Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Saliva


Dr Pallavi Priya,Dr. Deepika Khurana,Dr. Gauri bhatia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 676-685

The rapid spread of the COVID-19virus and related pneumonia has posed a major challenge for
healthcare systems worldwide. The infection was discovered in the city of Wuhan, Central of
China and swept across the world.Theincubation period of the viruscan range from 1–14 days,
and the virus spread can happen in the absence of clinical symptoms as well.The most frequently
reported symptoms are fever, cough, dyspnea, and myalgia or fatigue. Modes for transmission of
virus include direct transmission through coughing,sneezing, and inhalation of droplets and
contact transmission through contact with nasal, oral, and ocular mucosa. Droplet and aerosol
transmission of the virus are the most common causes of COVID-19 infection in dental clinics
and hospitals.COVID-19 virus has lately been detected in saliva of infected patients, thus posing
an alert to health professionals to be customarily vigilant in protecting against the infectious
disease spread. Because of the presence of virus in saliva, it may be helpful as a non-invasive
tool in the rapid detection of the virus.During this pandemic dissemination of COVID-19, dental
treatment must be confined to the procedures that cannot be deferred. All the precautions must be
taken in terms of triaging, personal protective equipment, hand hygiene, pre-procedural
mouthrinse, use of rubber dam, disinfection of the surfaces. Dental professionals are at the
highest risk of COVID-19 infection; hence, dental practicehas to be reorganized in order to
ensure higher safety standards for both dentists and patients.

Evaluation of Efficacy of Green Tea Neem Extract, Frezyderm and Rexidine Mouthwash on Plaque Induced Gingivitis

Dr Vardharajula Venkata Ramaiah; Dr Sabahat Ullah Tareen; Dr Arshad Jamal , Sayed; Dr Mohammed Mutni Al- Mutairi; Ziyad Ahmad Alsuwaydani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5459-5471

Background: Herbal mouthwashes carry a wide array of advantages such as antimicrobial properties, antioxidant properties and more. They are affordable and have minimal or no side effects. They are more efficient than commercially available mouthwashes in the market.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare and to analyze the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea mouthwash, neem mouthwash, homeopathic (Frezyderm) mouthwash, rexidine mouthwash on dental plaque.
Materials and Methods: This is a double-blinded, random controlled research study conducted in the Department of Periodontics. A total of 200 patients were selected randomly, comprising of four groups (Group-I:green tea, group-II-:neem sticks, Group-III: homeopathic (Frezyderm) mouthwash and group-IV: rexidine mouthwash) with gingival index score II. Saliva samples were collected on at baseline and on day 10 and 20 and microbial colony count was done. The data obtained was statistically analyzed using SPSS version 26 with ANOVA test.
Results: Microbial colonies were reduced better in Group IV on the day 10, whereas on day 20, greater reduction was observed in Group II with the difference was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Neem mouthwash formulation had better effects as compared to other three mouthwashes and it could overcome the disadvantages of other mouthwashes as well.


Dr S.Aafiya Reshma; Dr. L. Malathi; Dr. N.Aravindha Babu; Dr.E. Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1798-1803

Menopause is a physiological activity in women which brings changes at both systemic and oral level. At old age, oral hygiene and oral health becomes a major problem and the dentist are the ones who find those changes in the body throughout the menopause. The gums and teeth are more prone to changes in hormones that take place before menopause and slows down body’s capacity to fight back minor infections too. This article reviews about dry mouth during menopause which is of major concern which causes xerostomia.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1821-1826

Forensic odontology is a speciality in dentistry which occupies a primary niche within the total spectrum of methods applied to medico legal identifications. Forensic odontology deals with human identifications based on dental records, bite marks, lip prints, tooth prints and palatal rugae patterns. This article primarily aims at making general practitioners aware about the importance of keeping various types of dental records and its implication in forensic odontology.

Proteomics and Oral Cancer: The Road Less Travelled

Dr. Kumar Gaurav Chhabra; Nandini Hake; Sayali Limsay; Radhika Kulkarni; Dr. Gargi Nimbulkar; Dr. Amit Reche

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1816-1825

The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is evaluated as the eighth driving reason for malignant growth all inclusive. OSCC shows high predominance and grimness, with the death pace of 145,000 passing for every year universally. The result of the treatment and anticipation of oral cancerous growth relies for the most part upon early finding. For the high morbidity of the oral cancer, deferred identification is probably going to be an essential explanation and this backing the basic requirement for sensitive biomarkers to improve early recognition of oral malignant growths. Along these lines, early location and counteraction of oral cancerous growth is one of the destinations set by World Health Organization (WHO). Abnormal cellular products from malignant cells can be recognized and estimated in different body fluids, for example, blood, urine and saliva. Saliva can be utilized to identify biomarkers explicit for oral cancer as it is anything but difficult to acquire and non-intrusive, additionally due to its immediate contact with oral cancer, salivary assessment for discovery of oral cancer can show the best benefit. Biomarkers are utilized for patient assessment in various clinical settings. They are likewise utilized for assessing disease risk, screening for mysterious primary cancers, differentiating benign from malignant findings/one sort of malignancy from another, determining prognosis, acting as indicators/screening, and observing disease status. Salivary biomarkers can possibly recognize normal biological, pathological as well as pharmacological response to treatment. Huge endeavours from scientists and clinicians are significant so as to transform salivary diagnostics into clinical and commercial reality and in this way helping in battling oral disease. This article gives survey of salivary proteomic biomarkers, strategies for examination of salivary proteomic biomarkers and their clinical significance in early discovery of oral cancers.

Salivaomics - A Review

V.T. ThamaraiSelvi; M.P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2914-2931

The term Salivaomics was coined in 2008, which is used for the development of knowledge about the salivary constituents. Saliva contains salivary markers which are used in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc. Diagnosis from saliva is a developing field with appreciation as it contains hormonal status, neurological effects, nutritional and metabolic influence and immunological status, the diagnostic markers are very useful in various assays. There are 5 different branches in Salivaomics which are the diagnostic alphabets which include proteins, mRNA's, miRNA, metabolic compounds, and Microbes. Salivary genomics is the study of whole genomes i.e., DNA of all the organisms. Salivary proteomics is the study of the proteins present in the saliva. Saliva contains about 1,166 proteins. Salivary Metabolomics is the study in which small metabolites present within the system. Salivary transcriptomics is related to the diagnosis of mRNA. Around 185 mRNAs are found common in all healthy humans. Saliva has a proportionately distributed ratio of bacterial colonies like Bacteroidetes, Fusobacterium, Prevotells, Proteobacteria, Veillonella etc. The advantages of Salivaomics include potential diagnostic value, Safer and easier for the health care professionals compared to blood sampling which sometimes causes cross-infection, Multiple samples can also be obtained easily. There are certain disadvantages which make salivaomics less reliable and preference as a diagnostic tool, These include Composition and flow of the saliva is influenced by the method of saliva collection and also stimulation of saliva flow, biomarkers in saliva which are not reliable, Proteins present in the saliva are also affected by the rate of flow of saliva. SALO is a cross-disciplinary interaction creation, which helps in growing semantically enhanced web-enabled will be created within Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB).
With this background, the present study aims to review the uses, advantages, disadvantages, techniques and methods used in Salivaomics.


Keerthana B; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1377-1383

Viruses cause familiar infections and diseases like common cold, flu. They invade living, normal cells and use those cells to multiply and produce colonies of cells.Viral infection is a proliferation of harmful viruses inside the body. Viruses infect the host body by introducing their genetic material into the cells. The main aim of this study is to explore detailed information about saliva and viral infections. This research is seen as a scoping literature review. In seeking to identify the relevant articles, we used common databases such as the Pubmed and Google scholar online websites. Totally 27 articles are found related to the topic. 12 articles are used in this study. From the articles collected and reviewed, it is understood that viral infections can transmit through the saliva and oral specimens, though saliva protects the body from infections. It is concluded that, as saliva has become the transmitter of the virus, we should maintain proper oral hygiene and oral health to prevent these viruses. Future studies have to be done on the viral infections causing cancer.

Estimation of Salivary Calcium and Phosphorus in Children with different caries status – A Cross- Sectional observational study

Dhanalakshmi Ravikumar, Pratibha Ramani, R Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 50-58

Background and Objectives
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a chronic disease of childhood affecting the primary
dentition. ECC begin early in life and can affect the quality of life of child. It is also termed
as nursing caries or baby bottle tooth decay. It has a multifactorial etiology and salivary
parameters are considered as one of the important etiological factors of ECC. The present
study was done to determine the level of salivary calcium and phosphorus in children with
ECC, severe ECC and caries free. The main objective of the study is to determine the
correlation between calcium and phosphorus level and to compare it with the three groups
of children with different caries experience.
Materials and Methods:
It is a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Saveetha Dental college and
Hospitals. Children between 3-6 years were examined and 20 caries free, 20 children with
ECC and 20 children with Severe ECC were recruited for the study. The examination and
sample collection were done by a single qualified Pediatric dentist. The samples were
collected and analysed for salivary calcium and Phosphorus.
Results: The results showed that there was a statistically significant differences in salivary
calcium and phosphorus levels among caries free, ECC and Severe ECC children.
1. There was a significant difference in salivary calcium levels among caries free,
ECC and Severe ECC children
2. There is a significant difference in salivary phosphorus level among caries free,
moderate ECC and Severe ECC children