Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Cytotoxicity


Praveen Kumar Borra, Phool Chandra, Vidyadhara Suryadevara, Neetu Sachan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5532-5546

Fifteen benzothiazepine compounds were synthesized and their cytotoxicity was studied because of the significance of the benzothiazepine pharmacophore. Benzothiazepines were synthesised by combined 0.01 mol of 1,3-substituted prop-2-en-1-one, 0.01 mol of 2-aminothiophenol, 1.25 ml of water, and a pinch of zinc acetate as a catalyst in a conical flask. The solvent free reaction mixture was heated in a microwave oven for 2-3 minutes at a temperature of 80-85OC. Products were filtered, dried, and recrystallized in ethanol after being washed in water to remove the catalyst. The compounds' characterization was done using the IR, NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The in vivo cytotoxicity studies were performed using MTT assay method. Spectral data reveals the structure of the compound benzothiazepine. Of all the compounds tested against HT-29 cell lines, the compound BT-09 having a nitrophenyl moiety in its structure showed maximum activity with a IC50 value of 28 µg/mL. Among the compounds tested for cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell lines, the compound BT-09 showed maximum activity (IC50 27 µg/mL). Among the compounds tested for cytotoxicity on DU-145 cell lines, the compounds, BT-09 and BT-11 showed maximum activity (IC50 16 µg/mL). It was also observed that most of the compounds tested on these three cell lines showed maximum activity on prostate cancer cell lines (DU-145). The cytotoxic results showed that the compound BT-09 with a nitrophenyl moiety in its structure was the most effective against the HT-29 cell line, MCF-7 cell line, and DU-145 cell line, with an IC50 value of 28 g/mL, 27 g/mL, and 16 g/mL, respectively

In-Vitro Anti-Proliferative Effect Of Flavonoid Extract Of Amaranthus Viridis (Kolitis) Leaves Against MCF-7 Breast Adenocarcinoma Cell Line

Allysa Camille M. Malicdem; Michkaella Lorena O. Aducal; Jireh C. Cuasay; Denise Ansherina A. Dalisay; Alexander I. Mendoza; Glenda Marie E. Napiza; Carina R. Magbojos; Oliver Shane R. Dumaoal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4129-4140

Cancer is one of the major concerns in health and medicine. Studies have been done by previous researches on the medicinal value of flavonoids present in Amaranthus viridis. However, limited claims were available in terms of their anti-proliferative ability against cancer cells. Flavonoid extracts were prepared by semi-purification using ethanol and ethyl acetate. Phytochemical screening using UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to verify the presence of flavonoids. MTT cytotoxicity assay using MCF-7 breast cancer cells was employed to determine the cytotoxic effect of the plant extract. Four concentrations of the extract of A. viridis leaves were used as treatment to cultured cells. Doxorubicin and DMSO were used as the positive and negative control, respectively. An inhibition concentration (IC50) of 18.33 ug/mL of the extract was reported after the assay, indicating that the administration of the treatment caused the death of the cells as seen when the yellow dye was not reduced into a purple formazan. Statistical analysis on the IC50 of doxorubicin and the A. viridis extract showed significant relationship, which indicated that doxorubicin has a more potent cytotoxic activity, though the extract had promising effects as seen in its IC50 being less than 30 ug/mL. These results can be attributed to the presence of the flavonoid quercetin which has been found out to possess cytotoxic effects against cancer cells. With these findings, a more natural, less toxic, cost-efficient and more readily available treatment regimen can be utilized for the management of cancer.

Biocompatibility In Orthodontics

Amoli Singh; Nidhin Philip Jose; Siddarth Shetty; Shravan Shetty; Ashith M. V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 381-390

This review aims to summarise the properties, interactions, biocompatibility and associated adverse reactions of the commonly used orthodontic materials in clinical practice.
The recent years have seen the introduction of a variety of new orthodontic products necessitating the need for an all-inclusive training in the dental materials field. It is essential for orthodontists to have the basic knowledge about composition of these materials, their structure and properties. Clinically the interactions of orthodontic materials with the hard tissues in the oral cavity and with other dental materials can lead to the issue cytotoxicity and allergic reactions for both patients and doctors. The background about these interactions will allow the orthodontist to make correct material selections which will provide for adequate treatment mechanics and simultaneously equip him/her with the knowledge to deal with the complex effects of the orthodontic materials in the oral environment
Several electronic databases were searched for relevant research and material regarding biocompatibility and interactions of the commonly used orthodontic materials in clinical practice.The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), meta Register of Controlled Trials, WHO, Digital Dissertations and Google Scholar were used to look for the relevant data. The references and citations of already existing reviews and articles on the issue of biocompatibilty were also searched.
This review is mainly done to attain better knowledge about the biocompatibility of different materials that are used in the orthodontic practice and their associated effects.

Cytotoxic evaluation of directly 3D printed aligners and Invisalign

S Fayyaz Ahamed; S Mohnish Kumar; R K Vijaya kumar,; A S Apros Kanna; K Indrapriya dharshini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1129-1140

Background: Direct 3D printing of aligner trays involve printable materials; the study aims to investigate the in-vitro cytotoxicity of the direct-printed aligner using photopolymer resins and SmartTrackInvisalign tray for varying time intervals on 3T3 mice fibroblast cells using MTT assay.
Materials and Methods: Directed printed aligner trays using two 3D printing materials with SmartTrackInvisalign tray were compared in this study. Samples were placed in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM; 0.1 mg/mL) for 1,3,5& 7 days interval. Cell viability percentage was calculated, and data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance and post hoc tests (α = 0.05).
Results: All materials exhibited slight cytotoxicity on MFCs with a visible trend of a significant increase in cell viability from day 1 to 7. Among the groups, the higher cytotoxicity was by E-Guard clear, and Dental LT, and the least cytotoxicity by Smartrack material. The highest level of cell viability and no cytotoxicity was exhibited by Invisalign (94.07% ± 3.00 of cell viability) at day 7. No statistically significant difference in viability percentage was seen between Dental LT and E-Guard material.
Conclusions: SmartTrackInvisalign material (polyurethane) was found to be more biocompatible, followed by directly printed aligner materials (polymethylmethacrylate). Cytotoxicity was found to be more on the first day for all materials and gradually decreases as day’s progress. The results indicate the increased leaching of material during the initial period of use though the level of cytotoxicity is slight.

Design, Synthesis, Biological And In Silico Evaluation Of Phenylene (Bis) Hydrazone Derivatives Against Osteosarcoma Cancer

Pilli Govindaiah; Rakesh Kumar; Praveen Kumar Guttula; Mukesh Kumar Gupta; Jaya Prakash M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2617-2632

Three sets of differentphenylene-bis(hydrazone) derivatives namely,Gc, Gd and Ge,were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their molecular properties andin vitro anticancer activity against human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. All compounds showed potent anticancer activity against the MG63 cells with IC50ranging from 18.27 to 21.68μM. Among three sets of compounds,Ge showed the most potent anticancer activity against osteosarcoma MG63 cells and was superior to standard anticancer reference drug,methotrexate (MTX). All compounds were characterized by spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, 1H NMR, and13C NMR). In silicomolecular properties and drug-like properties were predicted by using Osiris property explorer software. None of Gc and Ge set of compounds violated Lipinski’s boundaries thereby suggesting good oral bioavailability. All the synthesized compounds possessed good pharmacokinetic properties in terms of absorption, distribution, metabolism and toxicity (ADMET). However, the GdSeries compoundswere predicted to be capableof crossing BBB due to their high lipophilicity. The Gc and Ge series of compounds showed good pharmacokinetic parameters within the acceptable range. All the synthesized drugs were predicted to have better pharmacokinetic properties thanthe MTX reference drug.Taken together, our study suggests that Ge series derivatives may be considered as lead drug molecules for possible anticancer applications to be useful against osteosarcoma.

Synthesis, Characterization And Biological Evaluation Of Schiff Base Of 5-Chloro Salicylaldehyde Hydrazine N-Methyl Carbo- Thioamide And Its Metal Complexes: Cytotoxicity, Dna Interaction & Incision, Antibacterial And Antifungal Studies

Pilli Jyothi; C. Gyana Kumari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4339-4355

A Schiff base ligand of N-methyl Thiosemicarbazide and its complexes with Co metal ion
of binary [Co(L)2] (Complex-A), and ternary, formulae [Co(L)(L1)(H2O)] (Complex-B),
[Co(L)(L2)(H2O)] (Complex-C) where L is Schiff base ligand, L1 is Bi-pyridine and L2 is
oxalic acid have been synthesized and the compounds had been characterized based on the
several spectroscopic results. The interaction of these compounds with DNA was
investigated by electronic absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Our
experiments indicated that these complexes could strongly bind to CT- DNA via
intercalation mode with Kb values of 1.2 x 104 M-1 to 5.7 x 104 M-1 and the nucleotide
incision against super coiled pBR322 DNA had been investigated by both photolytic and
oxidative techniques to reveal the efficient manner of cleavage by the metal complexes.
Furthermore, these complexes exhibited significant in vitro Cytotoxicity against HeLa &
MCF7 cell lines showing IC50 values around 46.03 to 62.05 μM. Finally, an antimicrobial
assay of these complexes over one gram-positive bacterium of Bacillus Subtilis and one
gram-negative bacterium of Escherichia Coli and also two fungal species had given a good