Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Atherosclerosis


AN ANATOMICAL PERSPECTIVE OF LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

Dr. Swapnali Shamkuwar, Dr. Anitha M R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1737-1743

Aim: To measure various dimensions of ligamentum arteriosum as well as observe postnatal anatomical changes of ligamentum arteriosum and discuss clinical significance of it.
Methods: 35 heart specimens were studied in Department of Anatomy of Akash medical college. Different shapes as well as length and width of ligamentum arteriosum was measured. Ligamentum arteriosum, aortic arch and pulmonary trunk were incised and looked for ridges, dimples, calcification and atherosclerotic patch. Histological examination of ligamentum arteriosum was also studied in 2 specimens.
Results: cylindrical shape was observed in all specimens of ligamentum arteriosum. The average length and width was measured as 12.02mm and 3.73mm respectively. Ligamentum arteriosum was found to be obliterated in 7 specimens whereas calcified in 3 specimens. Dimples and atherosclerotic patch was observed in luminal surface of pulmonary trunk and aorta respectively. Ligamentum arteriosum was presented as muscular artery in microscopic examination.
Conclusion: ligamentum arteriosum is clinically important structure. Details about its characteristics and clinical co relations may be helpful to the clinicians.

STUDY OF CAROTID INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS(CIMT) IN PATIENTS OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM(SCH)

Monika Sharma, Randhir Singh , Harharpreet Kaur , Kawalinder Girgla, Jasdeep Sandhu, Savita Kapila

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 572-577

BACKGROUND:Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as an elevated serum thyroidstimulating
hormone (TSH) level with a normal serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3) & free
thyroxine (FT4) concentration. Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk of
atherosclerosis. SCH can progress to overt hypothyroidism. Carotid intima-media thickness
(CIMT) is a close marker of early atherosclerotic changes and is a widely accepted surrogate
end point for cardiovascular events.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the CIMT in patients with SCH.
MATERIAL &METHODS:
35 individuals with newly diagnosed / untreated SCHwere studied. 35 age and sex matched
adults with normal thyroid profile were taken as controls. Serum TSH, FT3, FT4, and CIMT
were measured in all study subjects.
RESULTS:There was a statistically significant increase in CIMT on both sides.
CONCLUSION:SCH is associated with an increase in CIMT, which is a marker of
atherosclerosis, with a resultant risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Thus, it is
important to detect this condition early so that appropriate steps may be taken to prevent its
deadly complications.

A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF COMMON CAROTID INTIMA MEDIAL THICKNESS AS A INDICATOR OF MACRO-VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

DR DUSHYANT SHANTILAL PATEL, DR NIRAV RASIKLAL PATEL, DR JAGDISHKUMAR VIRABHAI PATEL, DR AVANI BIPINCHANDRA CHAVDA .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1525-1529

Introduction: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) is used as a indicator of atherosclerosis, whichcauses Macro-vascular diseases. with risk factors like age, HTN, Raised BMI, duration of uncontrolled DM, may actually have a correlation with CIMT either directly or indirectly influencing the disease processand causes atherosclerosis(1).
Materials and Methods: cross sectional study of 100 patients with type 2 DM admitted in civil hospital over a period of 1 year, age group between 35 to 75 years selected through simple random sampling. Macro vascular complications like CAD/CVD/PVD are dignosed with the help  of echocardiography, CT scan and with the help  of history and clinical examination. CIMT is measured with B mode ultrasound.
Result : 73 percent patients have macrovascular complications who have raised value of CIMT and 68 percent  patients with macrovascular diseases have raised value of CIMT.
Conclusion: increased value of CIMT in diabetic patients has more chances of macrovascular complication hence early detection of atheroscelerosis and early life style modification can prevent macro vascular complication(2).

Ischemic Heart Disease and Risk of Development of Cognitive Disorders: A literature review

Dr. Prajna Teja D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2096-2116

Aim: A Review of literature on Ischemic Heart Disease and Risk of Development of
Cognitive Disorders
Methods: The literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and
CINAHL. The search string consisted of predictor-related terms (i.e. myocardial
infarction, angina pectoris), outcome-related terms (i.e. dementia, Alzheimer,
cognition), as well as some specific limitations. All publications until 2021 were included
if they fulfilled the following eligibility criteria:
1) MI, AP, or a CHD variable that is a combination of MI and AP (e.g. ischemic heart
disease (IHD) as predictor variable; 2) Cognition, cognitive impairment or dementia as
outcome; 3) Population-based study; 4) Prospective (≥1 year follow-up), cross-sectional
or case-control study design; 5) ≥100 participants; and 6) Aged ≥45 years. Reference
lists of publications and secondary literature were hand-searched for possible missing
articles.
Results: The search yielded 3500 abstracts, of which 15 were included in this study. This
resulted in 5 cross-sectional studies, 3 case-control studies, 6 prospective cohort studies
and 1 study with both cross-sectional and prospective analyses (designated as crosssectional
regarding study quality). Quality assessment of all 15 included studies was
sufficient (overall mean NOS score = 6.7, SD = 1.30, range = 3–10). Separate analyses
for each study design showed similar results for prospective (mean NOS score = 6.92,
SD = 1.14, range = 5–9) and cross-sectional studies (mean NOS score = 7.23, SD = 0.98,
range = 6–8), but the quality of case-control studies was somewhat lower (mean NOS
score = 5.9, SD = 1.93, range = 3–7), mainly due to the effects of one particular study
with a score of 3.
Conclusion: We concluded that the CHD was associated with an increased risk of
cognitive impairment or dementia in prospective cohort studies. More mechanistic
studies are needed that focus on the underlying biological pathways (e.g. left ventricular
dysfunction, cerebral small vessel disease, hypoperfusion) and shared risks that link
CHD with the occurrence of cognitive impairment or dementia.

LIPID PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

Randhir Singh, HarharpreetKaur,Jasdeep Singh Sandhu, Savita Kapila

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 781-788

BACKGROUND:Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as an elevated serum thyroidstimulating
hormone (TSH) level with a normal serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3) & free
thyroxine(FT4) concentration. Hypothyroidism is associated with dyslipidemia and increased
risk of atherosclerosis. SCH can progress to overt hypothyroidism. Lipid profile changes in
SCH, however, are controversial.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the lipid profile in patients with SCH.
MATERIAL & METHODS:The present study was a case-control study involving 35 individuals
with newly diagnosed / untreated SCH were studied. 35 age and sex matched adults with
normal thyroid profile were taken as controls. Serum TSH, FT3, FT4, Total cholesterol,
Triglyceride, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), High density lipoprotein
cholesterol (HDL-C)and Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol(VLDL-C) levels were
measured in all study subjects.
RESULTS: The average total cholesterol and LDL-C in the patients with SCH in our research
were statistically significantly higher than the control group. The mean serum triglyceride,
HDL-C and VLDL-C levels were not statistically different in patients as compared to controls.
CONCLUSION: SCH is associated with dyslipidemia which is a risk factor for atherosclerosis,
with a resultant risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Thus, it is important to detect this
condition early so that appropriate steps may be taken to prevent its deadly complications

A Review of literature on Ischemic Heart Disease and Risk of Development of Cognitive Disorders

PrajnaTeja D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1188-1200

Aim: A Review of literature on Ischemic Heart Disease and Risk of Development of
Cognitive Disorders
Methods: The literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and
CINAHL. The search string consisted of predictor-related terms (e.g. myocardial
infarction, angina pectoris), outcome-related terms (e.g. dementia, Alzheimer, cognition),
as well as some specific limitations. All publications until 2021 were included if they
fulfilled the following eligibility criteria: 1) MI, AP, or a CHD variable that is a
combination of MI and AP (e.g. ischemic heart disease (IHD)) as predictor variable; 2)
cognition, cognitive impairment or dementia as outcome; 3) population-based study; 4)
prospective (≥1 year follow-up), cross-sectional or case-control study design; 5) ≥100
participants; and 6) aged ≥45 years. Reference lists of publications and secondary
literature were hand-searched for possible missing articles.
Results: The search yielded 3500 abstracts, of which (number***) were included in this
study. This resulted in 5 cross-sectional studies, 3 case-control studies, 6 prospective cohort
studies and 1 study with both cross-sectional and prospective analyses (designated as crosssectional
regarding study quality). Quality assessment of all 15 included studies was
sufficient (overall mean NOS score = 6.7, SD = 1.30, range = 3–10). Separate analyses for
each study design showed similar results for prospective (mean NOS score = 6.92, SD =
1.14, range = 5–9) and cross-sectional studies (mean NOS score = 7.23, SD = 0.98, range =
6–8), but the quality of case-control studies was somewhat lower (mean NOS score = 5.9,
SD = 1.93, range = 3–7), mainly due to the effects of one particular study with a score of 3.
Conclusion: We concluded that the CHD was associated with an increased risk of
cognitive impairment or dementia in prospective cohort studies. More mechanistic studies
are needed that focus on the underlying biological pathways (e.g. left ventricular
dysfunction, cerebral small vessel disease, hypoperfusio