Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Smokeless tobacco

Age dependent addiction among smokeless tobacco users in Punjab population using fagerstorm nicotine dependence scale

Deepak Narang; Renu; Ajay Pal; Gagan Arora; Gurpreet Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2477-2481

Background: Smokeless tobacco e including products that are chewed, snuffed, or placed between the teeth and gum rather than smoked by the user e is highly addictive and has been linked with numerous health outcomes, including cardiovascular mortality, many types of cancer. Smokeless tobacco use has been associated with a number adverse health outcomes in India and across South Asia.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study of patients at a dental hospital in Punjab who undergoing tobacco cessation counselling, was conducted between January and June 2019. Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire to all patients receiving regular dental care regarding their demographic information, data about the use of smokeless tobacco. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the six-item Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Scale, adapted for smokeless tobacco. At baseline, the modified dependence scale was administered to the participants and a saliva sample was collected to measure cotinine.
Results: The subjects for this study included 100 males who were recruited for a tobacco cessation intervention that involved a visit with a dentist and advice to quit smoking during the exam. High nicotine dependence was associated with a younger age of initiation of smokeless tobacco use and with frequency of use, with those who reported daily use having an excess risk of high nicotine dependence of 14% (95% CI: 2%, 27%). The correlation between the total score and salivary cotinine was moderate among the ST users (r = 0.35), Among ST users, the coefficient alpha was 0.39; 
Conclusion: To reduce dependence on smokeless tobacco in India and subsequent adverse health outcomes, interventions should emphasize a combination of policy and public health interventions focused on increasing the age at which a person initially uses smokeless tobacco and decreasing the frequency of use.


Dr. Abdul Majid Siddiqui, Prof. (Dr.) Vinita Ailani, Dr. Mohmmmad Hifzur Rehman, Dr. Raihan Mannan, Prof. (Dr.) M. M. Khan, Prof.(Dr.) Mohd. Yaseen, Dr. Afreen Hasan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 9, Pages 548-557

The Indian subcontinent's population is accustomed to smoking tobacco (cigarette, bidi, and hookah) or using smokeless tobacco (tobacco in pan, in gutkha, or khaini). Both chewing tobacco and smoking tobacco have negative impacts on human health because of harmful chemicals in them including tar, nicotine, and other substances that may change the myelination of peripheral neurons.
Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into three groups, 40 were male tobacco chewers and smokers (aged 20 to 60), 30 were tobacco smokers only, and 30 were tobacco chewers exclusively. The Physiolab-PL 2005was used to do the NCV. Subjects had their median and ulnar nerves' motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (MNCV and SNCV) measured.
Results: We found statistically significant changes (p<0.05) in MNCV &SNCV of median and ulnar nerve between tobacco smokers& chewers and only tobacco chewers. While comparing with individuals of tobacco smoking and chewing habit and only tobacco smoking habit have statistically significant changes only in MNCV of median nerve.
Conclusion: From this study we conclude that individuals who were having a habit of smoking as well as chewing are on highest risk for reduction in conduction velocity in both motor as well as in sensory nerve. According to this study, both sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities showed statistically significant changes. Demyelinating neuropathies, such as those caused by smoking and chewing, typically result in reduce conduction velocity


Dr. Lakshmi Krishnan , Dr. Anannya Tripathy , Dr. Girija Amit Ghate , Dr. James Thomas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7500-7513

This study is aimed at understanding prevalence of oral lesions among smokeless tobacco users in Pune, Maharashtra.
This observational study was carried out in 100 patients giving history of current smokeless tobacco use who visited OPD of Otorhinolaryngology in a tertiary hospital in Pune, Maharashtra between June 2021 and October 2022 after obtaining written informed consent and using a preformed questionnaire.
Smokeless tobacco use is more common among males. A definite male preponderance is observed in all age groups with maximum number of study participants belonging to the age group of 51-60 years. Prevalence of malignant lesions is more than oral potentially malignant lesions (OPML) with prevalence of malignant lesions being 64%. Tongue and buccal mucosa are the commonest sites affected. Leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) are the most common OPML in our study. Smokeless tobacco in the form of Gutka(alone) or in combination with tambaku are associated with development of oral submucous fibrosis. Longer duration of smokeless tobacco use is associated with the development of malignant lesions whereas shorter duration of smokeless tobacco use is associated with development of OPML. A definite correlation could be established between site of smokeless tobacco abuse and site of development of lesion.


Cinthura. C; Arvina Rajasekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1113-1120

Smoking is a highly prevalent addiction present worldwide, especially in India. It not only affects the pulmonary system but also has a major impact on oral health. Periodontal disease comprises a range of polymicrobial infectious diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis that affect the tooth-supporting structures. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for periodontal disease progression and can also alter treatment response. This study aims at associating the type of tobacco use and periodontal disease progression. This retrospective study was conducted among 500 patients using their records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019-April 2020 and patients who had smoking habits were identified. Data regarding their age, gender, type of tobacco use and periodontal status were collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Microsoft Excel 2016 data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (SPSS version 20.0,IL,Chicago,USA) for analysis. The results of the study showed that among the patients with smoking habits, individuals within the age group of 25-35 years (31.4%) showed the highest prevalence of tobacco use whereas people among 65-75 years (1.2%) had the least. Majority of the smokers were diagnosed with periodontitis (84.4%), followed by gingivitis (12.4%) but diagnosis of healthy gingiva was very rare (3.2%). Smokeless form of tobacco was commonly used (61.2%). There was a male predominance (94.2%). Smoking, especially the type of tobacco used and severity of periodontal disease was found to have a strong association (p=0.000). The study draws attention to the fact that tobacco usage has a negative impact on oral health and can lead to periodontitis.