Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Myopia


Dr. Shailly Raj, Dr. Naveen Kumar, Dr. Granth Kumar, Dr. Vimal Nag, Dr. Rashmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1921-1927

Introduction: Myopia is a major health issue in our society. There is a large number of proportion remain undiagnosed. High myopia can be associated with multiple consequences as myopic retinopathy, myopic macular degeneration, retinal detachment and amblyopia. The aim of our study to focus on magnitude of childhood myopia, increase awareness for myopia in our society so that we can reduce vision threatening sequelae in children.
Methods: Study was conducted in ophthalmology department and ENT department government medical college Saharanpur, medicine department Uttar Pradesh medical sciences, Saifai and pediatric department GTB medical college New Delhi. Children between 7 to 16 years with ametropia included in the study to find out magnitude of myopia among them.
Result: A total of 1460 children between the age of 7-16 years with complains of eyeache, headache, heaviness of head diminution of vision, and with other asthenopic symptoms included in the study. Among these 320 children were myopic. It shows high magnitude of myopia in children. Out of these myopic children mild grade myopic children were in high proportion (35.9%).
Conclusion: The study showed the pattern of myopia in children in Indian population. Screening in schools and early diagnosis of refractive error affect the learning and performances of children. In our study we showed the pattern of severity of myopia in children. Study also showed the effect of digital screen time of children with myopia.


Dr. Pallavi Sharma, Dr. Amit Sharma, Dr. Sanjay Kai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2362-2366

BACKGROUND-One of the most common cause for headache among patients attending
ophthalmic OPD is uncorrected refractive errors. The purpose of this study is to evaluate
the role of refractive errors in the etiology of headache.
MATERIALS AND METHODS-450 patients with headache attending eye OPD in GMC
Jammu were included in the study. It was a crosssectional study. They were subjected to
visual acuity examination, refraction, slit lamp examination, fundus examination and
retinoscopy wherever required
RESULTS- Out of the total patients 40% were males and 60% were females. 41.1% of the
patients had astigmatism, 31.1% of the patients had hypermetropia. chronic type of
headache was more common (46.7%) followed by subacute 33% and acute in 20.3%. We
found that headache was seen more commonly in frontal area (57.8%) followed by
occipital (32%) and combined (10.2%). The most common type of refractive error in these
patients was astigmatism 41.1% followed by hypermetropia 31.1% followed by presbyopia
16.7% followed by myopia 11.1%. Amount of refractive error between 1.25D -1.5D was
seen in 40% of the patients, followed by 1.5 -2D seen in 24.4%, followed by refractive error
less than 1.25D seen in 20 % of the patients, followed by refractive error more than 2D
seen in 15.6% of the patients. After optical correction there was improvement in headache
of patients.
CONCLUSION- Refractive errors play a major role in the Etiology of headache, which
can be managed by appropriate correction of these refractive errors. So, early Diagnosis
and adequate treatment is important.

Comparison of intraocular pressure variance in moderate and high myopia

Bhagyashree Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2611-2621

Abstract: Purpose: Intraocular pressure changes have been, and still is, a topic of discussion.
Increasing myopia has been constantly associated with increasing intraocular pressure.
Myopia has long been identified as a risk factor for open angle glaucoma because of the
changes in optic disc and pressure. Thus, repeated evaluation of all the factors that are related
to changes in IOP levels is important. This can help to figure out the risk factors for open
angle glaucoma in the form of variables that can be proved to be associated with IOP level
In this study, we will evaluate the intraocular pressure levels between moderate and high
myopia, also taking age and gender in to account
Methods: This is an Observational, hospital-based study conducted on 35 patients presented in
the HAH centenary hospital in the period of 2 months at Delhi. Data confidentiality was
maintained. The detailed demographic details along with ocular findings, systemic health
findings, were collected for analysis. The test used for statistical analysis were Un-paired, 2-
tailed, T-test, Two way ANOVA test. The software MS EXCEL was used.
Results: The hospital-based study conducted at HAH centenary hospital evaluated 35 myopic
patients (70 eyes) in the period of 2 months. Out of 35 patients, 20(57%) were moderate
myopic (-3.00D to <-6.00D) and 15(42%) were highly myopic (-6.00D and more). Range of the
age being 11- 55years. 20(57%) females and 15(42%) males were present in the sample. Only
one patient had IOP level more than 21mmhg and was further examined for glaucoma tests
which came out negative. All the evaluated patients had a C/D ratio less than 0.5
Conclusion: No significant association was found between IOP and myopia along with other
factors such as age and gender. Small sample size and avoiding various others factors such as
ocular biomechanics, corneal thickness, curvature etc. can be the reason for it. Overcoming these
limitations can help confirming a conclusion and give results that would be different and
convincing. The study needs further research time and evaluation.

The Usage of mitomycin-C With Photorefractive Keratectomy In Myopic Patients And Its Effect On Density Of Corneal Endothelium

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4254-4260

Purpose: To evaluate the application of mitomycin-C on the density ofcorneal endothelialiumafter photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in myopia patients.
Methods: We use case control study to evaluate 92 eyes of 46 patients (23 cases and 23 controls) with mean age of 27.6 years for cases group and 27.4 for control group (range: 20- 40). All patients were myopic ranged from -3.00 to -6D underwent photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The first group (cases) wastreated with single usage of mitomycin-c for 30 seconds and second group (control) group was treated without mitomycin-c.The assessment was done by specular microscope before the procedure and after 3 months postoperatively for each eye to evaluate the density in corneal endothelialium (ECD) in both each group.
Results: Forty-six eyes of 23 cases and forty-six eyes of 23control patients with myopia were treated with photorefractive keratectomy. After three months of surgery the mean ECD was decreased significantly.
Conclusion: The use of mitomycin-c for 30 seconds in myopic patientstreated by PRK would affectcorneal endothelial cell density after three months postoperatively.