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and plasma triglycerides. Fasting thyroid profile including plasma free T3, free T4, and plasma TSH were obtained using standard assays. The data collected were entered in the proforma and subjected to statistical analysis.
Results: Subclinical Hypothyroidism was present in 12% of cases.4% had overt hypothyroidism. Females were significantly higher in proportion than males among those who had subclinical hypothyroidism. The presence of subclinical hypothyroidism was not significantly related to higher levels of HbA1C. There was no significant effect on Total and LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.
Conclusion: We concluded that there is a significant increase in the incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and this increase is associated with a significant rise in the triglyceride levels.

Comparison of fasting and postprandial lipid profile in diabetic patients

Dr Ashok Kumar Mishra, Dr Rashmi Mishra, Dr Indu K Pisharody

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11910-11914

Background:Diabetes mellitus (DM) referred as a group of metabolic disorders
characterized by high blood sugar levels over an extended period. The present study
was conducted to assess fasting and postprandial lipid profile in diabetic patient.
Materials & Methods:60type II diabetes patients of both genders were enrolled in group
I and 60 control in group II. Parameters such as HbA1c, FBS, PBS, total cholesterol
(TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C), very-lowdensity
lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL)
were assessed.
Results: Group I had 35 males and 25 females and group II had 28 males and 32
females. In group I and group II, mean PBS was 145.2 and 131.4, HbA1c was 9.4% and
4.5%, TG (mg/dl) was 184.2 and 150.3, TC (mg/dl) was 215.8 and 178.4, HDL- C (mg/dl)
was 44.2 and 58.2, VLDL (mg/dl) was 36.3 and 30.6 and LDL (mg/dl) was 170.4 and
85.2. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). The mean fasting and postprandial TG
value was 215.2 and 240.6, TC was 183.2 and 190.1, HDL- C was 44.2 and 37.3, VLDL
was 37.5 and 38.2 and LDL was 170.5 and 176.2 respectively. The difference was
significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Postprandial lipid profile significantly increased when compared to fasting
lipid profile among type 2 DM patients.

Correlation of homocysteine with lipid profile in pre & post-menopausal women

Dr. T Sibi Mandela, Dr. Muruga, Dr. Anurag Yadav, Dr. Vinay KS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1791-1795

In Premenopausal women the levels of reproductive hormones are variable and the effects of hormonal withdrawal are present and they may have menstrual cycles which may be regular or irregular. Perimenopause or menstrual transition is the period preceding the menopause characterized by irregular menses and missed cycles which is associated with increase in follicle stimulating hormone levels (> 20 IU/mL). The clinical data pertaining to all patients were recorded as per proforma. A detailed history was taken pertaining to last menstrual period, year of menopause, history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac events, and drug intake. The study showed the positive correlation of plasma homocysteine with TC, LDL, VLDL, TG in postmenopausal and premenopausal women and negative correlation of plasma homocysteine with HDL.

Inflammatory markers and lipid profile based on age in asymptomatic individuals with or without family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dr. Shreya Nigoskar, Bonala Sharat Babu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1219-1224

Introduction: Although there was a weak positive link between inflammatory indicators and
serum lipid levels, assessing both of these parameters combined may aid in the early
detection and treatment of people who are at high risk for metabolic disorders like type 2
diabetes mellitus and other cardio vascular diseases.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry
research lab in India. The sample size was determined to be N=100 based on a 0.56
connection between visceral fat composition and oxidative stress and inflammation. The
study included students and apparently healthy cases between the ages of 18 and 30 who
followed DM patients in (n = 50). Individuals taking any medications for a health condition
that precludes them from performing sub-maximal exercise, as well as those who participate
in regular physical activity, yoga, or other biofeedback, were excluded from the study. Age
and gender matched ostensibly healthy persons with no family history of diabetes were
recruited for the control group (n = 50).
Results: Significant difference was noted in the inflammatory markers & the lipid profile
parameters except for the HDL. In individual with type 2 diabetes, worsening dyslipidemia
and inflammation over time raises concerns about the early onset of atherosclerosis. In the
absence of glycemic control, insulin treatment is of poor effect. Efforts to improve glycemic
control are required.
Conclusion:Lipid profile of an individual is associated to obesity, inflammation, vascular
function, and diabetes. Appropriate lifestyle adjustments may be performed to lower the
inflammatory markers and metabolic disorders. A greater understanding of the causes of
inflammatory markers and lipid profile aid in the development of specialized therapeutic
approaches for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Assessment of lipid profiles of young diabetic and nondiabetic stroke patients: A teaching hospital based study

Dr. Gautam Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 986-992

Background:Lipid profile in patients with cerebrovascular disease and to determine
significant correlation between them. To ascertain the effect of age and sex on serum lipid
profile.The diagnosis of diabetes in a stroke patient would change the initial management of
that patient, specifically with respect to other risk factors like lipid and blood pressure
management.
Aims and Objectives: To study lipid profile in diabetic and non-diabetic newly diagnosed
young stroke patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 138 patients were admitted during study period were
selected by simple random sampling with acute stroke in the study. Fasting total cholesterol,
triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein
cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured from venous blood samples.
Results and Observations: The mean HbA1c for group D and group ND were 9.04±1.02
and 4.85±0.45 respectively. This difference in HbA1c among patients in two groups was
statistically significant. The mean values of LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides
showed significant association between two groups. Levels of HDL were significantly lower
in Group D as compared to Group ND.
Conclusion: The lipid profile of LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides showed
significant higher range in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetics while HDL was
lower in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetics.

Serum levels of vitamin d and lipid profile in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A comparative study

Faizan-i- Asrar Nazki, Syyeda Anees,Haamid Bashir, Mohsin Wazir, Sara Mohammad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 686-694

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent
endocrine illnesses in women of reproductive age. It affects around 5-10% of the world's
population. Irregular menstrual cycles, prolonged anovulation and hyperandrogenism
are all symptoms of the disease. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, gestational
diabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease may develop over
time.
Aim:To compare the lipid profile and vitamin D levels in women with and without
PCOS in relation to obesity and to determine the Luteinizing hormone[LH], Follicle
Stimulating Hormone[FSH], prolactin[prl] levels in women with PCOS in relation to
obesity
Method: A total of 152 subjects were taken for the study.76 PCOS patients were
identified ultrasonographically and clinically from November 2015 to July 2017, and 76
normal menstruatingwomen served as controls in the study conducted at Deccan
Medical College and Princess EsraHospital, Hyderabad. All the subjects were
categorized as obese or lean based on their BMI.
Results: In comparison to obese participants without PCOS, PCOS obese subjects had
higher TG and TC levels and lower HDL levels, according to the study. When
compared to lean subjects without PCOS, PCOS lean subjects had higher TG, TC, and
LDL values. The HDL levels of PCOS lean patients were observed to be lower than
those of lean subjects without PCOS. Vitamin D levels were also shown to be
considerably lower in PCOS patients (both obese and non-obese) than in healthy
controls.

Non synonymous A803G Polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase 2 Gene and Impaired lipid profile in Egyptian Obese Children and Adolescents

Asmaa AbdElkhalek Hussein; Ashgan Abd Allah Alghobashy; Nermin Raafat Abd Elfattah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 997-1006

: Childhood overweight and obesity remains an important public health concern. The prevlance of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents aged 5-19 years has risen dramatically from 4% to over 20%. The aim of the present study was to assess A803G polymorphism in the NAT2 gene in Egyptian obese children and adolescents and to detect the relation between this gene mutation and impaired lipid profile in them. Patients and methods: this cross sectional study included 100 obese children and adolescents divided into two groups according to their HbA1c results : group 1(pre-diabetic obese children and adolescents) and group 2 (Non- diabetic obese children and adolescents) , both groups are compatible as regard age and sex and had equal numbers (50). Whole blood samples were collected and underwent genotyping todetect NAT2 A803G gene polymorphism using Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Results: There was highly statistically significant higher total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL among Group 1 than Group 2. But regarding HDL, it was highly statistically significant higher among Group 2 than Group 1. Heterozygous A allele of Group 1 group had the worst lipid profile characteristics (higher cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL and lower HDL) but this difference was statistically significant only regarding LDL while regarding otherpararmeters, they were not statistically significant. While, heterozygous G allele of Group 2 had the worst lipid profile characteristics (higher cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL and lower HDL) but this difference was statistically significant only regarding LDL while regarding other parameters, they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study concluded that Egyptian obese children and adolescents who carrying the NAT2 A803 allele might be at a high risk of impaired lipid profile and consequent increased future risk to develop secondary metabolic diseases.

A Comparative Study of Serum Lipids Levels and lipoprotein A in Women with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) and Normotensive pregnant women

SYEDA AYESHA FATIMA, MADHAVI LATHA

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3665-3667

Introduction:Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy is the one of the most common medical problem of pregnancy. Worldwide, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy causes complication in about 10 -16% of pregnancies. High blood pressure in pregnant women is related with incidence of large placental infarct and decreased placental growth resulting in intra uterine fetal growth restriction and intrauterine death. Hypertension in pregnancy is diagnosed when blood pressure is 140/90 mm of hg or greater with proteinuria and edema after 20 week of gestation. Plasma   lipid and lipoprotein (a) undergo both qualitative and quantitative changes during pregnancy. During the course of normal pregnancy, plasma triglycerides and cholesterol concentration rises by 200-400% and 25-50% respectively. An abnormal lipid profile is known to be strongly associated with atherosclerotic changes and has direct effect on endothelial dysfunction. In preeclampsia women, thromboxane rise more than in normotensive pregnant women. Increased lipid synthesis causes increase in PGI2:TXA2 ratio and plays a role in pathogenesis of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), hence the hyperlipidemia may be an important marker of toxemia of pregnancy.
Aim and Objectives:To asses and compare the serum levels of lipid and lipoprotein (a) in pregnant women with PIH and normotensive pregnant women.
Materials  and Methods: A  study  conducted  on  total of 100 pregnant patients  (50  cases  and  50  controls)  selected  according  to  inclusion  and  exclusion  criteria.  3ml  of venous  blood  was  drawn  to  estimate  total lipid profileand Serum Lipoprotein (a)  levels  in  each  subject.The data was analyzed results were expressed as Mean and standard deviation of various parameters in different group. P value < 0.05 is considered as significant. ROC curve analysis was done to assess maximum sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficiency
Results:In our study the mean ±SD values of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL,VLDL, Serum  Lipoprotein (a) are statistically significant higher in PIH  cases whereas HDL levels are low in cases when compared to controls.
Conclusion:A high lipid profile levels is observed to be associate with preeclampsia thus, serum lipid concentration and serum Lipoprotein (a) levels may provide a useful marker for screening patients at risk for developing PIH.

Determination of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in type II DM patients

Amit Varshney; Vidya Sagar Ram; Kanhaiya Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3788-3792

Background: The diabetic neuropathy, including the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy
(CAN), is a common complication of type 1 and 2 diabetes that leads to high mortality and
morbidity. The present study was conducted to determine CAN in type II DM patients.
Materials & Methods: 168 type II DM patients of both genders were recruited. Resting
heart rate, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140
mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg, fasting lipid profile (low-density
lipoprotein/LDL, high-density lipoprotein/HDL, triglycerides/TG) and cardiac autonomic
function was evaluated with the CAN system analyzer as early, definite and advanced
CAN.
Results: CAN was seen in 66 patients. The mean age (years) was 45.2 and 44.5, duration of
diabetes (years) was 6.1 and 12.3, SBP (mm Hg) was 130.4 and 134.5, DBP (mm Hg) was
86.2 and 87.6, resting heart rate (beats/min) was 76.3 and 87.4, LDL (mg/dl) was 102.4 and
98.6, HDL (mg/dl) was 40.5 and 38.1 and TG (mg/dl) was 165.2 and 184.6 in CAN- and
CAN+ patients. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05). Severity of CAN found to be
early in 20%, definitive in 45% and advanced in 35%. The difference was significant (P<
0.05).
Conclusion: Type II diabetes patients had high prevalence of cardiac autonomic
neuropathy.

The Effect Of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapyon Lipid Profileof Hiv Patients

Vera Bahar; Andi Makbul Aman; Sudirman Katu; Syakib Bakri; Haerani Rasyid; Husaini Umar; Risna Halim; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 953-960

Background:The widespread use of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) has indicated a dramatic reduction in impairment due to immunodeficiency. Several studies have shown that an adverse event of HAART on dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. This study aimed to assess changes in lipid profiles after HAART.
Methods:A prospective cohort study with a consecutive sampling method consists of 59 HIV-infected patientsreceiving HAART at Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar, Indonesia, from March-September 2020. Lipid profiles were measured at the initial time and after three months of HAART. The drug regimen was divided into two groups: Regimen 
group 1 (tenofovir, lamivudine, efavirenz), and another regimen group (consist of 4 regimen group combination: zidovudine, lamivudine, efavirenz; tenofovir, emtricitabine, lopinavir/ritonavir; tenofovir, lamivudine, nevirapine, and tenofovir, lamivudine, rilpivirine). ANOVA paired t-test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis(it is significant if p is<0.05).
Results:The mean age of the subjects was 32.1 ± 6.6 years old. About 76.3% of subjects were male. Regimen 1 was used by 88.1% of the subjects and another regimen only 11.9% of the subjects. There were 27 subjects (45.8%) were underweight. The proportion of subjects with lipid abnormalities after 3 months of HAART significantly higher in LDL-c and TG level (P= 0.002 and 0.021). Regimen group1 showed increased levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, and TG (P = 0.037, 0.041, and 0.001) after HAART.
Conclusion:Highly active retroviral therapy is associated with lipid profile changes in HIV patients after 3 months of therapy.

Lipid Profile Between Epileptic Patients With Cyp-450 Enzyme Inducer Versus Cyp-450 Enzyme Inhibitor As A Monotherapy Anti Epileptic Drug: A Comparative Study

Susi Aulina; Audry Devisanty Wuysang; Andi Kurnia Bintang; Yudy Goysal; Fransiska Carmelia Subeno

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1123-1130

Treatment of epilepsy is often a lifetime. Several studies report the effect of anti epileptic drug (AED) to lipid profile. This study aims to assess the differences of lipid profile of epileptic patients receiving CYP-450 enzyme inducer and inhibitor monotherapy AED.
This study was conducted in cross-sectional terms with consecutive sampling, from June-October 2019, at Wahidin Sudirohusodo Regional Hospital, Hasanuddin University Hospital, and private practice. The independent variable were AEDs, consist of phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, or valproic acid, while the dependent one was the lipid profile. Thirty-five samples were obtained using CYP-450 enzyme inducer AED, consisted of 11 samples using phenytoin, 11 samples using phenobarbital, 13 samples using carbamazepine, and 16 samples using CYP-450 enzyme inhibitor AED (valproic acid).
The results showed higher level of total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in the CYP-450 enzyme inducer AED group than the CYP-450 inhibitor one; there was no difference of triglyceride (TG) level, while higher level was shown in the CYP-450 enzyme inducer AED group.

“EVALUATION OF HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH CLINICAL, METABOLIC AND HORMONAL PROFILE OF WOMEN WITH PCOS”

PRIYANJALI SINHA; NEEMA ACHARYA; PRIYANKA SINGH

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2104-2112

Background: PCOS is the most common endocrinological disorder affecting 6 -14% amongst reproductive age group. The pathophysiology of PCOS is complex and it is still not well understood. Many markers have been studied to correlate between homocysteine level and other clinical, metabolic and hormonal profile. Preliminary investigations indicate that in women with PCOS, serum biomarkers of cardiovascular disorders such as homocysteine are abnormal. Furthermore the interactions between homocysteine and PCOS, biochemical features such as obesity, insulin resistance and higher levels of androgen, have been researched and the potential determinant of this finding is still being explored.
Aim and Objectives: We aim to determine association between hyperhomocysteinemia and PCOS. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare clinical, metabolic and 
hormonal profile in women of PCOS with normal homocysteine level with that of increased homocysteine level.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study which will be performed in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, AVBRH, DMIMS (Deemed to be University, Wardha), a tertiary care teaching hospital situated in the rural area of Wardha district in over 140 patients for period between 2020-22. This study will include PCOS patients based on Rotterdam diagnostic criteria and will exclude patients with known metabolic, cardiovascular and endocrine disorders. Metabolic and hormonal profile will be evaluated with BMI, Lipid profile, Insulin resistance, serum levels of LH, FSH, DHEA and Testosterone in all patients. Serum homocysteine levels will be measured using ELISA.
Expected Results: We expect that there will be significant difference in clinical, metabolic and hormonal profile of PCOS women having hyperhomocysteinemia than women having normal homocysteine level.