Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Smoking

Penile Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis of Socioeconomic, Demographic and Clinicopathological Data

Durgesh Kumar, Ravi Arjunan, Ashok Kumar Singh, Ankur Verma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 233-240

Penile cancer is an uncommon illness in Western nations, but it accounts for around 42% of all urogenital malignancies in India. It has been connected with many variables including old age, improper hygiene, smoking, and absence of circumcision. This research aimed to examine the socio-demographic and clinical features of penile cancer patients who visited a tertiary referral hospital.
Methods: The records of all patients suffering from penile cancer who visited a tertiary cancer institution between the years 2009 and 2015 have been compiled into a database. In addition to describing the patients' socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical characteristics, bivariate analyses were carried out.
 Results: 121 incidences of penile cancer were reported throughout this time. The median age was 55 years on average. A penile ulcer (78.0%) with an exophytic mass (47.1%) and bleeding was the predominant factor in consultations. The glans was the most typical position (50.4%). In our analysis, 26.4% of patients received radical amputation; of which, 54.6% underwent lymph node dissection and had lymph node metastases.
Conclusion: Most of the individuals with penile cancer observed in this research had elderly age and had an absence of circumcision. Patients with lymph node metastases required more aggressive surgeries and had a higher incidence of recurrence than those without lymph node involvement. Robust studies are needed to identify risk variables in low-income communities.

The Impact Of School-Based Programme On Teenagers' Understanding Of The Adverse Health Repercussions Of Alcohol And Smoking

Prakash Naregal; Vaishali R Mohite; Prabhuswami Hiremath; Shivaji H Pawar; Ajit A Pawar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1646-1658

Background: Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes are the two most prominent high-risk activities that are prevalent among adolescents in this era. The prevention of unhealthy behaviours in adolescents, such as drunkenness and smoking, is one of the most difficult tasks facing nurses in the 21st century. This is especially true when the adolescents are exposed to the habits of others around them in their environment. The adolescent years present an ideal window of opportunity to educate young people on the hazards posed by high-risk behaviours like smoking and drinking, as well as to instil in them the values and habits that will assist them avoid engaging in such dangerous pursuits in the future. The first goal is to determine whether or not the students at the selected school are aware of the negative impact that smoking and alcoholism have on one's health.

To evaluate the efficacy of health education programmes taught in schools regarding the harmful effects of smoking and drunkenness on one's body.
To determine whether or not there is a correlation between the level of the adolescent students and the sociodemographic factors that were chosen.

Serum total IgE levels in Smokers, Non- Smokers and Ex- Smokers and its Relation to Lung Function

Najma Muhammed. K, Nimisha K P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2699-2704

Background: To assess serum total IgE levels in smokers, non- smokers and ex- smokers and its relation to lung function.
Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty subjects of either gender were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of smokers, group II non- smokers and group III ex- smokers. Weight and height was recorded followed by BMI. Symptoms and signs of cough, wheezing, dyspnoea were recorded. Alcohol history was also recorded. 5 ml of venous blood was taken for assessment of haemoglobin, ESR and absolute haemoglobin count. IgE level was assessed.
Results: There were 30 males and 10 females in group I, 22 males and 18 females in group II and 32 males and 8 females in group III. The mean weight was 70.2 kgs, 68.2 kgs and 65.4 kgs, mean height was 172.2 cm, 171.6 cm and 168.2 cm, mean BMI was 24.4 Kg/cm2, 23.8 Kg/cm2 and 23.6 Kg/cm2 and alcohol intake (>once /month) was seen among 32, 10 and 24 in group I, group II and group III respectively. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05). The mean FVC was 85.1% in group I, 92.2% in group II and 72.6% in group III, FEV1 was 72.4%, 95.2% and 53.2%, FEV1/ FVC was 85.3%, 99.4% and 68.5%, FEF25-75 was 57.3%, 95.2% and 39.6% and FEF max was 76.4%, 102.3% and 48.9% in group I, group II and group III respectively. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05). The mean IgE level was 358.2 IU/ml in group I, 38.4 IU/ml in group II and 206.4 IU/ml in group III. Breath CO level was 16.4 ppm in group I, 5.3 ppm in group II and 4.8 ppm in group III. The absolute eosinophil count/mm3 was 324.2 in group I, 190.4 in group II and 286.2 in group III. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05).

Conclusion: There was altered pulmonary function tests and high level of IgE in smokers and ex- smokers as compared to non- smokers

Risk factors of dry socket after tooth extraction

Dr. Manisha Parashar, Dr.Pooja Sharma, Dr. Sonam Arora, Dr. Gulshan Singh, Dr. Pratya Singh, Dr.Prachi Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6909-6913

Background: Dry socket lesions occur in about 1%-5% of all extractions and in up to 38% of mandibular third molar extractions. The present study assessed risk factors of dry socket after tooth extraction.
Materials & Methods: 190 patients who underwent extraction of both genders were included. Smoking status, systemic diseases, use of oral contraceptives, antibiotic consumption before extraction, number of carpules used for anesthesia etc. recorded. The incidence of dry socket was recorded.
Results: Out of 190 patients, males were 85 and females were 105.Common risk factors were <2 carpules seen in 8 and >2 carpules in 4, use of pre-anaesthetic antibiotic consumption in 2, use of field block in 7 and regional block in 5 patients with dry sockets. The smoking was seen in 10, diabetes seen in 11 and systemic diseases in 6 patients of dry sockets. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Out of 190 teeth, 12 (6.3%) had dry sockets.
Conclusion: Common risk factors for dry sockets was use of less than 2 carpules, non- use of pre-anaesthetic antibiotic consumption, field block anaesthetic technique, smoking, systemic disease and diabetes.

Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption on Semen Quality in Healthy Men

Dr Pooja Poswal, Dr. Swati Sharma, Dr Irbinder Kaur Bali, Dr Shikhar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5448-5465

The definition of infertility is the failure of a sexually active, non-contraceptive couple to get pregnant within a year. Semen analysis is the cornerstone of evaluating infertility since it tells us how well the seminiferous tubules, epididymis, and accessory sex glands are working. Given that there is a lack of knowledge about male infertility in India, it is crucial to be aware of the many risk factors linked to infertility.
Methods: 177 healthy men's semen samples were obtained. The individuals were divided into groups based on their alcohol intake and smoking habits. The examination of the sperm was done in accordance with WHO standards. Utilizing statistical analysis SPSS-22 Results was used to examine the data.
Results: A lower sperm count was linked to heavy smoking (> 20 cigarettes per day). An increase in sperm with morphological abnormalities was shown to be connected with moderate/high alcohol use ( 15.4 g/day). Significant increases in plasma membranes and architecturally aberrant nuclei were seen in alcohol-consuming individuals.
Conclusions: Heavy cigarette smoking was linked to lower sperm counts, while drinking alcohol was linked to more sperm with morphological abnormalities.

Prevalence of Nicotine Usage among Medical and Paramedical Students in Al-Rayan Colleges

Fahad S Alshehri, Zayed Mohammed Alnefaie, Eyad Esamalden Albashir, Ziyad Abdul razzaq AbuAlshor, Abdullah Refat Abutaleb, Faris Fuad Shukrey, Ayman Khaled alsughayyir, Badr Moneer Qumqumji

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6165-6173

Objective: To determine the prevalence of nicotine usage among medical and paramedical students at Alrayan medical colleges at Al Madinah Munawara and assess the association between nicotine usage and socio-economic factors, smoking contacts, reasons for smoking, and attempts to quit. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey in which an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used to survey the nicotine usage habits of medical and paramedical students at Alrayan medical collages medical college at Al Madinah Munawara January 2022. Results: Upon our study with a total of 313 participants, 7%(23) refused to be participating in the survey by saying (no) while 93%(290) agreed to be participating. The participant's gender was 34% female and 66%, male. Almost half of the participants had an experiment with cigarette smoking. The mean age of starting cigarette smoking is 16 years old or older (49% of smoking students). Smokeless tobacco product usage is prevalent among students as 20% are using them. Health warnings on cigarette packages are very useful as they led 60% of the students to think about quitting smoking or not starting smoking. The main group which provides help or advice for smokers to quit smoking is friends while the least is the professionals such as doctors. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among medical and paramedical students at Alrayan medical College. Electronic cigarettes or also known as vape-pens, hookah-pens, and electronic hookahs (e-hookahs) are incredibly known among students as 66% of them know them. Close contact advice and health considerations are important reasons for not smoking, quitting, or attempting to quit. These findings can be of help in designing future intervention strategies

Effect of exercise on electrocardiographic parameters amongst smokers and non- smokers

Dr. Rajan Vinodchandra Kantharia, Dr. Sameer Modi, Dr. Patel Akash Babubhai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8954-8958

Background: Smoking is a detriment to physical fitness even among relatively young, fit individuals with lower physical endurance than non-smokers. The present study was conducted to assess effect of exercise on electrocardiographic parameters amongst smokers and non- smokers.
Materials & Methods: 120 smokers and non- smokers of both genders were equally divided into two groups, i.e., Group I (smokers) and Group II (non-smokers). The baseline pulse and blood pressure were taken, whereas ECG parameters were recorded by using BIOPAC in both groups.
Results: Group I had 45 males and 15 females and group II had 48 males and 12 females. There was significant difference in P wave, QRS, QT interval, ST segment, SBP, DBP and pulse rate after exercise in both groups. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Smokers shows more variations in ECG and cardiovascular parameters after exercise than non- smokers and hence are more prone to cardiovascular diseases

Assessment of risk factors of acute respiratory tract infection in children less than 5 years of age

Dr. Jalinder M Pawar, Dr. Radhika Kadam .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8877-8881

Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess acute respiratory tract infection in children less than 5 years of age.
Materials & Methods: 105 children aged less than 5 years of age of both genders diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infection were enrolled. Type of ARTi was recorded. Risk factors such as mother age, nutrition, breast feeding, family size, immunization, residence, use of biofuel etc. were recorded.
Results: Out of 105 children, boys were 65 and girls were 40. Type of ARTi was rhinitis in 25, pharyngitis in 30, tonsillitis in 40 and bronchopneumonia in 10 patients. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05). Birth weight was normal in 20, low weight in 55 and overweight in 30. Mother age was <20 years in 65 and >20 years in 40. Mother education was none in 22, primary in 54 and secondary and above in 29. Smoking was seen in 45 and no in 60. Immunization was adequate in 35 and inadequate in 70. Residence was urban in 48 and rural in 57. Nutrition was adequate in 32 and inadequate in 73. Breast-feeding was seen in 42. Biofuel used was wood in 74 and kerosene in 31. Family size was small in 54 and large in 51. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Common risk factors foun ARTi in children were low weight, young mother age, low mother education, smoking, inadequate immunization, inadequate nutrition, inadequate breast-feeding and use of wood biofuel.

Significant endoscopic findings and the probable associated factors in dyspeptic patients: A cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital, rural Mandya

Dr. Yamuna VS, Dr. Sachin K, Dr. Selva Rani, Dr. Veena Ghanteppagol, Dr. Ullas Mahesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 382-390

Introduction: Dyspepsia is the most common gastrointestinal problem. Majority of dyspepsia is functional dyspepsia. Due to the high prevalence of dyspepsia, inappropriate use of upper GI Endoscopy can lead to unnecessary costs, risk of complications, and associated with reduced diagnostic yield.

To determine the prevalence of significant endoscopic finding (SEF) and H.Pylori in dyspeptic patients.
To determine the response of dyspeptic patients to PPIs and H.pylori eradication therapy.
To assess the factors predicting SEF in dyspeptic patients.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted for a period of 18 months among 100 patients with dyspepsia at department of general surgery of a tertiary care hospital. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire by interview technique. The study subjects were subjected to upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy during which biopsies were taken and sent for routine histopathology examination. Descriptive and inferential statistics has been carried out in the present study. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 45.13±14.06 years. Pain abdomen was the commonest (82.0%) alarm symptom of dyspepsia and 64.0% of those with dyspepsia were smokers and 61.0% were alcoholics. Overall prevalence of significant endoscopic finding (SEF) was 36.0% and duodenal ulcer (22.0%) was the commonest of all. 71.0% revealed H.pylori infection and at least 90.0% responded well to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and triple drug therapy. Among the different factors, bloating or belching was found to be significantly associated with the SEF.
Conclusion: The prevalence of SEF was 36.0% and H.pylori was 71.0%. Most of them i.e. 90.0% responded both clinically and microbiologically to the treatment and bloating or belching was a significant alarm symptom associated with SEF. A trial of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and triple drug therapy can be considered before subjecting the patients to the invasive procedure of endoscopy.

A study of clinical profile of hemorrhagic stroke from government hospital, Gandhinagar, Gujarat

Dr. Chirayu Vijaykumar Vaidya, Dinker N Goswami, Dr. Drusty K Majmudar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2309-2315

Background: Cerebrovascular diseases rank first in frequency and importance among all neurologic diseases. Of all the cerebrovascular diseases, intracerebral hemorrhage is the most dramatic and catastrophic. Various clinical and radiological parameters have been proved useful as predictors of prognosis in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. This study is to identify the risk factors, assess various clinical and radiological features with patients attending GMERS medical college and general hospital in city Gandhinagar in Gujarat state.
Methods: This is a retrospective study of all new patients managed for hemorrhagic stroke of GMERS Medical College and Hospital, Gandhinagar, Gujarat from January1 2012 to December 31, 2013.
Results: The mean age of patient was 61.77 yrs with highest number( 30.5%) of total pts in the age group of 61-70 yrs. Young hemorrhagic stroke (age ≤45 yrs) was in(13.4%). The male to female ratio was 1.05:1 with (51.2%) males & (48.8%) females. Equal percentage (35.1%) patients presented with right and left hemiplegia respectively followed by (29.9%) patients with global stroke. Most common clinical presentation was hemiplegia which was (44.6%) followed by altered sensorium (21.5%) and speech involvement (13.2%). Most common risk factor was Hypertension with (49.3%) incidence. It followed by previous H/o Cerebrovascular accident (13.7%), Smoking (11%). Most common site of hemorrhage was thalamus and basal ganglia (78%), lobar (28%) followed by ventricular (13.2%).
Conclusion: Incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was more in the age group of 61-70 yrs with male predominance with hypertension as the most common risk factor and most common area of hematoma was in thalamoganglionic region.

Risk Scoring for Burst Abdomen Prediction in Patients with Midline Laparotomy

Wael E. Lotfy; Ramadan M. Ali; Hassan R. Ashour; Mohamed Osama Elhady; Ahmed Raafat Abdel Fattah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 984-990

 Burst Abdomen is a preventable condition in which many risk factors play their role and lead to life threatening complications. The aim of the present study is to identify the different risk factors and high risk patients for burst abdomen for decreasing the rate of burst abdomen post operatively. Patients and methods: An observational analytical study included 110 patients and carried out in General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Hospitals. The patients were divided into 2 main groups: post-midline laparotomy burst abdomen patients and postmidline non complicated laparotomy with burst abdomen patients. Evaluation of different risk factors between the two groups was performed. Results: There is statistically significant relation between occurrence of burst abdomen and both smoking and obesity. There is statistically significant relation between occurrence of burst abdomen and all of direct trauma, diabetes, intraabdominal infection and jaundice. There is non-significant relation between occurrence of burst abdomen and other risk factors. There is statistically significant relation between occurrence of burst abdomen and postoperative ileus, pulmonary complications and wound infection. Diabetes, wound infection, smoking and direct trauma increased risk of burst abdomen by 47.205, 58.547, 40.559 and 39.874 folds respectively. Conclusion: Intra-abdominal infection is the most important factor in predicting burst abdomen. Patient factors like anemia, diabetes, smoking, peritonitis due to bowel perforation act as determinant for wound dehiscence. Postoperatively abdominal burst can be prevented by improving the nutritional status of the patient, early mobilization of the patient and simple investigations like Hemogram, RBS, RFT, LFT, chest x-ray may help to detect predisposing factors

Prevalence and risk factors associate with cholangiocarcinoma: A clinical study in tertiary care teaching hospital

Dr. Vipin Kumar, Dr R.P. Singh, Dr. Dillip Kumar Mohanty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 592-599

Background: Cholangiocarcinoma, including intra-and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma,
is a rare but highly lethal cancer. Despite effort in finding the risk factors of
cholangiocarcinoma, the causes of most cholangiocarcinoma remain unknown.There are
considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of
cholangiocarcinoma. Although it comprises only 10-15% of hepatobiliary neoplasms, its
incidence is increasing. There are several established risk factors for CC and few are
modifiable which will help in reducing the incidence.
Aims and Objectives: To study the Prevalence and risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma at
GMC Budaun.
Material and Methods: All types of cholangiocarcinoma cases above age of 40 years
admitted to Department of Surgery, GMC Budaun U.P., were studied for risk factors over a
period of two years.
Results: An incidence of cholangiocarcinoma was 0.032% in present study. Peak incidence
of cholangiocarcinoma was 4th to 6th decade of life with mean age of 61.92 years. out of
26 patients 13 patients (50%) were smoker and in those 13 patients 12 (92%) were smoking
for more than 10 years and 13 patients (100%) were smoking more than 10 cigarettes or
bidi per day. 18 patients were using chulha (69%) for cooking meals with coal as a primary
Conclusion: In conclusion, we found associations with PSC, smoking and alcohol
consumption; however, further studies are needed to establish the risk factors in our
country Long term exposure to pesticides in patients, who are chronic smoker and exposed
to smoke from chulha are at higher risk of developing CCA than others in this socioeconomic

Evaluation of Risk Factors for Dry Socket

Archana Kumari, Sonali Roy, Praveen Chandra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1292-1295

Background:Dry socket (DS), also referred to as alveolar or fibrinolytic osteitis, is a major
complication that follows extraction of tooth/teeth in oral surgery. The present study was
conducted to assess the risk factors for Dry socket.
Materials & Methods: 340 patients requiring extraction of mandibular third molars of both
genders were included. Risk factors such as smoking status, indication of exodontia and
systemic diseases etc. were recorded.
Results: Out of 340 patients, males were 210 and females were 130. Out of 210 males, 20
developed DS and out of 130 females, 24 had DS. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Diabetes was seen in 32, smoking in 14, pericoronitis in 22 and systemic disease in 35. The
difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Risk factors for dry socket were systemic disease, diabetes and smoking.

Assessment of risk of HPV infection and oropharyngeal carcinoma

Dr.Ritika Agarwal, Dr.Ranjan Kumar, Dr.Archana Kumari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1474-1477

Background:Head and neck cancer, which includes tumours that arise from the oral
cavity, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx and sinonasal tract, represents a serious health
care problem in many parts of the world, and ranks as the sixth most common cancer
worldwide.The present study was conducted to assess risk of HPV infection and
oropharyngeal carcinoma.
Materials & Methods: 78patients of oral cancer of both genderswere enrolled. Body mass
index (BMI) was calculated. Frequency and amount of alcohol consumption (ml) were
recorded. 5 ml venous blood sample was obtained for the assessment of antibodies to
HPV16 E6.
Results: Out of 78 patients, males were 58 and females were 20.HPV E 16 E16
serologypositive was seen in 50 and negative in 28, BMI was normal in 26, underweight in
38, poor in 14. Stage I and II was seen in 17, III in 36 and IVin 25. Alcoholism>2 was seen
in 52 and <2 in 26. Smoking >10 was seen in 40 and <10 in 38. Dental carewas good seen
in 15, moderate in 38 and poor in 25.
Conclusion: Common risk factors for oropharyngeal carcinoma was HPV, overweight,
stage III and IV, alcoholism, smoking and poor oral hygiene.

To assess the outcomes of smoking cessation in post-ischemic heart diseases

Jaikirat Singh Gugnani, Harkamalpreet Kaur, Abhishek

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3154-3156

Background: To assess the outcomes of smoking cessation in post-ischemic heart diseases.
Materials & methods: 60 smokers at the time of the first episode of ischemic heart diseases were enrolled. All the subjects belong to the age group of 40 to 60 years. Complete details of all the patients were obtained. A clinical examination of all the patients was carried out. Follow up was done at regular intervals. Risk evaluation was done at all intervals. A correlation between these was done with smoking cessation habits. All the results were recorded and analyzed.
Results: Out of 60 patients, 41.67% of the patients quit smoking while the remaining 58.33% of the patients continued smoking. Out of 25 patients with smoking cessation, mortality occurred in 3 patients. Out of 35 patients who continued smoking, mortality occurred in 15 patients. The survival rate was higher in smoking cessation cases.
Conclusion: Smoking cessation helps to improve outcomes among patients with post-ischemic heart diseases.


Dr Rakesh Kumar Pandey; Dr Jeevan Josh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3410-3419

Tobacco consumption is one of the major health problems in public health sector. Among
tobacco consumption smoking is a leading preventable cause of death in developed as well as
developing countries. Cigarette smoking contributes to oral as well as general health issues
including Asthma, COPD and Cancer. A dynamic comprehensive approach is required for
breaking the habit of tobacco consumption in any form. Various studies conducted in the past
proposed that intensive tobacco cessation interventions involving behavioral support plays an
important role in the treatment of addiction. Public health professionals can play an important
role in creating awareness among people regarding the ill effects of tobacco consumption.
Public health professionals can create awareness through printed materials, newspapers,
magazines, media etc. Advertisement and promotion of tobacco products are needed to be
banned throughout the country. Government should take initiatives at central and state level
to establish tobacco cessation clinics (TCCs).In this review we discussed the efficacy of various
behavioral and pharmacological medications in tobacco cessation

Advice from Former-Smoking E-Cigarette Users to Current Smokers on How to Use E-Cigarettes as Part of an Attempt to Quit Smoking

Sasmita Das; Rubi Pradhan; Dinabandhu Barad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 839-848

The substitution of e-cigarettes with nicotine will almost remove the harm linked to smoking. Strategies that improve smokers' desire to use e-cigarettes rather than tobacco cigarettes are important. This must be understood. Current smokers who have successfully used E-cigarettes to quit smoking may be very useful for growing existing smokers' curiosity in converting and willingness to use E-cigarettes. In an online poll, the advice offered to smocks who intend to use e-cigarettes with e-cigarettes was asked of a global self-selected group from 4,192 former smokers who are stopping the smoking process. The subject of qualitative analysis of participant feedback established the following four main themes: (i) the mix of vaporizing devices, e-liquid flavors and the nicotine level 'functioning for all' and (ii) smoking for some time after the vaporization is begun OK; Experienced smoking vapors are able to give smokers tips and practical vapor awareness that can be useful when attempting to move from smoking to vaping. Encouraging smokers of tobacco to communicate with seasoned vapors as they were once told by vapers themselves, who are now recommending them on vaping shops who web communities – may have a tremendous ability to make more smokers transition to e-cigarette.


M. Rakesh mohan; Shivani D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1951-1955

Dental implants are commonly used in situations for replacement of natural teeth. Despite many advances, techniques, and implant-design, implant failure is a significantconcern for the patient and dentist. The dental implants are designed that best suits the various types of bone. Different etiology for the implant failure and their contributing factors has been discussed in this review article. The purpose of this concise review is to discuss the etiology of implant failure by highlighting the various classification put forth by different authors

The Effects Of Smoking On The Relationship Between Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate And The Severity Of Coronary Artery Disease Based On Syntax Score

Eko Irawan Sudarmaji; Hasyim Kasim; Pendrik tandean; Syakib Bakri; Faridin HP; Hae-rani Rasyid; Khalid Saleh; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1440-1449

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor and caused high morbidity and mortality for coronary artery disease (CAD). Several scoring systems can be used in assessing the severity of CAD, one of which is using the SYNTAX score (SXscore). Smoking is one of the risk factors for the progression of CAD and CKD. Several observational studies have under-reported the smoking factor influencing the rela-tionship between eGFR and SXscore.
Methods: This research is an observational study with a cross-sectional approach conduct-ed at the Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar from July-August 2020. This study involved 62 CAD and CKD patients undergoing angiography. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was based on chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI).
Coronary angiography results were converted to SXscore and smoking grade based on the Brinkman index.
Results: This study involved 62 CAD and CKD patients male (71%), aged ≥ 55 years (77.4%), hypertension (71%), diabetes (35.5%), smoking (50%), eGFR G3a & G3b (53.9. %) and SXscore medium-high (50%). The results showed that lower eGFR could increase the SXscore (p < 0.001), especially in smoking subjects (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that gender was the most significant factor contributing to the relationship between eGFR and SXscore
Conclusion : The lower eGFR could increase the SXscore, where this correlation was more significant in smoking patients. Multivariate analysis showed that gender was the most significant factor contributing to the relationship between eGFR and SXscore.

“Effectiveness Of Structured Teaching Programme On Knowledge Regarding Adverse Effects Of Tobacco Usage Among B.Sc Nursing Students Of Sree Balaji College Of Nursing, Chrompet – Chennai”

Yerram Sai Rama Krishna Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6075-6079

Smoking leads to disease and disability and harms nearly every organ of the body. Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It increases risk for tuberculosis, certain eye diseases, and problems of the immune system, including rheumatoid arthritis. Secondhand smokers are also at great risk of developing certain disease conditions like stroke, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease in adults.

Oral Cancer: A Retrospective Study of a Decade

Dr. Ruchi Bhuyan; Dr. Sanat Kumar Bhuyan; Sidhant Bhuyan; Akankshya Sahu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1200-1207

Introduction Head besides neck cancer(HNC) The word "avast" contains a variety of malignancy sites, including numerous oral cavity locations, such as maxilla, mandible, tongue, oral floor, oral mucosa, gingiva, mouth or pharynx and larynx. mouth cancer is amongst the most frequent cancers in tumors. The purpose of this research is to investigate the occurrence of HNC as well as its association with traditions, age , gender and place throughout India.
Aim: The goal of the research was to document the effect on Odisha coastal communities in East India for Head / Neck Cancer (HNC) and also its meanings by behaviors, age , gender as well as location.
Materials and methods: A study was conducted retrospectively between June 2009 and June 2019. A maximum of 1364 OSCCs (Oral squamous tissue carcinoma) were analysed with the results were statistically analyzed.
Result: Ratio of men to women 2:1 as well as average age between 40 and 59 years. Oral mucosa (48,97%) including tongue (16,49%) or maxila (6,94%) are now the most popular site for cancer, accompanied by lip (1 24%). Tobacco cigarettes and nibbling habits were prevalent amongst these people of eastern India as well as represented the greatest potential risk for onset of disease. Besides that, a strong relationship with OSSC has been discovered in the smokeless type with tobacco, particularly in females.
Conclusions: The result of this evaluation reveals the use of tobacco is among the main reasons for increasing oral cancer malignancy development. Therefore, it is important for an individual to be informed of this tobacco-linked cancer growth.


Keerthika Saravanan; Arthi Balsubramaniam; Santhosh Kumar MP

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1091-1098

It has been established that smoking is a very different addiction to break. Many smokers persist in
tobacco use for several years and cycle through multiple periods of remission and relapse Smoking is not a
single event process and relapse is an ordinary component of this process. International guidelines have
greatly emphasized on relapse prevention. Very few studies examine the association between the number
of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and physiological
distress. This study aims to evaluate association between peer pressure and relapses during tobacco quit. A
retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 75,000 patient records of University hospital for a period
of nine months from June 2019 to March 2020. About 150 case reports containing information on tobacco
dependence and quit rate (in terms of number of relapses) were retrieved and analysed. Descriptive
statistics was done to present the sociodemographic details. Chi-square association was done to find the
association. Most of the participants (34%) were in the age group 29-38 years, followed by 49-59 years
(26%), 19-28 years (24%) and 39-49 years (16%). About 13.3%, 20%, 4%, 10% of 19-28 yrs, 29-38 yrs,
39-48 yrs and 49-59 yrs of patients respectively had peer pressure during their quitting process.About
11.3% 20%, 8.67 and 13.3% of patients in the age group 19-28 yrs, 29-38 yrs, 39-48 yrs and 49-59 yrs had
no relapses during the quitting process.No significant association between age and number of relapses
(p=0.746; not significant). Hence proving no influence of age on relapse during quitting process. About
28% of patients with peer pressure and 25.3% without peer pressure had no relapse during quitting.
However 19.3% and 27.3% with and without peer pressure had >1 number of relapses. during their
quitting process,No significant association of peer pressure in relapse (p=0.295, not significant). No
influence of peer pressure on relapse during the quitting process. Peer pressure is not much influencing the
number of relapses during the quitting process, however a watch over this factor to be taken in account
during cessation counselling


Cinthura. C; Arvina Rajasekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1113-1120

Smoking is a highly prevalent addiction present worldwide, especially in India. It not only affects the pulmonary system but also has a major impact on oral health. Periodontal disease comprises a range of polymicrobial infectious diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis that affect the tooth-supporting structures. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for periodontal disease progression and can also alter treatment response. This study aims at associating the type of tobacco use and periodontal disease progression. This retrospective study was conducted among 500 patients using their records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019-April 2020 and patients who had smoking habits were identified. Data regarding their age, gender, type of tobacco use and periodontal status were collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Microsoft Excel 2016 data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (SPSS version 20.0,IL,Chicago,USA) for analysis. The results of the study showed that among the patients with smoking habits, individuals within the age group of 25-35 years (31.4%) showed the highest prevalence of tobacco use whereas people among 65-75 years (1.2%) had the least. Majority of the smokers were diagnosed with periodontitis (84.4%), followed by gingivitis (12.4%) but diagnosis of healthy gingiva was very rare (3.2%). Smokeless form of tobacco was commonly used (61.2%). There was a male predominance (94.2%). Smoking, especially the type of tobacco used and severity of periodontal disease was found to have a strong association (p=0.000). The study draws attention to the fact that tobacco usage has a negative impact on oral health and can lead to periodontitis.


Kiruthika Patturaja; Arvina Rajasekar; Iffat Nasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1099-1104

Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults. It is an inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. It is associated with various risk factors. Tobacco is one of the potent risk factors for periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to find the impact of smoking on periodontal health. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 200 male patients (Group 1: 100 smokers; Group 2: 100 non-smokers) were recruited. Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. The present study showed that smokers had a high prevalence of periodontitis (37.5%) when compared to non-smokers (8.5%). Whereas, non-smokers had a high prevalence of gingivitis (41.5%) when compared to smokers (12.5%). Also, there was a statistically significant association between smoking and periodontal health (p=0.000). The findings of the present study showed that smokers had increased risk of periodontitis than non-smokers.

Awareness On Risk Factors Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) Among College Students

A.Akshaya .; V.Vishnu Priya; K. R . Don; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2681-2699

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterised by obstruction in the airflow which interferes with the normal breathing pattern. The World Health Organisation ( WHO ) announced COPD will be the third common cause for death by 2020. The objective of study is to assess the level of awareness of risk factors of COPD and its complications among college students. A Self structured questionnaire was circulated among 100 participants within university. This survey was done online using google forms link. The questions were designed in order to assess the knowledge about COPD and its risk factors. The results and responses were collected and analysed by using SPSS software. The findings from the study were represented in pie charts. In our study about 85% of individuals were aware that COPD is a respiratory disorder. 52% of participants know the difference between COPD and asthma. 58% of individuals were well aware of the signs and symptoms of COPD. From the survey conducted, the awareness and knowledge about risk factors and complications of COPD is found to be moderate. Further future studies and management programs may be conducted to create more awareness to the individuals.


Gayathri Karthikeyan; Hannah R; Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1440-1448

The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of leukoplakia in different types of tobacco users. Tobacco utilization in India is increasing but there are considerable changes in the types and methods by which it is used. Oral cancer affects as many as 274,000 people worldwide annually 20. In this study The data collection was carried out during the period between July 2019 to march 2020. After searching through 86,000 patient records the Sample size for the study was taken as 93 patients diagnosed with leukoplakia. The data that was collected was tabulated in excel and then imported into SPSS software. Smoking form of tobacco was found to be used by 72.92% of patients. Smokeless form of tobacco use was noticed among 25% of the patients and a combination of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco used was noticed among 2.083% of the patients . Homogenous types of leukoplakia were found among 76.04% of the patients followed by the non-homogenous form which included about 23.96% of the patients. Males were the most common gender comprising about 96.88% of the patients and females comprised about 3.13% . It was also noted that the most common type of tobacco used was cigarettes. Chi- square test was done to associate the type of tobacco used and clinical variants of leukoplakia, it was not statistical significant (p=0.596). Within the limitations of the present study we were able to conclude that there was no association between the habit of tobacco use and the clinical variant of leukoplakia . Multicentric study with a larger sample size will give a more definitive outcome.


Reishy V; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayatri Devi R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1346-1352

Smoking is recognised as a risk factor for human health. It is related to many problems like respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, cancer, etc. Smoking is associated with incidence of gingivitis, periodontitis, epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. It increases the number and depth of periodontal patients. Loss of tissue strength caused due to harmful compounds like tobacco, increase gingival recession and changes to the oral cavity. Prevalence of moderate and severe diseases are higher in smokers than non-smokers. Smoking affects both gingival epithelium and connective tissue. Density of blood vessels is decreased in smokers. Effect of smoking on vascular status is caused by nicotine compounds. This review was done based on the articles obtained from various platforms like PubMed, PubMed central and Google Scholar. They were collected with a restriction in time basis from 2000-2020. The inclusion criteria were original research papers. In vitro, studied among various conditions and articles that contain pros and cons. Exclusion criteria came into account for review articles, retracted articles and articles of other languages. All the articles are selected based on the effect of smoking on gingival health. Thus, smoking results in various oral health problems like incidence of gingivitis, periodontitis, epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. It affects gingival recession and changes to the oral mucosa. This review article gives knowledge about the correlation between smoking and health of gingival treatment with various dental problems.

Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life among Patients Smoking attitudes attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia (2019)

Saud Abdulhai Gari, Muhammed Musa Yahya Sufyani, Hisham Ali Abdo Ali, Amna Mahmoud Ibrahim Altakroni, Ahmed Abdul Rhman Ahmed ALQarni, Mazin Ibrahim Rasheedy, Ahmed Suwailem Saleem Almehmadi, Fatma Saleh Alharbi, Waleed Mohammed Omar Almahaily, Abdulrahman Saad Alsaedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 274-287

Smoking is now well established as a recognized cause of cancer, lung disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke; it is considered the single most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. Additionally, epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between smoking and psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found high rates of smoking among selected populations of persons with mental illness, whereas general population surveys have demonstrated a significant association between current smoking and psychiatric symptoms.
     The World Health Organization has reported that more than 4 million annual deaths are attributed to tobacco consumption; this is projected to be10 million annually in 2030. Conversely, smoking cessation reduces health risks and improves quality of life. In particular, the cumulative risk of dying of cancer, cardiovascular and lung diseases can be drastically reduced if smokers quit, even at an advanced age.Objective: To assessment the health-related quality of life (HRQL) among Patients Smoking attitudes attending smoking clinics Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah. Aim of the study Aim of the study: The study aimed at assessing the health related quality of life among Patients smoking attitudes attending smoking clinics Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive stud conducted from January, 2019 to December, 2019 in four Primary Healthcare Centers (PHC)in Makkah, the Sample size of Patients Smoking Attitudes attending PHC. Our total participants were (80). Results: the specific medical diseases significantly associated with smoking were Musculoskeletal disorders and  Central nervous system diseases  were (P < 0.001 and=0.033 ) and X2 25.481and 3.554 with the Negative in age (25-35) of the patients was (66.67% and 11.11% ) while in Positive age patients was (33.33% and 83.33%) while all anther medical diseases no significantly associated with smoking .Conclusion . the health related quality of life among Patients smoking attitudes  attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah smokers with smoking history show significant impairment in the physical and mental domains of HRQL in comparison to never-smokers. Postgraduate studies, workshops and training are indeed necessary to help PHCPs' to understand the significance of the role they play in implementing SCC for patients, individuals, family and the community effectively.


M. Kaja Lakshmy, E. Prabhakar Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 99-103

Tobacco smoking is widely prevalent all over the world and it continues to rise in
developing countries. Smoking has a deleterious effect on pulmonary functions. Smoking
is the single most significant risk factor contributing to the development of Chronic
obstructive airway diseases (COPD). Spirometry by a trained health professional gives an
indication of lung health by measuring airway abnormality. Objectives were to study
pulmonary function test (PFT) in smokers and non-smokers Tobacco smoking, in the form
of cigarettes, has a deleterious effect on the health, mainly on the pulmonary functions.
Smoking is highly associated with an abnormal PFT. Cessation of smoking should be
encouraged and PFTs from time to time in asymptomatic adults both smokers and nonsmokers
will be useful for early identification of abnormalities.