Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Assessment


Dr.Vijeth SB, Dr. TejasviHT, Dr. Kotresh M, Dr. Bhoovanachandaran M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1597-1607

assess perceived risk by EPPM(Extended Parallel Processing Model) and the risk of COVID-19 infectionamong general population.
Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted among 185 general population ofChitradurga district. Questionnaire had three parts, 1. Socio-demographic data along with habits and co-morbidities. 2. Risk perception questions (29) with efficacy, defensive response and perceived threats. 3. A predesigned semi-structured questionnaire (24 questions) regarding their attitudes and practices towards COVID 19. Based on which their risk was assessed depending on score.. Chi-square, ANOVA, t-test and binary logistic regression was applied to find significant association.
Results: Among 185 study participants, majority were elders (>60 years) 25.5%, 100 (54.05%) were males, 108 (58.37%) belonged to nuclear family. Perceived risk scores were almost same in all the categories. A total of 106 (57.3%) participants were engaging in danger control processes and 79(42.7%) in fear control processes. Among population, 32.08%, and 44.30% people were in high and medium risk of infection respectively. Everybody is in risk. 85.27% frequently washed hands with soap or sanitizer, 76.8% used mask regularly when they go out, 74.26% do not wash their dress once they come from outside, 70.37% do not wash their shoes, 54.64% use mass transport. Among socio-demographic variables education, type of family and travel history were significantly associated with risk of infection.
Conclusion: Perceived risk was equal in almost all classes. The attitude and practice towards COVID 19 during pandemic was not so impressive.


Abdullah Ahmad Alzahrani, Abid Ahmad Masi AlMalki, Marwan Lafy Aljabri, Mamdouh Lafi Aljabri, Yehya Ahmed Almalki, Hassan Owysh Alsolami, Mohammad Lafy Aljabri, Suliman khairat Al Ansari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3979-3991

     Overcoming the scourge of malaria infection is possible when healthcare workers have good levels of understanding and attitudes towards the disease, which will influence their treatment practices. Saudi Arabia and Yemen are the only two countries in the Arabian Peninsula that are yet to achieve malaria elimination. This study assessed Knowledge of Malaria fever causes and symptoms among health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah City at Saudi Arabia. Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria.
 Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the knowledge about Malaria fever causes, signs and symptoms among health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah City at Saudi Arabia.
Methods: Across sectional descriptive study conducted among including health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city, during the October to December, 2020, the Sample size of medical practitioners. Our total participants were (350).
Results: shows the
Total knowledge of the malaria fever results show the majority of participant had weak information were(62.6%) while average of the Knowledge about participants  signs of the malaria fever were(33.4%) the data ranged from(1-24) by mean ±SD(11.094±4.503) and a statistical significant relation While Chi-square X2 180.109  and P=value 0.001and  that is a significant positive correlation between Knowledge about causes and signs were r= 0.70) and p-value =0.001
 Conclusion: Malaria remains a public health problem in most governorates of KSA region. Health professionals have suboptimal knowledge and practice levels regarding causes, signs, symptoms, standard precautions of infection control, while most of them have positive attitude. The identification and monitoring of malaria transmission hotspots and predictors would enable control efforts to be intensified and focused on specific areas and therefore expedite the elimination of residual malaria from the whole region
 Therefore, it is recommended to enforce their training

Resourceful Microsoft Excel-Based Course Learning Outcomes Assessment Link with Question Banks

Noaman M. Noaman; Tajeldin O. Mohieldin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5250-5265

This paper presents a resourceful Microsoft Excel-based assessment system that applies question banks for all assignments to assess student learning outcomes according to the weekly schedule of the course. The assessment system is feedbacks the assessment results to the instructor and students for essential improvements for both teaching and learning. A detailed method is described to conduct such assessments based on the weekly distribution of the course material related to its syllabus. Each week course instructor selects assignment from the available bank of questions and aligns each question and its grade percentage to each course learning outcomes to measure student learning outcomes. The method uses the Excel Program to randomly select assignment questions (Test, Exam, Project, Homework) related to the course material taught during the specified week or weeks from question banks. The question banks can be modified regularly by the instructor by adding new questions and aligning them to the related course learning outcomes for each week. The Excel software automatically combines the assessment results from all questions for each assignment to reveal the level of student achievement of course learning outcomes. This combination of formative and summative assessment allows the instructor to continuously revisits and stress on those topics in which students perform unsatisfactorily to assure that student learning outcomes are achieved by the conclusion of the course. The results can then be utilized to close the learning and assessment loop, by incorporating the necessary modifications to the course or courses in the curriculum and start a continuous improvement cycle. The results of the current assessment system are applied to selected electrical engineering courses is rather encouraging. Specially, mechatronics bachelor level courses were assessed using the current method and the outcomes of the assessment process are presented in this paper.


Odukoya, J. A .; Omonijo, D. O .; Oraetue, H. N .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3779-3789

Aim: This study is a review of three of the most notable theories of emotional intelligence [EI]: The
Bar-On’s model, the Mayer-Salovey’s Model and Goleman’s model. The core research questions are:
Which of the three theories of EI is most focused on the construct of emotion and emotional
intelligence? What are the gaps in the three EI models? Method: The documentary analysis design,
as proposed by Bowen (2009), was adopted in this exercise. Results: Out of the three theories of EI
reviewed, only the Mayer-Salovey model used the cognitive ability test format. The other two used the
self-report format; Furthermore, only the Mayer-Salovey model tends to be more focused on emotion,
though the measurement technique was cognitive mode. The other two models tend to further measure
social and personality domains. Conclusion: In conclusion, the need for more standardized measures
of EI with a focus on emotion was reiterated. There is also need for an adoption of battery of
assessment tools [self-report, gaming technique, covert observation with anecdotal records] to
measure EI. Finally, there is need to place more emphasis on measuring the degree and scope of
emotional hijacks in people, as a more valid indicator of emotional intelligence. Ability to control
emotional hijacks is far more important than recognition and control of emotions in self and in people
around us, though these are also needful.

Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life among Patients Smoking attitudes attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia (2019)

Saud Abdulhai Gari, Muhammed Musa Yahya Sufyani, Hisham Ali Abdo Ali, Amna Mahmoud Ibrahim Altakroni, Ahmed Abdul Rhman Ahmed ALQarni, Mazin Ibrahim Rasheedy, Ahmed Suwailem Saleem Almehmadi, Fatma Saleh Alharbi, Waleed Mohammed Omar Almahaily, Abdulrahman Saad Alsaedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 274-287

Smoking is now well established as a recognized cause of cancer, lung disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke; it is considered the single most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. Additionally, epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between smoking and psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found high rates of smoking among selected populations of persons with mental illness, whereas general population surveys have demonstrated a significant association between current smoking and psychiatric symptoms.
     The World Health Organization has reported that more than 4 million annual deaths are attributed to tobacco consumption; this is projected to be10 million annually in 2030. Conversely, smoking cessation reduces health risks and improves quality of life. In particular, the cumulative risk of dying of cancer, cardiovascular and lung diseases can be drastically reduced if smokers quit, even at an advanced age.Objective: To assessment the health-related quality of life (HRQL) among Patients Smoking attitudes attending smoking clinics Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah. Aim of the study Aim of the study: The study aimed at assessing the health related quality of life among Patients smoking attitudes attending smoking clinics Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive stud conducted from January, 2019 to December, 2019 in four Primary Healthcare Centers (PHC)in Makkah, the Sample size of Patients Smoking Attitudes attending PHC. Our total participants were (80). Results: the specific medical diseases significantly associated with smoking were Musculoskeletal disorders and  Central nervous system diseases  were (P < 0.001 and=0.033 ) and X2 25.481and 3.554 with the Negative in age (25-35) of the patients was (66.67% and 11.11% ) while in Positive age patients was (33.33% and 83.33%) while all anther medical diseases no significantly associated with smoking .Conclusion . the health related quality of life among Patients smoking attitudes  attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah smokers with smoking history show significant impairment in the physical and mental domains of HRQL in comparison to never-smokers. Postgraduate studies, workshops and training are indeed necessary to help PHCPs' to understand the significance of the role they play in implementing SCC for patients, individuals, family and the community effectively.


Nawar Hamad Mohammad Alfahmi, Khaled Fawzan gazi Alholaife, Abdulmohsen masraj Alfahmi, Faisal Mohammed Al-Nofaie, Hassan Fuad Labban, Fayez Abdul Rahman Fayez Al-Shehri,Abduljalil Ahmed Nojoom, Majed Faraj Alharthi, Majed Mohammedeid Almihmadi, Youssef Dakhilallah Nafea Aljehani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 170-181

Primary health care, the basis of universal health coverage, needs to be assessed on its performance through Saudi health care quality system and future opportunities to serve the Saudi Arabian population increase the chance of desired health outcomes. Saudi Arabia has invested heavily in its health care system by establishing health care infrastructures to improve health of the nation. However, it remains to be seen whether it is efficient and effective in providing health care services needed. In spite of substantial improvements in the Saudi Arabian health services sector in the past few decades, the country is facing a number of challenges in its primary health care system. These challenges include increased demand because of rapid population growth, high costs of health care services, inequitable access, concerns about the quality and safety of care, a growing burden of chronic diseases, a less than effective electronic health system, poor cooperation and coordination between other sectors of care, and a highly centralized structure.
Aim of the study: This study aims to determine the impact of quality on the Saudi Heath care system in primary health care centers in Makkah on satisfaction of Saudi people.
 Method:A cross-sectional studydesign. The current study was conducted male and female in primary health care centers in Makkah.the study randomly sampled. The total sample size will be (300) participated. female and male.
Results:Regarding Patient satisfaction about study results showed that the majority of participants were high satisfaction proportions (65.7%) while average satisfaction were (31%) While The Range (50 – 113) Mean +SD (89.913±11.636). Regarding Patients satisfaction about Patients satisfaction about social and behavioral characteristics results show that the majority of participants were high satisfaction proportions (64.3%) while average satisfaction were (33.3%) While the Range (28 –56)Mean+SD(46.796±5.9636)
Conclusion:The Saudi Arabian health care system needs comprehensive reform with a focus on primary health care.There is substantial variation in the quality of Saudi primary care services. In order to improve quality, there is a need to improve the management and organization of primary care services. Professional development 
strategies are also needed to improve the knowledge and skills of staff.


Sawsan ghaith alsharif, Mohmmad Ateeg Alsubhi, Naeem Eid Alsubhi, Majed Masud Hassan Al-Zahrani, Ghassan Ghazi Marghalani Mohammed Medreq FI Allh R. Almehmadi, Amin Khalaf Ghazi Almaamery, Basim Salman M Almehmadi, Mohammad Motlaq Alsolami, Meshal Salman M Almhemadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 216-227

Little is known about the implementation of the patient bill of rights (PBR) in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, the basic law of governance states that “the State shall look after public health and provide health care for every citizen.” Accordingly, in 2001, the Ministry of Health (MOH) established the General Directorate of Patients' Relation to look after patients' rights and in 2006 was able to publish the first edition of patients' bill of rights (PBR) in Saudi Arabia, which was endorsed in 2010 by the National Society for Human Rights in Saudi Arabia. On November , 2011, the International Conference on Patients' Rights was organized in Saudi Arabia. On December , 2011, a new edition of PBR was published. This was presented at the National Conference on Patients' Rights in Saudi Arabia organized by the MOH on April , 2012.The social system in Saudi Arabia is very supportive for patients and their families and in most hospitals patients have access to free health care services. Professionals, including future physicians are expected to respect patients’ rights, but if they are not familiar with the contents of the bills of rights.
 Aim of the study:To assess the knowledge of the Importance of Patients’ Rights in from the Perspective of senior medical students in Umm Al-Qura University in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city at Saudi Arabia.
 Methods: a cross-sectional study design descriptive study conducted was conducted at College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University in Makkah, the study was conducted at sixth and fifth academic level (male and female sections)Our total participants were (400).
Results:shows that the majority of participant approximately (40.0%) were aged <35  years, while data Range (23-59) Mean ±SD (41.112±6.258), gender that male students represent (62.0%) of the participants also that of the(54.75%) participants have average knowledge of the patients’ rights knowledge , (42.5%) have high knowledge of the patients’ rights knowledge, and the data ranged from(8to30)by mean+ SD (21.661+3.879),the X2(177.365) and a statistically significant level, p=0.001
Conclusion: Incorporating patient priorities and preferences into their healthcare can improve desirable proximal outcomes related to communication such as the patient feeling heard, understood, respected and engaged in their care. Knowledge of the senior medical students regarding patients` rights is generally acceptable.


Abdulrahman Saleh Alaql, khalid Nassir Ahmed Balbaid, Ahmad Sami Alnajjar, Ahmed Muslem Almehmadi, Ahmed Awadh Salem Alghamdi, FaizHamed Althobaiti Mazen Muslim Muhammad AlMatrafi, Ammar Abdulhaq Ahmed Alshaikh, HamdanKallabAabdan Alqurashi, Mohammed JaberJobaier Al Omairi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 256-267

Adequate nutrition is essential for maintaining health and well-being. Apart from nutrition intake through diet, supplement use is prevalent worldwide, supplements are commonly used to replenish the body with essential nutrients that are important in regulating the body’s metabolic processes, The use of supplements, which may be defined as multi-vitamins, single vitamins, single minerals, herbal supplements, oil supplements and any other dietary supplementation, the economic boom in Saudi Arabia indirectly, prompted the use of dietary supplements in the last two decades. Must to investigate the prevalence of dietary supplement use and its association with socio demographic. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a fast growing economic country that has affected its general population in various ways including a transition in daily lifestyle patterns and dietary intake habits.
Aim of thestudy: to Assessment of the prevalence of Using Dietary Supplements Among Physically Active Adults in Makkah ALMukarramah 2019.
 Method:Cross-sectional study design. The current study was conducted at   Sports and Physiotherapy Center and fitness time centers at Holy Capital of Makkah, during the October to December, 2019,Our total participants were (400).
 Results: that a significant difference between age and using supplements in the study while Chi-square 24.413& p-value= 0.001. Most age of participants use supplements from 23-35years were constitute (30.0 %), the gender that no significant difference between using supplements and gender in the study while Chi-square 1.437& p-value 0.911 less than 0.05 , regarding education show that significant difference between education status and using supplements in the study while Chi-square 14.827& p-value more than P=0.022.
.Conclusion: Supplements were commonly used among female students, The prevalence of dietary supplement use was high and was significantly associated with socio demographic and lifestyle factors.A substantial proportion of populations take supplements. Further investigation into the social, psychological and economic determinants that motivate the use of supplements is required, to ensure appropriate use of supplements among adults and the most commonly used supplements.