Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : magnesium

Assessment of serum magnesium levels in chronic heart failure patients

Vijaysinh Patil, Dany John, Aniket Avhad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4698-4701

Background: Hypomagnesemia, hypokalaemia, and hyponatremia are the common serum electrolyte abnormalities seen in chronic congestive heart failure. The present study was conducted to assess serum magnesium levels in chronic heart failure patients.
Materials & Methods: 90 chronic heart failure patients of both genderswere divided into two groups. Group I were patients with normal magnesium levels (>2mEq/L) and group II patients with low magnesium levels (≤ 2 mEq/L).
Results: Out of 90 patients, males were 50 and females were 40. The mean BMI in group I was 25.1 kg/m2 and in group II was 27.5 kg/m2. The mean SBP was 122.4 mm Hg in group I and 134.6 mm Hg in group II. DBP was 70 mm Hg in group I and 82.4 mm Hg in group II. There were 8 diabetes in group I and 21 in group II. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). The mean LVEF in group I was 35.6% and in group II was 36.7%. The serum potassium was 4.3 mEq/L in group I and 4.1 mEq/L in group II. Serum creatinine was 1.8 mg/dL in group I and 1.2 mg/dL in group II. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Chronic heart failure patients had low serum magnesium level. Low serum magnesium levels were predictor of deranged cardiac & biochemical profile seen in chronic heart failure patients


Swapnarani Seedipally, Malathi Verabelly, Anees Sultana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2840-2847

Background: Physiologically calcium plays a critical role in function of smooth muscle and its deficiency can cause increased blood pressure. Magnesium is a cofactor in several enzymes, cause vasodilatation and helps in neurochemical transmission. Besides magnesium and calcium, hyperuricemia may induce hypertension by impairing nitric oxide generation
Objective: To compare serum calcium, magnesium and uric acid levels in women with pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancy
Methods: Hospital based Comparative Cross sectional study was carried out among 60 (30 pre-eclampsia and 30 normal pregnant women) aged 18-35 years between 20 weeks till term gestation for 18 months. Proteinuria, serum Calcium, Serum Magnesium, and serum Uric acid were measured using standard procedures.
Results: Majority were (40%) 25-29 years, (53.3%) were overweight, 46.6% had 36-38 weeks of gestation. 56.67% were Primi. 60% had severe preeclampsia. Proteinuria was seen in all with 46.67% had 2+. Pulse rate, SBP and DBP were significantly higher among the cases compared to controls.  Serum calcium was significantly lower among preeclampsia women and serum uric acid was significantly higher.  However there was no statistically significant difference between serum magnesium levels among preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. There was no statistically significant difference between pulse rates. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in severe preeclampsia group. Serum Calcium and magnesium were significantly lower in severe preeclampsia group.
Conclusion: Preeclampsia was found to be associated with low calcium levels and higher serum uric acid levels. But it was not found to be associated with the serum magnesium levels.


Dr. Mohammad Rafeek, Dr. Mirdulata Prajapati, Dr. Sarla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 51-55

Background: The present study was conducted for evaluating the role of serum magnesium levels in chronic heart failure.
Materials & methods: A total of 100 patients with chronic heart failurenormal sinus rhythm were included in the present study. Blood samples were obtained and serum magnesium levels were assessed in all the patients. On the basis of magnesium levels, all the patients were divided into two study groups; 41 patients with normal magnesium levels (>2mEq/L) and 59 patients with low magnesium levels (≤ 2 mEq/L). Profile was compared among the two study groups. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software.
Results: Significant higher proportion of subjects were diabetic among low magnesium level group. Age and diabetic status were found to be significantly correlated with low magnesium levels.  Blood pressure was significantly higher among subjects with low magnesium levels. Non-significant results were obtained while correlating serum potassium levels and Left ventricular ejection fraction with magnesium status.
Conclusion: Low serum magnesium levels were predictor of deranged cardiac and biochemical profile in chronic heart failure patients.


N. Chandralekha, P. V. Rajini, N. Jyothi, T. Arunmanas, T. Krishnasri Vathsav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1211-1221

Background:Diabetes Mellitus is the most common metabolic disease and is posing as a major public health problem in the world, developing countries like India in particular. India has the second highest number of diabetics worldwide after China. Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion and / or insulin resistance. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for more than 85% of the all the diabetics. It can occur at any age but is most common between 40 to 80 years of age. Macro minerals (calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphur and phosphorus) play an important role in intermediary metabolism and cellular function, including enzyme activities and electrical gradients. The present study of these parameters is essential in clinically diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus to show their role in the pathogenesis and to ascertain their role as possible biochemical markers of the disease progress.
Materials and Methods: Observational cross-sectional study was done. STUDY SUBJECT AND SIZEA total of one hundred patients aged between 30 years to 60 years, both male and female patients were selected from King George Hospital attached to Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. Fifty patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending OP at Department of Endocrinology and fifty healthy non-diabetic subjects were selected. The subjects are divided into two groups, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A (Cases): consisting of 50, type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed patients Group B (Controls): consisting of 50 healthy non diabetic subjects. Study Period: This study was conducted between December 2020 to November 2021 in the Department of Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. Sample Collection: After 12 hours of fasting, 5ml of venous blood is collected from the antecubital vein from each subject under aseptic conditions. Blood was collected in a clot activator vacutainer (red cap tubes) and allowed to clot spontaneously in the tube, and then centrifuged for about 10 minutes at 3000rpm. In case of delay, the sample was stored at -20 degree Celsius for further analysis on the next working day. Carewas taken to prevent hemolysis.The findings were recorded and then tabulated in excel sheets, statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Unpaired t-test was done and expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation. A p-value of < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant.
Results: The (mean±SD) serum triglyceride levels in T2DM cases were 228±116.03 mg/dl and in healthy controls 103±18.23 mg/dl. The (Mean±SD) serum total cholesterol levels in T2DM cases were 208.26±48.14 mg/dl and in controls 164.18±12.71 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum HDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 33.82±7.89 mg/dl and in controls 45.16±3.35 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serumLDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 128.36±44.80 mg/dl and in controls 99.74±9.23 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum VLDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 45.68±23.20 mg/dl and in controls 20.47±3.31 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum calcium levels in T2DM cases were 9.12±0.79 mg/dl and in controls 9.83±0.53 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum magnesium levels in T2DM cases were 1.87±0.35 mg/dl and in controls 2.30±0.36 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum phosphoruslevels in T2DM cases were 2.92±0.64 mg/dl and in controls 3.06±0.70 mg/dl. There is no statistical significance in the serum phosphorus levels in between the two groups.
Conclusion: in this present study. The serum triglyceride (TG) levels, serum total cholesterol levels, serum LDL-C Levels,VLDL-C Levels were significantly increased in the T2DM cases compared to the controls. The serum HDL-C levels were significantly decreased in the T2DM cases when compared to the controls. The serum calcium levels, Serum magnesium levels and serum phosphorous levels were significantly decreased in the T2DM cases when compared to the controls.

A Study of association of serum magnesium and zinc levels in diabetics

Dr. Ramesh Dnyanadeo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1316-1320

Background: Hypomagnesaemia and hypermagnesuria was reported to be associated with diabetes complications. Thus, magnesium has drawn considerable attention for its potential role in improving insulin sensitivity and preventing DM. Zinc, another important trace element, acting as a cofactor for several biochemical processes has a major role in health status. There is substantiating evidence indicating the importance of zinc in DM. Impaired zinc metabolism, decreased plasma zinc and hyperzincuria has been reported as a consequential effect of glucose absorption. But limited studies have been conducted in this part of the world. This study puts in an effort to find the answers.
Aims and Objectives: To study the association of serum magnesium and zinc levels in diabetics.
Materials and Methods: This study was done in the Department of General Medicine, SSPM’S Medical College and Lifetime Hospital, Padve.
This study was done from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020.
Ninety and an equal age and sex matched control were used for the study.
Results: There is a strong association between the serum magnesium and zinc levels in diabetics when compared to normal individuals.
Conclusion: More number of studies have to come up in different geographical locations so as to be helpful to the practicing physicians.

Serum calcium and magnesium levels in patients with acute gastroenteritis

Dr. MA Reshamwala, Dr. Manish Maheshbhai Khokhar, Dr. Kartikeya Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1339-1342

Background: Though the earlier studies reported that there will be loss of magnesium and calcium ions in the patients with acute gastro enteritis, the exact measure was not provided.
Objective: The present study was undertaken to measure the levels of the calcium and magnesium in the patients of acute gastroenteritis. This information helps to plan adequate treatment in these patients.
Materials and methods: A total of 50 patients with acute gastroenteritis aged more than 18 years including both male and females were part of the study after obtaining the written, voluntary informed consent. Unwilling participants were excluded from the study. Patients with any severe complications were also excluded from the study
Results; Out of fifty participants, 20 participants were males and 30 participants were females. The range for calcium was found from 6.7 to 10.7 mmol/l. Majority of the patients have the calcium levels in the range of 7.7-8.7 mmol/l. The range for magnesium is 0.1-3.1 mg/dl. Majority of the patients have level of magnesium in the range of 2.1-3.1 mg/dl.
Conclusion: Significant decline in the serum calcium and magnesium levels was observed in the patients with gastro enteritis. The study results support the results of earlier studies. The study recommends the need of future studies with involving multiple centers and multiple samples to plan adequate treatment strategies for management of diarrhea cases and to prevent death of these patients.

Study of Serum Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorous Levels in Hypothyroidism

Bonala Sharat Babu, Azmatulla Shaik, Md. Siddique Ahmed Khan, Naveed Altaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1286-1292

Background: Thyroid disorders are the most common endocrine abnormality in the
world secondary to diabetes mellitus. Thyroid hormones are essential for growth,
neuronal development, reproduction and regulation of energy metabolism. It influences
the metabolism of all substrates including minerals. Many studies have shown that
mineral metabolism is frequently disturbed in thyroid disorders.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on sixty newly confirmed
hypothyroid cases based on the thyroid profile and sixty euthyroid cases were recruited
as controls. Blood samples were collected from all the patients for the estimation of
serum T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by auto analyzer
method. Modified spectrophotometric micro-method was used to measure Serum
copper using Bathocuprine Disulphonate Disodium Salt (BCDS) and Guanidine
hydrochloride salt. The Statistical software namely SPSS 18.0, and R environment
ver.3.2.2 were used for the analysis of the data.
Results: It was found that the levels of serum sodium, potassium and calcium were
significantly decreased in cases than the controls. Serum magnesium and phosphorus
were significantly elevated in cases than controls.
Conclusion: Serum calcium, magnesium and phosphorous levels are significantly
altered in patients having hypothyroidism. Thyroid diseases have wide spread systemic
manifestations including their effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Also thyroid
hormone affects the glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, tubular reabsorption
and excretion of minerals which have direct effect on Calcium, Magnesium and
phosphorous level. Thus monitoring of these minerals in hypothyroid patient will be of
great benefit in improving clinical manifestation and can be treated appropriately.

Correlation Analysis of Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Level in Vitamin D Deficient Patients and Vit D Sufficient Patients

Ajinkya Murudkar, Sumeet Chadha, Jagjeet Singh Bahia, Arvinder Kaur, Sahil Chhabra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1377-1382

Introduction: In the body, nutrients normally work together in a coordinated fashion.
The availability of certain nutrients influences the uptake of another nutrient in the
intestine. Magnesium and vitamin D are two critical nutrients that are required for
diverse organ physiologic activities.
Objectives: The present study was conducted to analyze the relationship between serum
magnesium and vitamin D and to compare the levels of serum magnesium in vitamin D
deficient patients and vit D sufficient patients.
Methods: Present study was a prospective, observational, cohort, single centric,
hospital-based study conducted over the duration of one year. Total 100 patients were
recruited in the study and relationship between Serum magnesium and vitamin D was
assessed. According to the levels of vitamin D the patients were sub-grouped into three
categories: Normal: Vitamin D >= 30ng/ml (10 patients), Insufficient: Vitamin D >= 20
and <=30 ng/ml (12 patients), and Deficient: Vitamin D <= 20ng/ml (78 patients).
Results: Vitamin D in normal group was 54.68 ± 8.965, in insufficient group was 25.79 ±
2.842 and in deficient group was 7.704 ± 3.909. The difference between three group was
significant. Magnesium in normal group was 1.572 ± 0.1098, in insufficient group was
1.603 ± 0.1014 and in deficient group was 1.625 ± 0.1092. The difference between three
group was not significant. Correlation analysis of Vitamin D and magnesium revealed a
negative correlation in normal group (r= -0.3561), and a positive correlation in
insufficient group (r=0.1277) and deficient group (r=0.01423).
Conclusion: Based on serum magnesium levels, the research can assess the need for
mediational cost and unfavourable side effects associated with multitherapy with
vitamin D and magnesium, as per current clinical practise.

A case control study to assess the role of magnesium and calcium among children with febrile seizures in a tertiary care hospital

Gowhar Wani, Nikhil Guptha, Mahtab Alam, Manjunath GM

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 959-964

Background: Febrile seizures defined as seizures that occurs between the age of six and sixty
months, with a temperature of 38 degree C or higher, that are not the result of central nervous
system infection or any metabolic imbalance and that occur in the absence of a history of
prior afebrile seizures. A seizure is a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms resulting
from abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Objective: to assess the role of Magnesium and Calcium among Children with Febrile
Seizures in a tertiary care hospital. Methodology: The present Case Control Study was
conducted by the Department of pediatrics at Government multispecialty hospital, Sector-16,
Chandigarh from November 2015 to October 2016. A total of 50 Children in study age group
6 months to 5 years admitted in the pediatric ward who were satisfying the inclusion criteria
were included.
Results: In the present study the mean Serum Magnesium level was found to be 2.10+0.24
mg/dl among cases and among control the level was found to be 1.95+0.16 mg/dl. The
association was found to be statistically significant between two groups on comparing Mean
Serum Magnesium. In the present study on analyzing the mean serum calcium levels it was
found that among cases group nearly 90% of them had normal levels and 10% of them had
abnormal serum calcium levels and in the control group all the subjects had normal serum
calcium levels and the association between both the groups was found to be statistically
Conclusion: This study shows that serum magnesium levels are normal in children with
febrile seizures. It indicates that serum magnesium may not have a significant role in the
pathogenesis of febrile convulsions. Our study sample was not representative of entire
population because all children were mostly from surrounding urban area.

Analysis of Tensile and Compression Strength on Magnesium Hydroxyapatite Composite for Biomedical Implants

Rejikumar Rajamoni; Sivapragash M; Sivakumar G; Sivaraj M; S Rajkumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 75-83

This paper focuses on the biomedical implants of bone plates with biodegradable Magnesium composites. ZK30 Mgalloy metal matrix reinforced with five weight fractions ofHydroxyapatite (HAP), have been fabricated using powder metallurgy manufacturing process followed by hot extrusion process. Properties such as Tensile and compression tests were investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for surface fracture analysis. The results obtained shows that the maximum ultimate tensile strength was attained at ZK30 Mg alloy while the least was noted for ZK30/10wt%HAP. In addition, ZK30/2wt%HAP shows a higher ultimate compressive strength. The SEM images of tensile specimen displays ductile fracture for ZK30 Mg alloy and quasi cleavage fracture for Mg composite whereas the compressive specimen indicates ductile fracture for ZK30 Mg alloy and Mg composites. The composite exhibited excellent mechanical properties thereby it can be used for biomedical implants of Bone plates.