Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : retrospective study

Clinico-Epidemiological Trends of Leprosy in Karaikal District, India After Elimination of Leprosy – ‌‌‌A Ten Year Retrospective Study

Dr.S.S.Arulvasan, Dr.C.Abhirami, Dr.C.Ramya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6225-6236

Leprosy is an age-old chronic infectious disease of mankind. This disease has been infecting humans for at least 100,000 years and still affects millions of people all over the world. India achieved Leprosy “elimination” in December 2005, but the disease remains a major public health concern because India still has the highest leprosy burden in the world. According to the National Leprosy Elimination Program (NLEP), a total of 114451 new cases were detected between 2019 and 2020 and about half that many between 2020 and 2021.So,it is important to understand the trends of leprosy but short-term trends in leprosy are difficult to interpret due to year-to-year fluctuations in program activities and hence Long-term trends are more important to understand the clinic epidemiological trends of leprosy and to monitor the leprosy control activity. In this study we have done aretrospective statistical analysis of data obtained from the health department, Karaikal, India for ten yearsi.e. from 2012 to 2022. Major key indicators of leprosy burden for both elimination of disease and elimination of transmissionare analyzed to understand the nature and trends of leprosy in a coastal district Karaikal and also to compare itwith the clinicoepidemiological trend of India.


Ch. Rama Mohan, M. Nagaswetha, S.Praveen Kumar, B. Sankar Kumar, Ch.Sudha Rani, G. Narasimha Rao Netha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11126-11137

Background:Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with a
relatively high prevalence varying from 0.9 % to 1.2%. It may be confined to oral
cavity or associated with the skin, nails and other mucosal sites. Oral lesions are
chronic, rarely undergo spontaneous remission and are often a source of morbidity.
OBJECTIVE - To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral
lichen planus (OLP) in a group of patients.
Materials and Methods: This is retrospective study done at Gandhi Hospital from 2017
to 2019. A total of 64 lichen planus patients with oral involvement were included. OLP
is diagnosed based on the morphology and associated lesions on the skin, nails or other
mucosa. A biopsy was done in doubtful cases.
Results: Out of 64 studied patients females(41) outnumbered males(23) .The common
age group was 30-60yrs. Isolated OLP was observed in 42%, with cutaneous LP 50%,
with nail involvement 3%, and with genital mucosa 4 %. Buccal mucosa is the
commonest site (84%) followed by tongue 28% and lip 20%. LP involving the lower lip
with actinic changes 5(39%) and pigmentation in 8(61%). The common patterns
observed were reticular 65.6%, erosive 11% and pigmented 11%. Other associations
were submucosal fibrosis in 6, diabetes 10, hypothyroidism 4, vitiligo 1, retro-positive 4,
HCV in 2.
Conclusion: In our study reticular pattern involving the buccal mucosa was the
commonest. Our study showed that LP involving the lower lip was mimicking actinic
cheilitis which may be differentiated. Association of LP with HCV was seen in only in
3.1 % of cases. Regular follow-up was needed for erosive or ulcerative and atrophic LP.

A Retrospective Analysis of Maxillofacial Trauma in a Tertiary Care Centre in central India: A 8-year study

Dr. Karuna Jindwani, Dr. Amit Kumar Sahu, Dr. Geeta Tripathi, Dr. Divashree Sharma, Dr. Juhi Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 2383-2395

Introduction: The incidence of maxillofacial fractures varies worldwide. The
information on epidemiological characteristics in association with the etiology and
incidence of injuries help in prevention and appropriate treatment of such injuries.
Purpose: Thus, the aim of this retrospective study was to describe the prevalence,
incidence, pattern, etiology, management of trauma cases at Shyam Shah Medical
College (S. S. M. C), in a span of 8 years.
Patients & Methods: The data collected included age, sex, date and month (seasonal
variations), etiology, site of fracture, associated injuries, treatment modalities used for
the management of maxillofacial trauma patients reporting in the Department of
Dentistry and emergency casualty department of S. S. M. C., Rewa from February 2013
till January 2021.
Results: A total of 892 cases depicted fractures of the facial skeleton. The mean age was
36 years. Though patients ranging from 4-75 years reported for treatment. Males
outnumbered females with a male: female ratio of 8:1. Injuries commonly occurred in
the 21-30 years age group. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the most common
etiological factor in 631 patients followed by inter personal violence (IPV) in 147
patients. Mandibular fracture was the most frequently encountered fracture. The
seasonal variation showed the peak incidence of cases in the months of January and
December with 23.4 % of total patients. 15.13 % of the cases were managed
conservatively, 7.29% patients with debridement and soft tissue repair, while closed
reduction was used in 60.54 % of patients and 17.04 % were treated with surgical open
reduction and internal fixation. There was no serious complication in any of our patient
in the average follow up span of 6 months.
Conclusion: This study verified a young male predominance involved in maxillofacial
trauma. RTAs contributed as the major etiological factor. Thus, similar long-span multi
centric epidemiologic studies may help government and authorities to plan periodic
review of driving skills & strict implementation of traffic rules policies.