Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Lipid profile


A cross sectional observational study to determine the baseline lipid profile in the first, second and third trimester among pregnant women of North India

Dr. Divyanee Gulati, Dr. Manjit Kaur mohi, Dr. Karan Kukreja, Dr. Jasvir Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 496-504

Aim: To evaluate Lipid profile of pregnant women during all the three trimesters of pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: This prospective observational cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rajindra Hospital, Patiala in 1000 women attending antenatal clinic and labor room. Their lipid profile was done and proportion of dyslipidemia during pregnancy was recorded. Samples from all subjects were collected under aseptic precaution; 5 ml of non-fasting venous blood was collected in plain vacutainer from antecubital vein. After the clot retracts the sample was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 5 min the serum separated and stored at 4°C pending assay for lipid profile. Serum TGs, TC, and HDL cholesterol was analyzed by enzymatic methods with the help of Glaxo kits on ERBA Chem-5 plus semi-auto analyzer in the department of biochemistry, GMC, Rajindra hospital Patiala.
Results:  Out of 1000 patients, 5.6% patients were from <20 years age groups, 31.6% patients were from 20-25 years age groups, 35.7% patients were from 25-30 years age group, 20.9% patients were from 30-35 years age group and 6.2% patients were from >35 years age group. 20.5% patients came from rural area and 79.5% from urban area. The mean cholesterol levels in first second and third trimester were 187.86 mg/dl, 252.36 mg/dl and 294.43 mg/dl respectively showing significant rise in levels of TC with subsequent trimester. The mean TG levels in one, second and third trimester were 142.2 mg/dl, 252.33 mg/dl and 309.97 mg/dl respectively showing a significant rise in levels with subsequent trimester. The mean HDL levels in one, second and third trimester were 53.78 mg/dl, 57.12 mg/dl and 54.07 mg/dl respectively. Levels rise in 2nd trimester and there is significant fall in values between 2nd and 3rd trimester. The mean LDL levels in one, second and third trimester were 105.6 mg/dl, 144.8 mg/dl and 178.4 mg/dl respectively. Values increases with subsequent trimesters. The mean VLDL levels in one, second and third trimester were 28.4 mg/dl, 48.5 mg/dl and 57.6 mg/dl respectively showing significant rise in levels with subsequent trimester. The mean TG/HDL ratio in one, second and third trimester was 0.16 mg/dl, 0.68 mg/dl and 1.73 mg/dl respectively.
Conclusion: After three months of pregnancy, there was a substantial increase in total cholesterol, triglyceride level, HDL, LDL, VLDL and TG/HDL ratio in the serum. Values of HDL rises in 2nd trimester and there is seen a decline in 3rd trimester.

A study of Metabolic Profiles in Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Vijaitha SM, Dr. Aparna Varma Bhongir, Sapna Vyakarnam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 153-159

Background: The most common kind of diabetes in the world is type 2 diabetes mellitus. Most instances in western nations include obesity. The situation can be different in several regions of India. A significant frequency of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus has been noted in studies with a body mass index under 19 kg/m2. To connect biochemical markers with anthropometric measurements and to assess the metabolic state of lean vs. overweight/obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.Materials and Methods: Body mass index (BMI) was used to classify 100 T2DM patients into lean and overweight/obese groups; 50 healthy controls with similar ages and sexes were chosen. BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist:hip ratio (W:H) anthropometric measurements were taken. Fasting blood samples were analysed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), nonesterified free fatty acids, serum total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides (NEFA). The Friedewald algorithm was used to compute low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and TG:HDL was evaluated to assess insulin resistance (IR).Results: Compared to lean T2DM and controls, overweight/obese individuals had substantially greater anthropometric parameters of total (BMI 33.22 ±5.9 , 20.35±2.22 vs 21.49±3.88 ) and visceral adiposity (WC 93.42 ±6.4, 76.45±4.14 vs 75.2 ±4.1 and W:H 0.98 ±0.14 , 0.8 ±0.22 vs 0.78±0.32 ). In comparison to controls, T2DM patients had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and NEFA while having lower levels of HDL. However, the values in the overweight/obese group were substantially higher than those in the lean group. Triglycerides: HDL levels were substantially higher in obese individuals compared to lean patients (4.42 ± 1.6 vs 7.88 ± 3.22 ), indicating that obese diabetics had much worse insulin sensitivity than non-obese diabetics. BMI, WC, W:H, TG, LDL, NEFA, and TG:HDL showed positive correlations whereas HDL in the obese group showed negative correlations. Lean people with normal BMI, WC had abnormal lipids, and IR.
Conclusion: T2DM in obese and lean people has dyslipidemia and IR. Poor metabolic profile is not connected with lean T2DM patients' total and visceral obesity.

BIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF SERUM PARAOXONASEAND SERUM LIPID PROFILE AS PREDICTOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN PATIENTS OF PSORIASIS

D.SoundaryaMahanthi, P. V. Rajini, N. Jyothi, T. Arunmanas, T. Krishnasri Vathsav, T. Anvesh Buddha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1222-1232

Background:Psoriasis is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory disease, with an approximate worldwide prevalence of 2-3% [1]. The etiological factor is yet to be known but the genetic factor, trauma, skin infections, drugs, emotional stress like anxiety, alcohol, smoking etc greatly impact the clinical evolution of Psoriasis [2]. Oxidative stress which is induced by the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines that play a significant role in the evolution of severe psoriatic plaques. Serum Paraoxonase is synthesized by the liver and is related with HDL particles.
Materials and Methods: Sample Collection– After 12 hours of fasting, a morning sample of 5 ml of venous blood has been collected from the antecubital vein from each subject under aseptic conditions. Parameters Serum Paraoxonase using paranitrophenol substrate by spectrophotometric method. Serum Lipidprofile Serum totalcholesterol by CHOD-PAP Enzymatic photometric method. Serumtriglycerides by GPO-POD method. Serum Hdl- cholesterol by Direct Enzymatic Cholesterol- DL estimation in the presence of detergent. Serum LDL-Cholesterol estimated by Friedewald formula. Serum VLDL- Cholesterol is estimated automatically by dividing triglyceride by5.
Results: The [mean ± SD] age of the cases was 43.67±11.069 and in the controls 42.8±11.679 years. Statistical analysis showed that there was no statistical difference in age between the two groups (as the P-value is > 0.005). The [mean±SD] basal PON activity in cases was 69.08±13.03 and in controls was 74.46±9.79. There is statistical significance in the basal PON activity between the two groups. The mean serum total cholesterol is increased incases (p value is 0.630) when compared with controls, but it is not statistically significant. there is a high significance in the serum high densitylipo protein (HDL-C) between the two groups: 1. The mean increase in the levels of serum low densitylipo protein (LDL-C) cases are statistically significant when compared with controls. There was a high statistical significance in the serum triglycerides levels between the two groups.
Conclusion: This study was undertaken to study the levels of serum Paraoxonaseandserum lipid profile in 40 patients who are diagnosed with psoriasis to assess the irrole in causing cardiovascular diseases. 2. Inpsoriasis, the elevated levels of triglycerides, low densitylipo protein and very low-density lipoprotein are due to lowered levels of hepatic lipase at acute phase reaction, results in elevation of triglycerides in serum. Decreased levels of HDL-C levels are observed because the systemic Inflammation caused by cytokines. As PON is associated with HDL. The PON levels are affected by the decrease in HDL levels and results in lipidperoxidation along with formation of Oxidised LDL. This OX-LDL accumulates in the smooth muscle of artery and causes atherosclerosis.

EVALUATION OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN CHILDREN WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY FROM NORTH INDIA

Bangalia, Satyendr Sonkariya, Chethan C.S., Laxman Singh Charan, Anil Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1706-1712

Background: Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of clinical findings due to kidney damage. This includes protein in urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant edema. The main cause of hyperlipidemia in patients with NS is probably increased hepatic lipogenesis, a non-specific reaction to falling oncotic pressure secondary to hypoalbuminemia. Hyperlipidemia is usually observed during the active phase of the disease and disappears with resolution of proteinuria. However, it may persist in some cases, leading to increased risk of atherosclerosis in later life and development of progressive renal injury. The current study was carried out to evaluate dyslipidemia in children with nephrotic syndrome.
Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out at outpatient and inpatient units of Department of Pediatrics, JLN Medical College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India during January 2020 to December 2020. A total of 60 consecutive children aged between one year and 18 years with newly diagnosed nephrotic syndrome or presenting with relapse of the disease. All patients were routinely monitored with daily weight, BP, abdominal girth, intake/output chart and urine albumin. Patients previously diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome with relapse were also admitted. Serum lipid profile was done by standard methods at three points of time: during disease activity, after attainment of remission and two weeks after completion of steroid therapy in steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome.
Results: Lipid parameters including mean total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were elevated at admission and these levels reduced significantly at remission and at completion of steroid therapy (All p values<0.001). There was significant elevation of mean total cholesterol level in case of relapse as compared to the first episode of nephrotic syndrome (p=0.048), however, LDL, VLDL and HDL were not significantly different. There was significant elevation of total cholesterol level at admission in subsequent relapses as compared to first episode of nephrotic syndrome (p=0.01).
Conclusion: In children with nephrotic syndrome, lipid parameters including mean total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were elevated at admission and these levels reduced significantly at remission and at completion of steroid therapy. Total cholesterol level was significantly elevated in children with relapse as compared to those with first episode of nephrotic syndrome.

STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE AND MACRO MINERALS -CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM ANDPHOSPHOROUS IN SERUM IN CASES OF TYPE II DIABETES MILLETUS

N. Chandralekha, P. V. Rajini, N. Jyothi, T. Arunmanas, T. Krishnasri Vathsav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1211-1221

Background:Diabetes Mellitus is the most common metabolic disease and is posing as a major public health problem in the world, developing countries like India in particular. India has the second highest number of diabetics worldwide after China. Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion and / or insulin resistance. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for more than 85% of the all the diabetics. It can occur at any age but is most common between 40 to 80 years of age. Macro minerals (calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphur and phosphorus) play an important role in intermediary metabolism and cellular function, including enzyme activities and electrical gradients. The present study of these parameters is essential in clinically diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus to show their role in the pathogenesis and to ascertain their role as possible biochemical markers of the disease progress.
Materials and Methods: Observational cross-sectional study was done. STUDY SUBJECT AND SIZEA total of one hundred patients aged between 30 years to 60 years, both male and female patients were selected from King George Hospital attached to Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. Fifty patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending OP at Department of Endocrinology and fifty healthy non-diabetic subjects were selected. The subjects are divided into two groups, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A (Cases): consisting of 50, type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed patients Group B (Controls): consisting of 50 healthy non diabetic subjects. Study Period: This study was conducted between December 2020 to November 2021 in the Department of Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. Sample Collection: After 12 hours of fasting, 5ml of venous blood is collected from the antecubital vein from each subject under aseptic conditions. Blood was collected in a clot activator vacutainer (red cap tubes) and allowed to clot spontaneously in the tube, and then centrifuged for about 10 minutes at 3000rpm. In case of delay, the sample was stored at -20 degree Celsius for further analysis on the next working day. Carewas taken to prevent hemolysis.The findings were recorded and then tabulated in excel sheets, statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Unpaired t-test was done and expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation. A p-value of < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant.
Results: The (mean±SD) serum triglyceride levels in T2DM cases were 228±116.03 mg/dl and in healthy controls 103±18.23 mg/dl. The (Mean±SD) serum total cholesterol levels in T2DM cases were 208.26±48.14 mg/dl and in controls 164.18±12.71 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum HDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 33.82±7.89 mg/dl and in controls 45.16±3.35 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serumLDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 128.36±44.80 mg/dl and in controls 99.74±9.23 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum VLDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 45.68±23.20 mg/dl and in controls 20.47±3.31 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum calcium levels in T2DM cases were 9.12±0.79 mg/dl and in controls 9.83±0.53 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum magnesium levels in T2DM cases were 1.87±0.35 mg/dl and in controls 2.30±0.36 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum phosphoruslevels in T2DM cases were 2.92±0.64 mg/dl and in controls 3.06±0.70 mg/dl. There is no statistical significance in the serum phosphorus levels in between the two groups.
Conclusion: in this present study. The serum triglyceride (TG) levels, serum total cholesterol levels, serum LDL-C Levels,VLDL-C Levels were significantly increased in the T2DM cases compared to the controls. The serum HDL-C levels were significantly decreased in the T2DM cases when compared to the controls. The serum calcium levels, Serum magnesium levels and serum phosphorous levels were significantly decreased in the T2DM cases when compared to the controls.
 

A Hospital Based Prospective Study to Evaluate the Lipid Profile in Patients Having Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Type-II Diabetes Mellitus

Usha Rangey Chouhan, Pradeep Kumar Chouhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2324-2330

Background: Both Hypothyroidism and Diabetes alter lipid levels and are the leading causes of dyslipidemia in the current era. However, the pattern of altered lipid profile varies in the two diseases. Hence, the glycemic control in diabetics with Hypothyroidism (overt and subclinical) may not be good despite strict dietary and lifestyle modifications, and there are conflicting reports regarding this observation. The aim of this study to evaluated the lipid profile in patients having subclinical hypothyroidism and type-ii diabetes mellitus.
Materials& Methods: A hospital based prospective study done on 100 Patients aged above 40 years with a past history of type-2 Diabetes mellitus attending medicine OPD in government district hospital, Sirohi, Rajasthan, India during one year period. Lipid profile included Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and plasma triglycerides. Fasting thyroid profile including plasma free T3, free T4, and plasma TSH were obtained using standard assays. The data collected were entered in the proforma and subjected to statistical analysis.
Results: Subclinical Hypothyroidism was present in 12% of cases.4% had overt hypothyroidism. Females were significantly higher in proportion than males among those who had subclinical hypothyroidism. The presence of subclinical hypothyroidism was not significantly related to higher levels of HbA1C. There was no significant effect on Total and LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.
Conclusion: We concluded that there is a significant increase in the incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and this increase is associated with a significant rise in the triglyceride levels.

Correlation of homocysteine with lipid profile in pre & post-menopausal women

Dr. T Sibi Mandela, Dr. Muruga, Dr. Anurag Yadav, Dr. Vinay KS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1791-1795

In Premenopausal women the levels of reproductive hormones are variable and the effects of hormonal withdrawal are present and they may have menstrual cycles which may be regular or irregular. Perimenopause or menstrual transition is the period preceding the menopause characterized by irregular menses and missed cycles which is associated with increase in follicle stimulating hormone levels (> 20 IU/mL). The clinical data pertaining to all patients were recorded as per proforma. A detailed history was taken pertaining to last menstrual period, year of menopause, history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac events, and drug intake. The study showed the positive correlation of plasma homocysteine with TC, LDL, VLDL, TG in postmenopausal and premenopausal women and negative correlation of plasma homocysteine with HDL.

Comparison of fasting and postprandial lipid profile in diabetic patients

Dr Ashok Kumar Mishra, Dr Rashmi Mishra, Dr Indu K Pisharody

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11910-11914

Background:Diabetes mellitus (DM) referred as a group of metabolic disorders
characterized by high blood sugar levels over an extended period. The present study
was conducted to assess fasting and postprandial lipid profile in diabetic patient.
Materials & Methods:60type II diabetes patients of both genders were enrolled in group
I and 60 control in group II. Parameters such as HbA1c, FBS, PBS, total cholesterol
(TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C), very-lowdensity
lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL)
were assessed.
Results: Group I had 35 males and 25 females and group II had 28 males and 32
females. In group I and group II, mean PBS was 145.2 and 131.4, HbA1c was 9.4% and
4.5%, TG (mg/dl) was 184.2 and 150.3, TC (mg/dl) was 215.8 and 178.4, HDL- C (mg/dl)
was 44.2 and 58.2, VLDL (mg/dl) was 36.3 and 30.6 and LDL (mg/dl) was 170.4 and
85.2. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). The mean fasting and postprandial TG
value was 215.2 and 240.6, TC was 183.2 and 190.1, HDL- C was 44.2 and 37.3, VLDL
was 37.5 and 38.2 and LDL was 170.5 and 176.2 respectively. The difference was
significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Postprandial lipid profile significantly increased when compared to fasting
lipid profile among type 2 DM patients.

Inflammatory markers and lipid profile based on age in asymptomatic individuals with or without family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dr. Shreya Nigoskar, Bonala Sharat Babu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1219-1224

Introduction: Although there was a weak positive link between inflammatory indicators and
serum lipid levels, assessing both of these parameters combined may aid in the early
detection and treatment of people who are at high risk for metabolic disorders like type 2
diabetes mellitus and other cardio vascular diseases.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry
research lab in India. The sample size was determined to be N=100 based on a 0.56
connection between visceral fat composition and oxidative stress and inflammation. The
study included students and apparently healthy cases between the ages of 18 and 30 who
followed DM patients in (n = 50). Individuals taking any medications for a health condition
that precludes them from performing sub-maximal exercise, as well as those who participate
in regular physical activity, yoga, or other biofeedback, were excluded from the study. Age
and gender matched ostensibly healthy persons with no family history of diabetes were
recruited for the control group (n = 50).
Results: Significant difference was noted in the inflammatory markers & the lipid profile
parameters except for the HDL. In individual with type 2 diabetes, worsening dyslipidemia
and inflammation over time raises concerns about the early onset of atherosclerosis. In the
absence of glycemic control, insulin treatment is of poor effect. Efforts to improve glycemic
control are required.
Conclusion:Lipid profile of an individual is associated to obesity, inflammation, vascular
function, and diabetes. Appropriate lifestyle adjustments may be performed to lower the
inflammatory markers and metabolic disorders. A greater understanding of the causes of
inflammatory markers and lipid profile aid in the development of specialized therapeutic
approaches for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Serum levels of vitamin d and lipid profile in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A comparative study

Faizan-i- Asrar Nazki, Syyeda Anees,Haamid Bashir, Mohsin Wazir, Sara Mohammad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 686-694

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent
endocrine illnesses in women of reproductive age. It affects around 5-10% of the world's
population. Irregular menstrual cycles, prolonged anovulation and hyperandrogenism
are all symptoms of the disease. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, gestational
diabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease may develop over
time.
Aim:To compare the lipid profile and vitamin D levels in women with and without
PCOS in relation to obesity and to determine the Luteinizing hormone[LH], Follicle
Stimulating Hormone[FSH], prolactin[prl] levels in women with PCOS in relation to
obesity
Method: A total of 152 subjects were taken for the study.76 PCOS patients were
identified ultrasonographically and clinically from November 2015 to July 2017, and 76
normal menstruatingwomen served as controls in the study conducted at Deccan
Medical College and Princess EsraHospital, Hyderabad. All the subjects were
categorized as obese or lean based on their BMI.
Results: In comparison to obese participants without PCOS, PCOS obese subjects had
higher TG and TC levels and lower HDL levels, according to the study. When
compared to lean subjects without PCOS, PCOS lean subjects had higher TG, TC, and
LDL values. The HDL levels of PCOS lean patients were observed to be lower than
those of lean subjects without PCOS. Vitamin D levels were also shown to be
considerably lower in PCOS patients (both obese and non-obese) than in healthy
controls.

Assessment of lipid profiles of young diabetic and nondiabetic stroke patients: A teaching hospital based study

Dr. Gautam Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 986-992

Background:Lipid profile in patients with cerebrovascular disease and to determine
significant correlation between them. To ascertain the effect of age and sex on serum lipid
profile.The diagnosis of diabetes in a stroke patient would change the initial management of
that patient, specifically with respect to other risk factors like lipid and blood pressure
management.
Aims and Objectives: To study lipid profile in diabetic and non-diabetic newly diagnosed
young stroke patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 138 patients were admitted during study period were
selected by simple random sampling with acute stroke in the study. Fasting total cholesterol,
triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein
cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured from venous blood samples.
Results and Observations: The mean HbA1c for group D and group ND were 9.04±1.02
and 4.85±0.45 respectively. This difference in HbA1c among patients in two groups was
statistically significant. The mean values of LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides
showed significant association between two groups. Levels of HDL were significantly lower
in Group D as compared to Group ND.
Conclusion: The lipid profile of LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides showed
significant higher range in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetics while HDL was
lower in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetics.

Non synonymous A803G Polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase 2 Gene and Impaired lipid profile in Egyptian Obese Children and Adolescents

Asmaa AbdElkhalek Hussein; Ashgan Abd Allah Alghobashy; Nermin Raafat Abd Elfattah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 997-1006

: Childhood overweight and obesity remains an important public health concern. The prevlance of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents aged 5-19 years has risen dramatically from 4% to over 20%. The aim of the present study was to assess A803G polymorphism in the NAT2 gene in Egyptian obese children and adolescents and to detect the relation between this gene mutation and impaired lipid profile in them. Patients and methods: this cross sectional study included 100 obese children and adolescents divided into two groups according to their HbA1c results : group 1(pre-diabetic obese children and adolescents) and group 2 (Non- diabetic obese children and adolescents) , both groups are compatible as regard age and sex and had equal numbers (50). Whole blood samples were collected and underwent genotyping todetect NAT2 A803G gene polymorphism using Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Results: There was highly statistically significant higher total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL among Group 1 than Group 2. But regarding HDL, it was highly statistically significant higher among Group 2 than Group 1. Heterozygous A allele of Group 1 group had the worst lipid profile characteristics (higher cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL and lower HDL) but this difference was statistically significant only regarding LDL while regarding otherpararmeters, they were not statistically significant. While, heterozygous G allele of Group 2 had the worst lipid profile characteristics (higher cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL and lower HDL) but this difference was statistically significant only regarding LDL while regarding other parameters, they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study concluded that Egyptian obese children and adolescents who carrying the NAT2 A803 allele might be at a high risk of impaired lipid profile and consequent increased future risk to develop secondary metabolic diseases.

A Comparative Study of Serum Lipids Levels and lipoprotein A in Women with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) and Normotensive pregnant women

SYEDA AYESHA FATIMA, MADHAVI LATHA

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3665-3667

Introduction:Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy is the one of the most common medical problem of pregnancy. Worldwide, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy causes complication in about 10 -16% of pregnancies. High blood pressure in pregnant women is related with incidence of large placental infarct and decreased placental growth resulting in intra uterine fetal growth restriction and intrauterine death. Hypertension in pregnancy is diagnosed when blood pressure is 140/90 mm of hg or greater with proteinuria and edema after 20 week of gestation. Plasma   lipid and lipoprotein (a) undergo both qualitative and quantitative changes during pregnancy. During the course of normal pregnancy, plasma triglycerides and cholesterol concentration rises by 200-400% and 25-50% respectively. An abnormal lipid profile is known to be strongly associated with atherosclerotic changes and has direct effect on endothelial dysfunction. In preeclampsia women, thromboxane rise more than in normotensive pregnant women. Increased lipid synthesis causes increase in PGI2:TXA2 ratio and plays a role in pathogenesis of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), hence the hyperlipidemia may be an important marker of toxemia of pregnancy.
Aim and Objectives:To asses and compare the serum levels of lipid and lipoprotein (a) in pregnant women with PIH and normotensive pregnant women.
Materials  and Methods: A  study  conducted  on  total of 100 pregnant patients  (50  cases  and  50  controls)  selected  according  to  inclusion  and  exclusion  criteria.  3ml  of venous  blood  was  drawn  to  estimate  total lipid profileand Serum Lipoprotein (a)  levels  in  each  subject.The data was analyzed results were expressed as Mean and standard deviation of various parameters in different group. P value < 0.05 is considered as significant. ROC curve analysis was done to assess maximum sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficiency
Results:In our study the mean ±SD values of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL,VLDL, Serum  Lipoprotein (a) are statistically significant higher in PIH  cases whereas HDL levels are low in cases when compared to controls.
Conclusion:A high lipid profile levels is observed to be associate with preeclampsia thus, serum lipid concentration and serum Lipoprotein (a) levels may provide a useful marker for screening patients at risk for developing PIH.

Determination of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in type II DM patients

Amit Varshney; Vidya Sagar Ram; Kanhaiya Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3788-3792

Background: The diabetic neuropathy, including the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy
(CAN), is a common complication of type 1 and 2 diabetes that leads to high mortality and
morbidity. The present study was conducted to determine CAN in type II DM patients.
Materials & Methods: 168 type II DM patients of both genders were recruited. Resting
heart rate, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140
mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg, fasting lipid profile (low-density
lipoprotein/LDL, high-density lipoprotein/HDL, triglycerides/TG) and cardiac autonomic
function was evaluated with the CAN system analyzer as early, definite and advanced
CAN.
Results: CAN was seen in 66 patients. The mean age (years) was 45.2 and 44.5, duration of
diabetes (years) was 6.1 and 12.3, SBP (mm Hg) was 130.4 and 134.5, DBP (mm Hg) was
86.2 and 87.6, resting heart rate (beats/min) was 76.3 and 87.4, LDL (mg/dl) was 102.4 and
98.6, HDL (mg/dl) was 40.5 and 38.1 and TG (mg/dl) was 165.2 and 184.6 in CAN- and
CAN+ patients. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05). Severity of CAN found to be
early in 20%, definitive in 45% and advanced in 35%. The difference was significant (P<
0.05).
Conclusion: Type II diabetes patients had high prevalence of cardiac autonomic
neuropathy.

The Effect Of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapyon Lipid Profileof Hiv Patients

Vera Bahar; Andi Makbul Aman; Sudirman Katu; Syakib Bakri; Haerani Rasyid; Husaini Umar; Risna Halim; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 953-960

Background:The widespread use of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) has indicated a dramatic reduction in impairment due to immunodeficiency. Several studies have shown that an adverse event of HAART on dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. This study aimed to assess changes in lipid profiles after HAART.
Methods:A prospective cohort study with a consecutive sampling method consists of 59 HIV-infected patientsreceiving HAART at Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar, Indonesia, from March-September 2020. Lipid profiles were measured at the initial time and after three months of HAART. The drug regimen was divided into two groups: Regimen 
group 1 (tenofovir, lamivudine, efavirenz), and another regimen group (consist of 4 regimen group combination: zidovudine, lamivudine, efavirenz; tenofovir, emtricitabine, lopinavir/ritonavir; tenofovir, lamivudine, nevirapine, and tenofovir, lamivudine, rilpivirine). ANOVA paired t-test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis(it is significant if p is<0.05).
Results:The mean age of the subjects was 32.1 ± 6.6 years old. About 76.3% of subjects were male. Regimen 1 was used by 88.1% of the subjects and another regimen only 11.9% of the subjects. There were 27 subjects (45.8%) were underweight. The proportion of subjects with lipid abnormalities after 3 months of HAART significantly higher in LDL-c and TG level (P= 0.002 and 0.021). Regimen group1 showed increased levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, and TG (P = 0.037, 0.041, and 0.001) after HAART.
Conclusion:Highly active retroviral therapy is associated with lipid profile changes in HIV patients after 3 months of therapy.

“EVALUATION OF HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH CLINICAL, METABOLIC AND HORMONAL PROFILE OF WOMEN WITH PCOS”

PRIYANJALI SINHA; NEEMA ACHARYA; PRIYANKA SINGH

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2104-2112

Background: PCOS is the most common endocrinological disorder affecting 6 -14% amongst reproductive age group. The pathophysiology of PCOS is complex and it is still not well understood. Many markers have been studied to correlate between homocysteine level and other clinical, metabolic and hormonal profile. Preliminary investigations indicate that in women with PCOS, serum biomarkers of cardiovascular disorders such as homocysteine are abnormal. Furthermore the interactions between homocysteine and PCOS, biochemical features such as obesity, insulin resistance and higher levels of androgen, have been researched and the potential determinant of this finding is still being explored.
Aim and Objectives: We aim to determine association between hyperhomocysteinemia and PCOS. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare clinical, metabolic and 
hormonal profile in women of PCOS with normal homocysteine level with that of increased homocysteine level.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study which will be performed in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, AVBRH, DMIMS (Deemed to be University, Wardha), a tertiary care teaching hospital situated in the rural area of Wardha district in over 140 patients for period between 2020-22. This study will include PCOS patients based on Rotterdam diagnostic criteria and will exclude patients with known metabolic, cardiovascular and endocrine disorders. Metabolic and hormonal profile will be evaluated with BMI, Lipid profile, Insulin resistance, serum levels of LH, FSH, DHEA and Testosterone in all patients. Serum homocysteine levels will be measured using ELISA.
Expected Results: We expect that there will be significant difference in clinical, metabolic and hormonal profile of PCOS women having hyperhomocysteinemia than women having normal homocysteine level.

Lipid Profile Between Epileptic Patients With Cyp-450 Enzyme Inducer Versus Cyp-450 Enzyme Inhibitor As A Monotherapy Anti Epileptic Drug: A Comparative Study

Susi Aulina; Audry Devisanty Wuysang; Andi Kurnia Bintang; Yudy Goysal; Fransiska Carmelia Subeno

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1123-1130

Treatment of epilepsy is often a lifetime. Several studies report the effect of anti epileptic drug (AED) to lipid profile. This study aims to assess the differences of lipid profile of epileptic patients receiving CYP-450 enzyme inducer and inhibitor monotherapy AED.
This study was conducted in cross-sectional terms with consecutive sampling, from June-October 2019, at Wahidin Sudirohusodo Regional Hospital, Hasanuddin University Hospital, and private practice. The independent variable were AEDs, consist of phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, or valproic acid, while the dependent one was the lipid profile. Thirty-five samples were obtained using CYP-450 enzyme inducer AED, consisted of 11 samples using phenytoin, 11 samples using phenobarbital, 13 samples using carbamazepine, and 16 samples using CYP-450 enzyme inhibitor AED (valproic acid).
The results showed higher level of total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in the CYP-450 enzyme inducer AED group than the CYP-450 inhibitor one; there was no difference of triglyceride (TG) level, while higher level was shown in the CYP-450 enzyme inducer AED group.