Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Overweight


Shilpi Gupta, Dr. Rashmi Bishnoi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1694-1699

The most common and neglected public health problem was reported as obesity in both developed and developing countries. Globally, one in six adults is obese, and nearly 2.8 million individuals die each year due to being overweight or obese. The women's health was measured using the body mass index, and the food habits of the women individually were recorded by the investigator. This study was conducted in the urban area of Lucknow district on 400 women aged 20 - 50 years and was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. The overweight or obesity was found to be 39.50% among the selected women in the present study. The overweight was found to be more among the vegetarian women, who taken 2-3 meals per day, skipped meals and breakfast and took food with watching TV, as compared to non-vegetarian women, taken 4-5 meals per day, not skip meals, others meals and not taken food with watching TV respectively. The insignificant associations between body mass index and food habit, skipped meals, breakfast, type of skipped meals and food taken with watching TV were observed, while a significant association between body mass index and meals taken per day was found in the present study.

Association Of BMI And Lipid Profile In Overweight Young Adults After 3 Months Of Yoga Practice

Jay Prakash Singh Rajput; Asha Gandhi; Sanjiv K Bansal; P.N Singh; Nimarpreet Kaur; Deepti Dwivedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1426-1433

Background: Many studies have applied aspects of Yoga to different health conditions. Obesity is a major health problem and the 5th leading risk for death globally. Reasons for these health problems are improper lifestyle and stress, which cause hormonal and chemical imbalance and disturb the proper coordination of metabolic and biochemical functions. So, the aim and objective of the present study is to assess the beneficial effects of 3 months of yoga practice on BMI, and lipid profile as well as correlate BMI with lipid parameters in overweight medical students between the age group 18-24 years.
Material and Methods: This prospective follow-up study included 50 Medical students having overweight of either sex (male & female) as per the inclusion criteria. Their BMI, and Lipid Profile were estimated before the start of yoga, after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of yoga practice, and their mean values were compared from baseline by using student t-Test, and correlation was done by using Pearson correlation test.
Results: Statistically significant decreased mean values of BMI, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL were recorded when compared from baseline. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis between the BMI, TC and TG at three levels of yoga practice was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Yoga therapy is useful to overcome the complications of obesity. It is one of the non-pharmacological and cost-effective therapies to maintain better health by regulating BMI and other biochemical functions of the body.


Sakshi Singh; Mrs. Deepa Reddy; Dr. Rita Lakhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1246-1257

Background& Aim of the study: Indian data regarding current trends in childhood obesity are emerging. Lifestyle changes and worldwide nutrition transition are important factors for the obesity epidemic. Current eating habits include the consumption of fast foods, sugary drinks, baked food, soft drinks, etc. These eating habits with decreased physical activity, lack of sleep, and lack of social leisure activities will lead to childhood obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the selected contributing factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity among school children aged between 13 to 16 years, in Navi Mumbai.Material and Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 300 school children in that 74 cases (overweight/obese) and 74 control (non -obese children) aged from 13 to 16 years were selected by using purposive sampling technique. For the present study, two different schools were selected in Navi Mumbai such as NMMC School and Swami Vivekanand School. The conceptual framework of the present study was based on web of causation theory. D. Y. Patil school of Nursing ethical committee approval was taken for this study. Observational tool (weighing machine & measuring tape) was used to measure the weight and height of the school children and interview tool of risk assessment tool was used to analyse the selected contributing factors such as food habits, physical activities, sleeping patterns, medical history & social leisure activities.  The tool was modified based on validity and reliability. The collected data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by SPSS version. Frequency percentage distribution, odds ratio and chi-square test was used in this study. Results: Result revealed that out of 300 school children, 22% were overweight,3% school children were obese, 10% wereunderweight,and 65% were healthy. It was observed that nutritional factors like Bake food (OR=10.8, CI: 95%), Fast Food (OR=6, CI: 95%), Sugary drinks (OR=10.5, CI: 95%), soft drinks (OR=5, CI: 95%) were more likelihood of causing obesity & were significant factors. Physical factors like muscle & bone strengthening exercises (OR=0.092, CI: 95%), and aerobic activity (OR=0.11, CI: 95%) were less likelihood of causing overweight. In leisure factors, Students played outdoor games (OR=0.2, CI: 95%), and performed their hobbies (OR=0.15, CI: 95%) were less likelihood of causing obesity. Conclusion:Since school children obesity is rising at an alarming rate, the selected contributing factors determinants of obesity need to be addressed among school children. Eating fast food, soft drinks, baked food, and untimely meal were associated as risk factors for overweight/ obesity. While very less physical activity-exercise, lack of sleep & social leisure activities was also associated with overweight/ obesity. In order to prevent overweight and obesity, it is necessary to create awareness among schoolchildren about healthy eating practices and desirable lifestyles.

Study of First Trimester Maternal Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain and Their Association with Feto-Maternal Outcomes

Dr.Sravya Yatam; Dr. Sanjay Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5381-5391

Background: Pregnant women's body mass index (BMI) has increased recently, reflecting a general increase in the prevalence of obesity. High BMI before to conception and/or excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) have a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes, which raises the burden of chronic illnesses and jeopardies the health of both the mother and the unborn child.Aim:To study first trimester maternal Body Mass Index and gestational weight gain and their association with maternal and perinatal outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effect of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain on fetomaternal outcome.Material & Methods:This was a prospective observational clinical study conducted in patients presenting to OPD of OBGY DEPARTMENT over a period of 18 months.The study was conducted among primigravida women visiting obstetrics OPD of our hospital during their first trimester pregnancy was comprise of my study population. Results:In present study, out of total 196 cases, first trimester BMI of 72 (36.7%) were found normal (<18.5-24.9 kg/m2) followed by 66 (33.7%) were found overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2). 35 (17.9%) were found in underweight (<18.5 kg/m2) whereas 23 (11.7%) were found Obese (>=30.0 kg/m2).out of total 46 cases in LWG, 42 (91.3%) cases were found Normal BW, 4 (8.7%) were found Low BW, none was found Macrosomia and 3 (6.5%) were required NICU admission. Out of total 92 cases in NWG, 88 (95.7%) were found Normal BW, 3 (3.3%) were found Low BW, 1 (1.1%) were found Macrosomia and 9 (9.8%) were required NICU admission. Out of total 58 cases in HWG, 53 (91.4%) cases were found Normal BW, 1 (1.7%) were found Low BW, 4 (6.9%) were found Macrosomia and 7 (12.1%) were required NICU admission.Conclusion: In clinical practice, this study recommend that women of childbearing age can be advised on the importance of maintaining an optimal BMI when planning to become pregnant.

Effect of Body Mass Index on Lipid Profile of Type 2 Diabetic Patients at an Urban Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

K. Priyadarshini, Dr. Manila Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 701-716

Introduction:Diabetes mellitus is an important global public health problem. In addition to being a chronic disease, obesity is a key risk factor for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that leads to disability. This study aimed at investigating the effect of Body Mass Index on serum lipid profile in type II diabetic patients.
Material and Methods
This is a prospective study and observational study will be done in the Department of Physiology in collaboration     with the Department of Medicine, Index Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Indore.Inclusion Criteria:Only Diagnosed cases of male and female Type II Diabetes Mellitus cases aged 30-60 suffering from more than 2yrs. The diagnosis of diabetes is made on the basis of (Revised American Diabetic Association criteria). Fasting glucose >126mg/dl and 2hr postprandial plasma glucose >200mg/dl.
Results: The mean (± SD) of various motor nerve variables like latency, amplitude and nerve conduction velocity between control and cases. When compared these variables between controls and cases was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Comparison of various motor nerve variables like latency, amplitude and nerve conduction velocity between control and cases are graphically shown.
Conclusion: A significant negative correlation between BMI and HDL-C was observed, while the correlation between BMI and LDL-C was observed to be insignificant. HDL-C was found significantly higher in patients with normal BMI. These results are important to indicate that there is modest impact of BMI on lipid profile. Therefore, assessment and management for altered blood lipids should not be based on a patient’s body weight or BMI.

Study of prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among school children aged 6-14 years studying in affluent private schools in Hyderabad and associated social factors leading to obesity and overweight

Dr. Abhishek Mahankali V; Dr. Karanam Pranoty; Dr. Pallati Vijay Ananth

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1737-1749

Background: The term "obesity" refers to an abnormal expansion of the adipose tissue that can be caused by an increase in the number of fat cells (hyperplastic obesity), an increase in the size of the fat cells themselves (hypertrophic obesity), or a combination of both of these factors. The body mass index (BMI) is frequently used as a measurement of obesity.

A Study Of Morbidity Profile And Occupational Injuries Among Firefighters In A Metropolitan City

Aftab Ahmed Siddiqui; Shreekanth K Jakkula; Sujay Jaju; Alhad Mulkalwar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 2081-2089

Background: Firefighters work to reduce threats and minimize the potential harm from fire hazards. The nature of firefighters’ work is demanding, often unpredictable and in stressful environments where they are routinely exposed to both mental and physical occupational hazards. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess prevalence of occupational injuries and the morbidity profile of firefighters in a single metropolitan city.
Methods: In this study, 253 firefighters from the area under Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) were included using stratified random sampling method. All consenting firefighters were interviewed in office located in fire brigade using a pre-validated interview schedule and the data was analyzed using SPSS version 22.
Results: From the study, it was found out that abrasion was the most common occupational injury among firefighters. Pre-hypertension and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the overweight category were prevalent findings among firefighters. Association between cadre and years of service with occupational injuries was found out to be statistically significant. Also, the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) with occupational injuries was found out to be statistically significant. There was no clear association between ages of firefighters and BMI with occupational injuries.
Conclusion: There is a need to conduct more studies in Indian setup on occupational hazards and injuries amongst firefighters. Awareness about normal BMI, management of DM and HTN, healthy food practices, aerobic exercises, prevention and treatment of addictions, a drive for Hepatitis B vaccination, appropriate management of injuries and health insurance will serve a bigger role in diminishing morbidity in this occupation.


Dr. Tushar Ravindra Godbole,Dr. Rahul Gautam Koppikar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 588-595

Background:Obese children also suffer from emotional, mental, and social trauma. Obese
children are seen to have depression and very low self-esteem. Also, such children are teased
by society and have high peer pressure. Additionally, obesity and overweight pose a high
burden on the health care system.
Aims:The present trial was carried out to document the efficacy of counseling about physical
activity, nutrition, and weight on obese children of low socioeconomic status.
Methods: The study was carried out on 48 children and was based on the questionnaire on
the lifestyle modification and counseling sessions with questions based on healthy habits and
physical exercise. Associated comorbidities such as asthma or diabetes were also asked along
with their treating paediatrician. The collected data were subjected to statistical evaluation
and the results were formulated.
Results: Counselling for nutrition, physical activity, and weight were provided to study
participants and the results showed that 80% (n=12) obese, 66.6% (n=6) overweight, and
58.3% (n=14) healthy subjects received counselling for nutrition. In male participants
61.53% (n=16), 69.23% (n=18), and 65.38% (n=17) respectively were counselled for
nutrition, physical activity, and weight. Similarly, in females 68.18% (n=15), 63.63% (n=14),
and 63.63% (n=14) respectively were counselled for nutrition, physical activity, and weight.
Regarding diabetics in the study (n=2), all the subjects were counselled for weight, nutrition,
as well as physical activity. In subjects with asthma, the counselling for nutrition, physical
activity, and weight was given to 63.6% (n=7), 54.5% (n=6), and 54.5% (n=6) respectively.
Conclusion:The present study concludes that overweight and obese children do not get more
counseling sessions compared to their healthy peers. There is a need for more interactions at
home and more reinforcement of counseling sessions in the school curriculum with special
emphasis on overweight and obese children regarding their nutrition, physical activity, and

The effect of body mass index (BMI) on the mortality among patients with stroke

Salah Elsayed, Muath Othman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 181-186

Stroke is considered one of the leading causesof morbidity and mortality in many
countries. Many studies investigated the outcomes after the occurrence of stroke.
Some of those research studies indicated that obesity and the increasein the
bodymass index areestablished risk factors for mortality among stroke patients.
However, the results of these studies were inconsistent.The main aim of this review
article was to examine the association between bodymass index and mortality
among stroke patients. The majority of the studies had shown a possible effect of
overweight on mortality among stroke patients; the evidence regarding the
association's presence is limited.On the other hand, the majority of the studies had
shown a protective effect of obesity (mild obesity, bodymass index between 30-35)
onreducingthe risk of mortality among stroke patients. This means underweight
stroke patients have more risk of mortality. Thus, the argument regarding the effect
of high bodymass index on mortality has been explained by the obesity paradox.
However, most of those studies were observational, and results could be attributed
to the methodological flaw. There is a need to well-designed prospective studies that
to overcome the limitation of the previous studies.

The Association of Body Mass Index with Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Eriska Riyanti; Risti Saptarini Primarti; Andi Virga Zulhiah Pratiwi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1631-1640

Background: In the last few decades, industrialization, urbanization, economic development and market globalization have had a significant impact on changes in lifestyle and diet. Thus, food choices and nutritional intake greatly affect oral health and body weight. This has a significant impact on health and nutrition, particularly through higher carbohydrate intake and lower physical activity, particularly among younger members of the population. High sugar intake, such as sugar-containing snacks and soft drinks, was reported it is more common in children/adolescents who are overweight and obesity than those of normal weight. Frequent sugar intake is also a risk factor for dental caries. Given this, there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between dental caries and dietary intake has been associated with the development of obesity at a young age. Thus, it is possible to conclude that there is a biological relationship between dental caries and body weight. Objective: To see the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Methods: Scientific evidence and clinical cases were drawn from the literature to support this review and information on the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Result/Discussion: There is some scientific evidence showing a specific relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Conclusion:Body mass index has a significantrelationshipwiththeincidenceof dental caries in children. However, thisconditiondoes not account for which category the incidence of dental cariesis greatest. This is associated with multifactorial interactions that mutually influence the occurrence of dental caries in children.


Haris M. M; Soundarya M; Ravikumar G; Kamalakshi G Bhat; Basavaprabhu Achappa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1664-1674

Background: Adolescent health is important as theyare under a great amount of stress due to academic and peer pressures. This study aims to determine prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in school adolescents and to identify diet as a risk factor in these children.Methodology - Cross sectional study was conducted among school adolescents(11- 14years). Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. 24 hour recall method was used to record the dietary intake and the total sodium, potassium, fat, fructose, caffeine, uric acid and fiber in the diet was estimated. Results - 500 adolescents were studied. Among the study population 6.4% were pre-hypertensive and 7.4% hypertensive with increased prevalence in girls. 9.8% were obese and 14.2% overweight. 14.3% obese and 11.3% overweight children had pre-hypertension. 30.6% obese and 9.9% overweight children had hypertension. Dietary analysis showed that normotensive children consumed lesser fructose (258mg), fat (12.8gm), sodium (89mg), and uric acid with more potassium (89mg), and fiber (10.2gm) per day as compared to the hypertensive children. Conclusions: There is high prevalence of asymptomatic hypertension among obese and over-weight school adolescents. Dietary differences were found between the hypertensive and normotensive adolescents with increased fat consumption showing statistical correlation with hypertension

Short-Term Sprint Interval Training Improves Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Sedentary Overweight Women

Norhazira Abdul Rahim; Nor Shazmiera Asyraf Ishak; Nor Aijratul Asikin Mohamad Shalan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4048-4057

Sprint Interval Training (SIT) has become one of the time-efficient training protocol which capable to improve fitness and health-related measures in healthy as well in overweight individual. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short term SIT on body mass index (BMI), total body fat percentage, resting heart rate and blood pressure in overweight sedentary women. Eleven women (aged 20.64 ±0.81 years; body mass index, 30.17 (±3.97) kg/m2) participated in this study. After baseline measurement of BMI, total body fat percentage, resting heart rate and blood pressure, participants completed a 2-week SIT intervention, comprising 6 session of 4 to 6 repeats of 30-second Wingate anaerobic sprints protocol on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer, with 4-minute recovery time between each repetition. The BMI, total body fat percentage, resting heart rate and blood pressure assessment were repeated as post-intervention. Significant decrease in systolic pressure (108 ± 9.1 vs 112.36 ± 12.5 mm Hg, P .04) and diastolic pressure (74.45 ± 6.4 vs 79.73 ± 10.5 mm Hg, P .03) were observed after the 2-week SIT intervention. No significant changes were found in BMI, total body fat percentage and resting heart rate. Thus, the 2-week of SIT improves both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in sedentary overweight women, highlighting the potential for this short-term intervention as an alternative exercise programme for the improvement the cardio metabolic health in overweight individual.

Knowledge, Awareness And Risk Factors Of Childhood Obesity Among Adolescent Population In Chennai - A Survey Based Analysis

Jagadheeswari Ramamoorthy; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Geo Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3156-3174

IntroductionChildhood obesity is termed as excess body fat accumulation which negatively affects a child's health or well-being. As methods to work out body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is usually supported by BMI. A Body mass Index of 30 or more is considered as obesity. Children are considered to be obese if they are above the normal weight for their height in relation to their age. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle income countries. The rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects it's being recognized as a significant public health concern. AimThe aim of this study is to assess the Knowledge, awareness and risk factors of childhood obesity among the adolescent population.
Materials and MethodThis is a survey based study and was conducted on an online forum, Survey Planet with a sample of 100 participants .Adolescents of age group between 10-21 participated in the study. A questionnaire with 10 questions was circulated among the Chennai population. The responses were collected. The data was summarised as the number and percentage and analysed using SPSS.Chi square test was done and a P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
ResultsIn this survey, we observed that 29% of them consider their current weight to be harmful for their health. 40% of them check their weight regularly. Half of the population were aware that chronic stress can lead to weight gain. Only 41% of the participants have the habit of exercising regularly. 67% of the participants were aware of the complications of obesity. Among all the respondents 28% of them had a family history of obesity.
ConclusionWithin the limits of this survey, we can conclude that awareness on childhood obesity is present among the adolescent population. Females were more aware of Childhood obesity than males. However regular exercise and healthy diet is essential to maintain a healthy weight and prevent obesity.