Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Thyroid


Correlation Analysis of Anaemia with TSH Level and Anti-TPO Expression in Anti-TPO Positive Hypothyroid Patients

Bhawna Sandhir, Sumeet Chadha, Gagan Sandhir, Rajesh Kashyap, Suraj Bisht, Neeraj Joshi, Jagdeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 176-181

Introduction: Elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase (Anti-TPO) antibodies and thyroid
stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in hypothyroidism have been linked to the alter the
vitamin B12 metabolic pathway thereby imparting the anemia. Thyroid peroxidase is
an important enzyme responsible during organification of iodide for synthesis of
thyroid hormone. Antibodies to TPO are formed as a part of autoimmune response of
body causing autoimmune thyroiditis in patients. Antibodies to thyroid peroxidase
(TPO) are clinically useful markers of thyroid autoimmunity
Objectives: Present study aims to correlate the thyroid stimulating hormone and antithyroid
peroxidase expression in Anti-TPO positive patients with the anemia.
Methods:60 patients who were anti-TPO positive and hypothyroid were recruited in
present study.TSH level, anti-TPO antibodies level and haemogram was analysed
among all patients.
Results: There was a positive correlation between the haemoglobin and TSH level (r=
0.09580). There was a negative correlation between the Haemoglobin and Anti-TPO
expression (r= -0.2086).
Conclusion: Present study revealed a correlation of anemia with TSH level and Anti-
TPO expression which have the diagnostic value. Anti-TPO positive hypothyroid
patients have risk of developing anaemia.

A Study of Serum Electrolytes in Thyroid Patients Attending A Tertiary Care Hospital

Ratna Rajesh Gogulamudi, Laxmi Narayana Sripuram, Sreevani Namani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 855-863

Background: The aim is to study the serum electrolyte levels in thyroid patients
attending a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods: Thyroid hormones plays vital role in maintaining body's
metabolism, BMR, thermoregulation and hemodynamic status and present study was
prospective study done in the patients attending TRR Medical College & Hospital. The
study was conducted over duration of 2 years from December 2019 to June 2021. All the
patients in the age group of 18- 40 years were taken in the study. Total 100 patients
were included in the study (50 cases, 50 controls) to study the evaluation of serum
electrolytes on thyroid patients.
Results: In the present study, with respect to association of cases and controls with age,
no significant causation was seen. In this study thyroid patients have no association with
age, with not much mean difference in age of cases (32.11 years) and controls (30.02)
years. Thyroid cases were found to be more females (90%) as compared to males (10%),
but the association of sex with disease is not significant. This further concludes that
though females are commonly affected with thyroid disorders, but their association is
by chance and not significant. All serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-), TSH shows a
positive relationship it signifies that as TSH increases in patient the level of these
electrolytes also increases, but this relationship of TSH with all the electrolytes was not
significant (p>0.05).

A study to determine the co-existence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and papillary thyroid cancer

Dr. McEnroe D Mordom, Dr. Benitta Francis D, Dr. Ajayan G, Dr. Deepak Paul

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 424-429

Background: Thyroid diseases are endemic in India with around 42 million people suffering from them.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common autoimmune pathology of the thyroid gland. Papillary
carcinoma thyroid is the most common thyroid cancer. The objective of this article is to study coexistence
of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with papillary thyroid cancer.
Methods: Our study was prospective study carried out on 123 patients in the age group 14-65 in the
department of surgery Sree Gokulam Medical college and research foundation Venjaramoodu during the
period November 2011 to February 2013.A history was taken followed by clinical examination. They
were then investigated by thyroid function test, ultrasound neck X-ray neck, X-ray chest, indirect
laryngoscopy, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and anti-thyroid antibody tests. The patients were
taken up for surgery and histopathology reports were correlated with the findings of FNAC and antithyroid
antibodies.
Results: Out of the 123 patients who enrolled. For our study 115 were females. All patients presented
with a swelling in the neck. FNAC showed 70(56.9%) colloid goitre, 14(11.4%) had Hashimoto’s
thyroiditis, 11(8.9%) follicular neoplasm and 4(3.3%) papillary thyroid cancer. 60(48.8%) of patients of
123 had abnormal Anti- TPO antibodies and 70(56.9%) had positive Anti- thyroglobulin antibody. Of
the 123 patients 38(30.89%) had thyroiditis. 19(15.44%) patients had papillary thyroid cancer and 5(4%)
had papillary thyroid cancer and thyroiditis at the same time. All patients with papillary carcinoma
thyroid and thyroiditis were females.
Conclusion: In a country like India were thyroid diseases are endemic, benign thyroid diseases are very
common. Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common thyroid cancer and according to our study has a
26.3% coexistence with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis which is the commonest auto immune thyroid disease.
From this study we conclude that careful workup and surgery are recommended when dealing with
patients with thyroiditis especially women.

DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AMONG THYROID PATIENTS AND THEIR TREATMENT IMPACTS

Sami Hasan Husseinalali, Sufian F. A. Nairoukh Soubhi Zitouni, Fisal Haritani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1986-1991

The complication of the Thyroid is endless, affecting the lifestyle due to the effect on direct neurological disturbances. Mainly, depression and anxiety are closely linked with hypothyroidism. In this work, initially, we clinically describe Thyroid and its classification. Then we disseminate the genetic causes and the methods involved in diagnosing hypothyroidism. Finally, the effects of different treatments on curing chronic illness have been discussed.

Evaluation of Spectrum of Neck Masses on MDCT and Tissue Diagnosis Correlation

Shaina Kaur; Anisha Galhotra; Arnav Galhotra; Ritu Dhawan; Kamini Gupta; Parambir Sandhu; Kavita Saggar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8316-8327

INTRODUCTION: The neck is a part of the body that has many vital structures in a relatively small region with complex anatomy. Various pathologies of the neck may present as neck swellings. The mass may be first noticed by the patient, other individual or by the physician as an incidental finding during physical examination. With the improvement of CT imaging techniques, shorter examination time, higher resolution imaging, Multidetector CT is particularly useful in evaluation of neck masses. AIM OF STUDY: To assess the role of MDCT in neck masses for characterization of nature of lesion (benign or malignant) and organ of origin and to Correlate with tissue diagnosis wherever possible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients presenting with clinical suspicion of neck masses and referred for MDCT neck to the Department of Radio-diagnosis and Imaging, DMCH, Ludhiana were included in this study. RESULTS: 18.9% patients were in 31-40 years age group. Mean age for malignant lesions was 58.3 years. Most common space involved was visceral space (48.9%) and the most common diagnosis was benign thyroid nodule(s) (30%). Many of malignant lesions showed ill-defined margins (68.18%), necrosis (62.5%), heterogeneous enhancement (68.2%), bony infiltration (20.8%), obliteration of fat planes (8.3%), metastasis (45.8%), involvement of adjacent neck spaces (37.5%), vascular involvement in form of internal jugular vein thrombosis (8.3%) of cases. In diagnosing malignant lesions, CT had a sensitivity of 95.83%, specificity of 96.30%, positive predictive value of 92.00%, negative predictive value of 98.11% and accuracy of 96.15%. CONCLUSION: MDCT has high accuracy for characterization of a lesion as benign or malignant. It provides the best possible contrast of soft tissue (with the choice of appropriate delay, contrast agent volume, flow rate and scanning time), visualization of vascular structures, extent of lesion, bone and airway details, thus helps in making diagnosis and deciding further course of management.

Effect of Maternal Hypothyroidism During Gestation and Lactation in Female Rats on Thyroidal and Testicular Functions of Their Male Offspring at Puberty

Sarah J. S .; Jassim M. A. Alkalby

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1890-1900

Maternal hypothyroidism, is a deficiency of the transfer of thyroid hormones from the mother to the
fetus. This study was designed to investigate the effect of induced hypothyroidism in female rats during
gestation (G), lactation (L) and gestation and lactation (G+L) on thyroid and testicular functions of
their male offspring at puberty. The hypothyroidism state was induced by administration of
propylthiouracil (PTU) (0.2) mg/kg b.w/day orally to three pregnant female rats’ groups during
different physiological state as follows: gestational group (treated from day 6 till parturition),
lactational group ( treated from parturition till weaning) and gestational and lactational (treated from
day 6 of parturition till weaning), in addition, to pregnant control group which received distilled water
(D.W) only. All offspring were weaned at 30 days age and six male offspring of each group were
chosen randomly and left without treatment until puberty (60 days) postnatal. Blood samples were
collected to the measurement of serum level of some hormones including thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH), thyroxin (T4), triidothyronine (T3), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), and folliclestimulating
hormone (FSH). Thyroid glands and testes were removed for histopathology study. The
results of hormonal analysis revealed a significant (P≤0.05) increase of TSH concentration in G and L
groups and a significant (P≤0.05) decrease of T4 in all treatment groups while a significant decrease in
T3 was recorded in the G group compared with the control group. Histopathological results showed
histological changes in both thyroid glands and testes in G, L, and G+L groups. The present study
concluded that the different maternal hypothyroidism periods have a nearly different impacts on
offspring male rat, where the G group was the most affected than others.

Effect of Maternal Hypothyroidism During Gestation and Lactation in Female Rats on Thyroidal and Testicular Functions of Their Male Offspring at Puberty.

Sarah J. S; Jassim M. A. Alkalby

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5809-5819

Maternal hypothyroidism, is a deficiency of the transfer of thyroid hormones from the mother to the fetus. This study was designed to investigate the effect of induced hypothyroidism in female rats during gestation (G), lactation (L) and gestation and lactation (G+L) on thyroid and testicular functions of their male offspring at puberty. The hypothyroidism state was induced by administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) (0.2) mg/kg b.w/day orally to three pregnant female rats’ groups during different physiological state as follows: gestational group (treated from day 6 till parturition), lactational group ( treated from parturition till weaning) and gestational and lactational (treated from day 6 of parturition till weaning), in addition, to pregnant control group which received distilled water (D.W) only. All offspring were weaned at 30 days age and six male offspring of each group were chosen randomly and left without treatment until puberty (60 days) postnatal. Blood samples were collected to the measurement of serum level of some hormones including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), triidothyronine (T3), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Thyroid glands and testes were removed for histopathology study. The results of hormonal analysis revealed a significant (P≤0.05) increase of TSH concentration in G and L groups and a significant (P≤0.05) decrease of T4 in all treatment groups while a significant decrease in T3 was recorded in the G group compared with the control group. Histopathological results showed histological changes in both thyroid glands and testes in G, L, and G+L groups. The present study concluded that the different maternal hypothyroidism periods have a nearly different impacts on offspring male rat, where the G group was the most affected than others.