Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Biomarkers


Dr. Nahid Khanam, Dr. G Prasanna, Dr. Jyochnamayi Panda, Dr. Neha Khanam .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 4068-4079

Pregnancy induced hypertension is one of the leading medical disorder of pregnancy and contributes significantly to poor maternal and perinatal outcome. The early detection and effective management play a beneficial role in the outcome of pregnancy, both for the mother and the baby. Incidence of Pre-eclampsia is 3-6% of all pregnancies and 1.5 to 2 times higher risk in primigravida.
Materials and Methods: This study was hospital based observational prospective study from September 2020 to August 2022. Total 150 pregnant women included in the study and fetomaternal outcome were noted and statistical analysis done using SPSS-20.
Results: Majority of patients were in age group 21-25 years in both the groups i.e. 44% in study group and 46.7 % in control group. In study group around 58.7% were preterm deliveries. In our study in group A with deranged biomarkers  and group B with normal biomarkers, developed abruption placenta  in 26.7 v/s 2.7%, eclampsia in 18.7% v/s 1.3%, HELLP syndrome in 8% v/s 0%, ARF in  4% v/s0% respectively. In our study perinatal complications developed in group A and group B were IUGR (20% v/s 8%), fetal distress(37.3% v/s 20%),  NICU admission(49.3% v/s 29.3%), MSL (12% v/s 20%)  and IUD (9.3% v/s 1.3%) respectively.
Conclusion:  Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with deranged hepatic biomarkers are correlated with more adverse maternal and perinatal complications compared to normal hepatic biomarkers. Such cases require more frequent antenatal check-ups with serial ultrasonography.

To evaluate the level of CRP in the serum as a potential biomarker of the disease activity in pulmonary TB

Dr. Anil Kumar Arya, Dr. Abhishek Srivastava, Dr. Aarti Mishra, Dr Pankaj Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 919-922

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of CRP in the serum as a potential biomarker of the disease activity in pulmonary TB.
Materials & Methods: In this particular research, there were a total of fifty cases of pulmonary TB, split evenly between males and females. After receiving their signed agreement, everyone was enrolled in the study. Cases that had extrapulmonary TB or secondary tuberculosis were not included in the study because they did not meet the exclusion criteria. Information such as age, gender, and other demographics was recorded. 2 ml blood was withdrawn from the patient and was sent was quantitative analysis to assess the CRP level.
Results: There were 52% newly detected cases of pulmonary TB, 22% undergoing anti-tubercular treatment, 14% cured cases, 8% treatment defaulters and 4% treatment resistant. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). The mean CRP level (mg/dl) in the newly detected TB patients was found to be 53.55±6.11. Those undergoing anti-tubercular treatment had a mean CRP value of 43.69±4.85. CRP in patients who had completed their treatment was 4.63±1.33. Defaulters had a mean CRP of 66.74±5.28 and the treatment resistant had a mean CRP of 86.11±4.98. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: The authors discovered that CRP levels were elevated in TB, but that these levels dropped and returned to normal by the time therapy was complete

A Hospital based Prospective Assessment of the Prognostic Potential of FAR of Patients with Renal Cancer

Dr. Rana Pratap Singh, Dr. Arshad Jamal, Dr.Nikhil Ranjan .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1535-1541

Aim: We investigated whether FAR had a potential value in evaluating the prognosis of patients with non-metastatic kidney cancer or not.
Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Urology, Rajendra Institute of medical sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand, India and 50 patients with renal cancer who underwent radical nephrectomy were included in the study.
Results: Of the 50 patients included in the study, 36 (72%) were male and 14 (28%) were female. Of the 50 individuals in our control group, 44 (88%) were male and 6 (12%) were female. The mean age in the patient group was 58.86 (min 34-max 82) and the mean age in the control group was 59.05 (min 32-max 81). There were 43 (86%) patients with grade 1–2 and 7 (14%) patients with grade 3–4 according to Furhman Grade (FG). The distribution by tumor size was similar to the distribution set by FG. According to TNM staging, the number of patients with T1-2 was 43 (86%) and the number of patients with T3-4 was 7 (14%). Median score (min–max) NLR, PLR, HRR, LMR, SLL and FAR in all patient groups were 6.10 (1.17–25.37), 165.0650 (41.30–708.33), 0.9450 (0.44–1.38), 2.4100(0.42–32.87), 1,271,030(102,030–7,203,240) and 0.08000(0.007/0.286) respectively. In the control group, the Median score (min–max) of NLR, PLR, HRR, LMR, SLL and FAR were 1.4500 (0.34–4.69), 93.6250 (67.00–270.23), 1.0250 (0.57–1.35), 2.3000 (1.00–8.09), 505,975.00 (234,546– 1,428,000) and 0.05450 (0.010– 0.117) respectively.
Conclusion: Recently, the prognostic significance of FAR in various cancers has been investigated. In non-metastatic RCC patients, there is a need for indices which have prognostic importance to determine a cut-off during follow-up; to better categorize patients according to grade and tumor size; to reach early treatment and not to impair patients’ quality of life.

In Silico Identification Of Human Mir-26a-1 From Hypertension Genome Sequence

Ridha Azimudin; Lavanya Prathap; Auxzilia Preethi K; Sushmaa Chandralekha Selvakumar; Dr. Durairaj Sekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 685-693

Hypertension is a non-communicable condition that affects about half of the world's adult population. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), also known as non-coding RNAs, govern biological processes such as Proliferation and apoptosis are two processes that can be employed as treatment targets in the treating of diseases like hypertension. The current study aims in identifying miRNAs in hypertension from genome sequences found in public genomic databases.
In this study, we have used the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) web portal to identify miR-26a for hypertension using a bioinformatics approach and RNA fold was used to create the secondary structure.

Dysregulated Noncoding Micrornas As Potential Biomarkers In Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders And Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas - An Updated Review

Vinod Nair Sreekumar, M Madhulaxmi, Ravindran Ankathil, Paramasivam Arumugham .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3474-3510

Despite technological advancements, the mortality rates of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are continuously rising mainly due to late diagnosis.  OSCC is preventable if detected early.  The majority of oral cancercases are preceded by a transition fromclinically evident oral potentially malignant disorders ( OPMDs)  However,  prediction ofthe possible malignant transformation risk in OPMDs is difficultsince there are no clinicallyreliable non-invasive biomarkers yet.  The genesis, progression, and tumour microenvironment of oral cancer appear to be significantly influenced by microRNAs, a type of small noncoding RNAs involved in gene regulation. These characteristics, along with the fact that microRNAs are stable over a range of tissues and liquid biopsies and exhibit differential expression in cancer cells, put microRNAs at the top of the list of prospective biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic significance. For the last few years, aberrant expression of several miRNAshad been reported as a common occurrence in OPMDs and OSCC.  Those studies on tumour specimens, serum/plasma or saliva from OSCC  patients had identified specific miRNA signatures that could be clinically useful in the diagnosis, prognosis and s therapeutic targets. This review highlights the roles played by important microRNAs in the emergence, development, and maintenance of the oral cancer microenvironment. The possibility of these small RNA species as non-invasive reliable indicators of malignant transformation risk of  OPMDs and for the early detection of oral lesions is also discussed. Finally, we discuss the potentials and constraints of microRNAs as novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

Role of preoperative red cell distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and CA 125 in differential diagnosis of epithelial ovarian tumors

Malathi Verabelly, Swapnarani Seedipally, Darshana Shinde .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5322-5329

Background:The discovery of early ovarian cancer indicators is critical for improving the patient diagnosis, therapy effectiveness, and prognosis of the ovarian tumors
Objective: To study the role of preoperative red cell distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and CA125 in the differential diagnosis of epithelial ovarian tumors
Methods:We carried out a cross-sectional study in 90 patients diagnosed withthe ovarian pathology. They were assessed clinically and later admitted. Routine investigations along with cancer biomarkers like CA 125, RDW, MPV, and NLR were tested. Patients were posted for Laparotomy with hysterectomy/Ovarian cystectomy and specimen sent for histopathology. They were followed post operatively.
Results:60% of the cases were benign and 7.8% were malignant. All the benign cases were <45 years. Malignancy was slightly more in nulliparous women compared to multiparous women. Biomarkers like CA 125, MPV and NLR were significantly elevated in malignant cases compared to benign cases. All the cases having RMI <25 were benign. All the biomarkers were significantly increased in borderline and malignant cases compared to the benign cases.
Conclusion:There was significant association observed between CA125, MPV, NLR and ovarian tumours. CA125, NLR are positively correlated whereas MPV was negatively correlated. The combination of these biomarkers or at least 2 or 3 biomarkers are suggested for early stage diagnosis of pelvic mass with high sensitivity and specificity. The hematological parameters such as MPV, NLR along with CA125 are useful in the detection of the malignant ovarian tumours.

Fractalkine (CX3CL1) as a Diagnostic Marker for Childhood Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Alshymaa A. Ahmed; Ebtehag H. Hassan; Hany Elsayed; Asmaa M. Alhussiny

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2453-2463

Background: - more specific, sensitive, and in the same time non-invasive indicators for the early prediction of juvenile SLE are required.
Aim: - to evaluate serum fractalkine (CX3CL1) as a diagnostic marker, predictor of nephritis, and indicator of disease activity in pediatric SLE.
Methods: - study included 41 children newly diagnosed with SLE, age ranged from 5 to 18 years, 24 (58.5%) were presented lupus nephritis “diagnosed by renal biopsy”. A total of 20 healthy age and sex matched children were included as controls. Serum Fractalkine levels were measured using human CX3CL1 ELISA.
Results: - Serum Fractalkine were significantly higher in SLE patients (median = 1323, range 591- 16547 IU/ml) than healthy controls (median = 950, range 591- 1583 u/ml) p=0.001. Serum Fkn can be a significant diagnostic marker for juvenile lupus indicated by the are under the ROC curve, AUC = 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.92, P<0.001), at the level 1213 IU/ml serum Fkn detected SLE with sensitivity 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62 - 0.89), specificity 0.91 (95% CI, 0.71 – 0.99), positive predictive value 0.94 (95% CI, 0.80 – 0.98), negative predictive value 0.67 (95% CI, 0.55- 0.80), and accuracy 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71 – 0.91). Serum levels of Fkn showed no statistically significant differences when compared in patients with lupus nephritis against patients without nephritis, and was not correlated with disease activity.
Conclusions: - Serum level of Fractalkine can be a diagnostic marker for childhood onset SLE either with or without lupus nephritis, with no significant correlation with activity status or the stage of LN.

Assessment and Comparison of Ghrelin and Chemerin Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum as Predictive Biomarkers in Aggressive Periodontitis Patients: A Study Protocol

Dr. Pavan , Bajaj; Dr. Prasad V. , Dhadse; Dr. Vidya Baliga; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2027-2033

Abstract: Background: Ghrelin is a recently described peptide hormone that is secreted
predominantly by the stomach. It induces appetite and thereby controls food intake and energy
balance. It has been also observed modulatory effects on the immune system and bone
metabolism. Chemerin binds to an orphan G coupled receptor which modulates the innate
immune system and chemotaxis of immature dendritic cells and macrophages. Objective:
Comparative evaluation of GCF & Serum “levels of Ghrelin and Chemerin” as the
(Predictive) biomarkers of inflammation in aggressive periodontitis. Methodology: Total 80
samples will be included and divided into two groups. Group I includes 40 GCF samples from
40 subjects with aggressive and Group II includes 40 Serum samples from 40 subjects with
aggressive periodontitis group. The GCF will be collected from the site with deepest probing
depth. Gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level will be measured
one day before GCF collection to avoid stimulation of the sample and its contamination with
blood. The Ghrelin and Chemerin levels in GCF and serum samples will be measured using
an ELISA kit. Expected Result:

Detection Some Biomarkkers In Sarcopenia Patients-Basra City

Abdullah Abbas Hamzah Al- Rubaye; Amna Nasser Habeeb

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2417-2429

Background: Sarcopenia is a reduction in the rate, strength, and function of skeletal muscle mass that occurs mainly during aging, reduced physical activity, inflammation, and, or as a result of oxidative stress. C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF), procollagen type 3 N-terminal peptide (P3NT), and myostatin circulate biomarkers in elderly people associated with skeletal mass. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is also a circulating inflammation marker that contributes to the release of hs-CRP and alpha1 antichymotrypsin (AACT).
The objective of Research: To define the differences between certain biomarkers in the sarcopenic subject, the study compared the findings with those of the non-sarcopenic subject that may support awareness of the sarcopenia principles.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 170 participants living in Basra city. The weight (kilogram)/height (meter) 2 equation was used in the BMI calculation. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and calcium were estimated by a fully automated biochemistry analyzer using enzymatic methods. VLDL-cholesterol was tallied by using the Fridwald equation. Vitamin D, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP were measured by a fully automated ELISA analyzer.
Results: current study parameters included (BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP) ) in the sarcopenic subject showed more than the control subject with significantly higher changes (P<0.01)., whereas the parameters included (HDL-cholesterol, calcium, and vitamin D) were demonstrated in sarcopenia group less than 
a control group with significantly higher changes (P<0.01). BMI had a direct correlation with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP, with highly significant (P < 0.01). BMI had an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol, calcium, and vitamin D, with highly statistic changes (P <0.01).
Conclusions: A findings of the study revealed that obesity serves as a health risk for sarcopenia in elderly adults. High blood levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, IL-6 AACT, and hs-CRP in blood circulation raise the risk for sarcopenia in the elderly. Decrease concentrations of vitamin D, calcium, and HDL-cholesterol increase the opportunity for the elderly to have sarcopenia.

MetabonimicsOf Oral Cancer Diagnosis - A Review

Navya Khanna; Dr.M.P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2900-2913

Metabolomic analyzes move the medical diagnostics sector forward at unparalleled levels because of its ability to accurately classify concentrated metabolites at the metabolic stage. Biomarker research has benefited from these advances to the point where saliva is now recognized as an excellent diagnostic medium for disease detection. Oral cancer (OC) is defined as a malignant tumor of the oral cavity and is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an attractive strategy to increase the survival rate of patients. If detected early, oral cancer survival is better than 90% at 5 years, whereas the late-stage survival of disease is only 30%. Therefore, novel metabolic markers have an obvious clinical utility that helps to diagnose oral cancer at an early stage and monitor the response to treatment. In combination, five salivary biomarkers (propionyl choline, N-acetyl - L-phenylalanine, sphinganine, phytosphingosine, and S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine) yielded adequate precision (AUC = 0.997), sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.7%) in separating OSCC from control in the early stages. In this study, a comprehensive saliva metabonomics analysis review for identifying potential biomarkers to early diagnose OSCC is successfully demonstrated, which has the advantages of non-invasive, simple, reliable and low-cost. Such novel metabolic biomarkers have an clear clinical usefulness that will aid in the early diagnosis of OSCC. Their diagnostic utility for clinical applications has been discussed by the discovery of salivary biomarkers that could be used to track health and disease surveillance. Comprehensive salivary metabolome will be an important resource for researchers studying metabolite chemistry, especially in the fields of salivary diagnostics, and will be helpful in analyzing and thus identifying appropriate salivary biomarkers related to the disease.


Dr Asadulla Beig

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 559-567

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are subdivided into ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Several lines of evidence suggest that CD and UC are different diseases. However, some patients (10–12%) cannot be easily classified into either and a final diagnosis of indeterminate colitis is made. Making an earlier, more accurate diagnosis of IBD is important as the management of CD and UC is different, especially when surgery is planned. A search for serological tests to differentiate CD from UC has been underway for a long time. An ideal serological marker should have high sensitivity, high specificity, and high predictive values.
In this study we want to assess the usefulness of serological markers as a diagnostic test and correlation with other parameters in the natural history of ulcerative colitis and there are already lots of studies available regarding this in western literature but lacking in south India especially using panel of markers.