Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : overweight

A Study Of Morbidity Profile And Occupational Injuries Among Firefighters In A Metropolitan City

Aftab Ahmed Siddiqui; Shreekanth K Jakkula; Sujay Jaju; Alhad Mulkalwar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 2081-2089

Background: Firefighters work to reduce threats and minimize the potential harm from fire hazards. The nature of firefighters’ work is demanding, often unpredictable and in stressful environments where they are routinely exposed to both mental and physical occupational hazards. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess prevalence of occupational injuries and the morbidity profile of firefighters in a single metropolitan city.
Methods: In this study, 253 firefighters from the area under Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) were included using stratified random sampling method. All consenting firefighters were interviewed in office located in fire brigade using a pre-validated interview schedule and the data was analyzed using SPSS version 22.
Results: From the study, it was found out that abrasion was the most common occupational injury among firefighters. Pre-hypertension and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the overweight category were prevalent findings among firefighters. Association between cadre and years of service with occupational injuries was found out to be statistically significant. Also, the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) with occupational injuries was found out to be statistically significant. There was no clear association between ages of firefighters and BMI with occupational injuries.
Conclusion: There is a need to conduct more studies in Indian setup on occupational hazards and injuries amongst firefighters. Awareness about normal BMI, management of DM and HTN, healthy food practices, aerobic exercises, prevention and treatment of addictions, a drive for Hepatitis B vaccination, appropriate management of injuries and health insurance will serve a bigger role in diminishing morbidity in this occupation.

Study of prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among school children aged 6-14 years studying in affluent private schools in Hyderabad and associated social factors leading to obesity and overweight

Dr. Abhishek Mahankali V; Dr. Karanam Pranoty; Dr. Pallati Vijay Ananth

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1737-1749

Background: The term "obesity" refers to an abnormal expansion of the adipose tissue that can be caused by an increase in the number of fat cells (hyperplastic obesity), an increase in the size of the fat cells themselves (hypertrophic obesity), or a combination of both of these factors. The body mass index (BMI) is frequently used as a measurement of obesity.

Effect of Body Mass Index on Lipid Profile of Type 2 Diabetic Patients at an Urban Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

K. Priyadarshini, Dr. Manila Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 701-716

Introduction:Diabetes mellitus is an important global public health problem. In addition to being a chronic disease, obesity is a key risk factor for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that leads to disability. This study aimed at investigating the effect of Body Mass Index on serum lipid profile in type II diabetic patients.
Material and Methods
This is a prospective study and observational study will be done in the Department of Physiology in collaboration     with the Department of Medicine, Index Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Indore.Inclusion Criteria:Only Diagnosed cases of male and female Type II Diabetes Mellitus cases aged 30-60 suffering from more than 2yrs. The diagnosis of diabetes is made on the basis of (Revised American Diabetic Association criteria). Fasting glucose >126mg/dl and 2hr postprandial plasma glucose >200mg/dl.
Results: The mean (± SD) of various motor nerve variables like latency, amplitude and nerve conduction velocity between control and cases. When compared these variables between controls and cases was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Comparison of various motor nerve variables like latency, amplitude and nerve conduction velocity between control and cases are graphically shown.
Conclusion: A significant negative correlation between BMI and HDL-C was observed, while the correlation between BMI and LDL-C was observed to be insignificant. HDL-C was found significantly higher in patients with normal BMI. These results are important to indicate that there is modest impact of BMI on lipid profile. Therefore, assessment and management for altered blood lipids should not be based on a patient’s body weight or BMI.


Dr. Tushar Ravindra Godbole,Dr. Rahul Gautam Koppikar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 588-595

Background:Obese children also suffer from emotional, mental, and social trauma. Obese
children are seen to have depression and very low self-esteem. Also, such children are teased
by society and have high peer pressure. Additionally, obesity and overweight pose a high
burden on the health care system.
Aims:The present trial was carried out to document the efficacy of counseling about physical
activity, nutrition, and weight on obese children of low socioeconomic status.
Methods: The study was carried out on 48 children and was based on the questionnaire on
the lifestyle modification and counseling sessions with questions based on healthy habits and
physical exercise. Associated comorbidities such as asthma or diabetes were also asked along
with their treating paediatrician. The collected data were subjected to statistical evaluation
and the results were formulated.
Results: Counselling for nutrition, physical activity, and weight were provided to study
participants and the results showed that 80% (n=12) obese, 66.6% (n=6) overweight, and
58.3% (n=14) healthy subjects received counselling for nutrition. In male participants
61.53% (n=16), 69.23% (n=18), and 65.38% (n=17) respectively were counselled for
nutrition, physical activity, and weight. Similarly, in females 68.18% (n=15), 63.63% (n=14),
and 63.63% (n=14) respectively were counselled for nutrition, physical activity, and weight.
Regarding diabetics in the study (n=2), all the subjects were counselled for weight, nutrition,
as well as physical activity. In subjects with asthma, the counselling for nutrition, physical
activity, and weight was given to 63.6% (n=7), 54.5% (n=6), and 54.5% (n=6) respectively.
Conclusion:The present study concludes that overweight and obese children do not get more
counseling sessions compared to their healthy peers. There is a need for more interactions at
home and more reinforcement of counseling sessions in the school curriculum with special
emphasis on overweight and obese children regarding their nutrition, physical activity, and

The effect of body mass index (BMI) on the mortality among patients with stroke

Salah Elsayed, Muath Othman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 181-186

Stroke is considered one of the leading causesof morbidity and mortality in many
countries. Many studies investigated the outcomes after the occurrence of stroke.
Some of those research studies indicated that obesity and the increasein the
bodymass index areestablished risk factors for mortality among stroke patients.
However, the results of these studies were inconsistent.The main aim of this review
article was to examine the association between bodymass index and mortality
among stroke patients. The majority of the studies had shown a possible effect of
overweight on mortality among stroke patients; the evidence regarding the
association's presence is limited.On the other hand, the majority of the studies had
shown a protective effect of obesity (mild obesity, bodymass index between 30-35)
onreducingthe risk of mortality among stroke patients. This means underweight
stroke patients have more risk of mortality. Thus, the argument regarding the effect
of high bodymass index on mortality has been explained by the obesity paradox.
However, most of those studies were observational, and results could be attributed
to the methodological flaw. There is a need to well-designed prospective studies that
to overcome the limitation of the previous studies.


Haris M. M; Soundarya M; Ravikumar G; Kamalakshi G Bhat; Basavaprabhu Achappa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1664-1674

Background: Adolescent health is important as theyare under a great amount of stress due to academic and peer pressures. This study aims to determine prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in school adolescents and to identify diet as a risk factor in these children.Methodology - Cross sectional study was conducted among school adolescents(11- 14years). Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. 24 hour recall method was used to record the dietary intake and the total sodium, potassium, fat, fructose, caffeine, uric acid and fiber in the diet was estimated. Results - 500 adolescents were studied. Among the study population 6.4% were pre-hypertensive and 7.4% hypertensive with increased prevalence in girls. 9.8% were obese and 14.2% overweight. 14.3% obese and 11.3% overweight children had pre-hypertension. 30.6% obese and 9.9% overweight children had hypertension. Dietary analysis showed that normotensive children consumed lesser fructose (258mg), fat (12.8gm), sodium (89mg), and uric acid with more potassium (89mg), and fiber (10.2gm) per day as compared to the hypertensive children. Conclusions: There is high prevalence of asymptomatic hypertension among obese and over-weight school adolescents. Dietary differences were found between the hypertensive and normotensive adolescents with increased fat consumption showing statistical correlation with hypertension

The Association of Body Mass Index with Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Eriska Riyanti; Risti Saptarini Primarti; Andi Virga Zulhiah Pratiwi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1631-1640

Background: In the last few decades, industrialization, urbanization, economic development and market globalization have had a significant impact on changes in lifestyle and diet. Thus, food choices and nutritional intake greatly affect oral health and body weight. This has a significant impact on health and nutrition, particularly through higher carbohydrate intake and lower physical activity, particularly among younger members of the population. High sugar intake, such as sugar-containing snacks and soft drinks, was reported it is more common in children/adolescents who are overweight and obesity than those of normal weight. Frequent sugar intake is also a risk factor for dental caries. Given this, there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between dental caries and dietary intake has been associated with the development of obesity at a young age. Thus, it is possible to conclude that there is a biological relationship between dental caries and body weight. Objective: To see the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Methods: Scientific evidence and clinical cases were drawn from the literature to support this review and information on the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Result/Discussion: There is some scientific evidence showing a specific relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Conclusion:Body mass index has a significantrelationshipwiththeincidenceof dental caries in children. However, thisconditiondoes not account for which category the incidence of dental cariesis greatest. This is associated with multifactorial interactions that mutually influence the occurrence of dental caries in children.

Short-Term Sprint Interval Training Improves Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Sedentary Overweight Women

Norhazira Abdul Rahim; Nor Shazmiera Asyraf Ishak; Nor Aijratul Asikin Mohamad Shalan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4048-4057

Sprint Interval Training (SIT) has become one of the time-efficient training protocol which capable to improve fitness and health-related measures in healthy as well in overweight individual. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short term SIT on body mass index (BMI), total body fat percentage, resting heart rate and blood pressure in overweight sedentary women. Eleven women (aged 20.64 ±0.81 years; body mass index, 30.17 (±3.97) kg/m2) participated in this study. After baseline measurement of BMI, total body fat percentage, resting heart rate and blood pressure, participants completed a 2-week SIT intervention, comprising 6 session of 4 to 6 repeats of 30-second Wingate anaerobic sprints protocol on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer, with 4-minute recovery time between each repetition. The BMI, total body fat percentage, resting heart rate and blood pressure assessment were repeated as post-intervention. Significant decrease in systolic pressure (108 ± 9.1 vs 112.36 ± 12.5 mm Hg, P .04) and diastolic pressure (74.45 ± 6.4 vs 79.73 ± 10.5 mm Hg, P .03) were observed after the 2-week SIT intervention. No significant changes were found in BMI, total body fat percentage and resting heart rate. Thus, the 2-week of SIT improves both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in sedentary overweight women, highlighting the potential for this short-term intervention as an alternative exercise programme for the improvement the cardio metabolic health in overweight individual.

Knowledge, Awareness And Risk Factors Of Childhood Obesity Among Adolescent Population In Chennai - A Survey Based Analysis

Jagadheeswari Ramamoorthy; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Geo Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3156-3174

IntroductionChildhood obesity is termed as excess body fat accumulation which negatively affects a child's health or well-being. As methods to work out body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is usually supported by BMI. A Body mass Index of 30 or more is considered as obesity. Children are considered to be obese if they are above the normal weight for their height in relation to their age. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle income countries. The rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects it's being recognized as a significant public health concern. AimThe aim of this study is to assess the Knowledge, awareness and risk factors of childhood obesity among the adolescent population.
Materials and MethodThis is a survey based study and was conducted on an online forum, Survey Planet with a sample of 100 participants .Adolescents of age group between 10-21 participated in the study. A questionnaire with 10 questions was circulated among the Chennai population. The responses were collected. The data was summarised as the number and percentage and analysed using SPSS.Chi square test was done and a P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
ResultsIn this survey, we observed that 29% of them consider their current weight to be harmful for their health. 40% of them check their weight regularly. Half of the population were aware that chronic stress can lead to weight gain. Only 41% of the participants have the habit of exercising regularly. 67% of the participants were aware of the complications of obesity. Among all the respondents 28% of them had a family history of obesity.
ConclusionWithin the limits of this survey, we can conclude that awareness on childhood obesity is present among the adolescent population. Females were more aware of Childhood obesity than males. However regular exercise and healthy diet is essential to maintain a healthy weight and prevent obesity.