Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : morphometry

Mri Based Third Ventricular Morphometry In Kashmiri Population.

Dr. Baseerat Rashid, Dr. Javeed Ahmad Khan, Dr.Naseer Ahmad Khan, Dr.Sajad Hamid, Dr. Ghulam Mohammad Bhat, Dr. Sheikh Neha Zahoor

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 1209-1213

Brain is the most majestic and intricate organ in the human body. The ventricular system consists of a series of interconnecting spaces and channels within the brain which are derived from the central lumen of the neural tube. Third ventricle is the cavity of diencephalon that lies between the two thalami and is related to the most important structures of brain. Abnormality arising from any of these structures can obstruct the third ventricle affecting the cerebrospinal fluid  drainage. It is important to distinguish the pathological ventricular enlargement from age related ventricular enlargement.
Aims: To estimate the transverse diameter of third ventricle with respect to age using magnetic resonance and imaging in adults of Kashmiri population.
Settings and Design: Observational study
Methods and Material: The axial MR images of 100 patients were reviewed in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, GMC, Srinagar. The transverse diameter of third ventricle was taken at the level of interventricular foramen between the two thalami.
Statistical analysis used: SPSS
Results: The transverse diameter of third ventricle ranged from 2.1mm -8.29mm with a mean of 4.17mm. The results revealed a significant increase in the transverse diameter with increasing age.
Conclusion: Knowledge about the mean width of third ventricle in different age groups and in either gender may help to distinguish the pathological ventricular enlargement from age related ventricular enlargement.

Morphometric Analysis of Bicipital Groove of Humerus: A Cross-Sectional Study in Gujarat Region

Mehul Tandel, Daxa Kanjiya, Rahul Parmar, Tushar Nayak .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1281-1288

Introduction: The Bicipital Groove (BG) lies below the anatomical neck of humerus, separating the greater and lesser tubercles. It lodges the tendon of Long Head of Biceps Brachii (LHBB) and ascending branch of the anterior circumflex humeral artery. The shoulder pain is frequently caused by biceps tendon pathologies, which are associated with variations in morphometry of the BG. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine morphometric features of BG in Gujarat region of India to provide additional information.
Materials & Methods: The data was collected from 100 dry adult humeral bones of unknown sex (50 right and 50 left) available in anatomy department of Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat, India. The digital Vernier caliper was used to precisely measure the BG’s length, breadth, depth, medial wall length, and lateral wall length.  The opening angle (OA) and medial wall angles (MWA) was measured by screen protractor software after capturing and transferring images of bones to the computer. Statistical analysis was done on the collected data.
Result: The length, width and depth of BG were 73.21 ± 9.08 mm, 10.15 ± 1.01 mm and 4.24 ± 0.69 mm on right side and 71.94 ± 8.45 mm, 10.11 ± 0.89 mm, 4.31 ± 0.83 mm on left sides respectively. The average opening angle on the right side was 76.11±13.79º, while on the left side was 76.11 ± 13.79º. The medial wall angle was 55.74 ± 11.92º on right side and 54.03 ± 8.94º on left side.
Conclusion: This study provides additional information on the morphometry of the BG in the Gujarat region, which can be useful for anatomists, anthropologists, orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists. The results of this study may also be used to determine prosthetic design, size, and position in humeral head replacement.


Priyanka. R; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 372-378

Introduction: In case of mastoiditis, otitis, and other neurovascular conditions related to the auricular region, it is important to approach through surgical methods. The infectious condition of mastoid antrum i.e., mastoiditis is a highly risky clinical condition which may spread into the cranial cavity and/or head and neck regions. The reasons for this mastoiditis condition are chronic suppurative conditions of otitis media. Hence, the drainage of the infected mastoid is very important. The drainage is achieved through a suprameatal triangle.
Materials and Methods: 15 died and processed skulls of human origin were procured from Anatomy Department, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College. Digital vernier caliper was used for the collection of data for morphometric analysis of macewen’s triangle. The study adopted the rank test of Wilcoxon for biostatistical investigation with p < 0.005 is fixed to be significant for current data analysis.


Padmalochini Sudharsan; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 348-355

Introduction: Sphenoid bone is an individual bone in the cranium which is unpaired. Its shape resembles a butterfly or bat shaped containing a central body. Sphenoidal tubercle is the bony projection present within the anterior aspect of the infratemporal crest. The purpose of this research work is to bring out the morphometrical variations of sphenoidal tubercle in dry sphenoid bone and its anatomical deviations.
Materials and Methods: The osteometric study was did in 42 dry processed cranial cavity of unidentified gender. Also skulls having large breakage and developmental defects were rejected. Good selected bones were collected from Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals for estimation. Statistical analysis was performed in the SPSS, using a paired sample ‘t’ test.
Results: Morphological analysis shows that sphenoidal tubercle represent a different morphology and measurements. Morphometrical analysis shows that the average of right sphenoidal tubercle and left sphenoidal tubercle is 3.901 and 3.394.
Conclusion: Since the groove for maxillary artery and groove for maxillary nerve are situated nearer to the sphenoidal tubercle, it is a remarkable landmark in anatomical structures. This key landmark could be regarded as a criterion for the surgical methodology to the infratemporal fossa.


Jeswin Immanuel; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 417-424

Introduction: Eminentia arcuata is a crescent like raised projection observed at the middle cranial fossa on anterior surface of petrous part of the temporal bone. TheArcuate  eminence, in anatomical term referred as the “eminentia arcuata” shows the site of the superior semi-circular canal of inner ear.
Materials and Methods: The research work was carried out in Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College. No sampling bias is used. The disadvantage of this study is that skulls from different geographical regions are not included. The parameters included are length and breadth of Eminentia arcuata on left lateral and right lateral side. The measurements are taken with a digital sliding vernier caliper.
Results: Length along with the breath of Eminentia arcuata on the left and right  side was  found to be nearly the same. This work was done to analyse the clinical implications and morphometric examination which found that length breath of Eminentia arcuata in most of the cadaveric skulls were nearly the same.  In another research there was a controversy going on whether the Eminentia arcuata is formed by sulcus and gyri of the brain or by superior semi-circular canal.
Conclusion: On taking that research it is clear that the brain sulcus and gyri are just brain tissues which cannot cause Eminentia arcuata and its formation is by the superior semi-circular canal which is a bony structure of the inner ear.


S Pragya; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 433-442

Introduction: The hamate carpal bone is a three-sided designed bone which forms the portion of the distal carpal row of the wrist. It has a hook-like process called the hook of hamate. The hamate bone has a large articular surface which contributes to the incomplete ball and socket type of joint allowing some movements. The aim of the study was to analyse the morphological and morphometric properties of the hook of hamate bones among the South Indian population.
Materials and Methods: Total of 24 dry processed hamate bones procured at the Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College was used to carry out the study. The length, breadth and the diagonal length of right and left hamate bone was taken measurement with a digital sliding vernier caliper. The values obtained were tabulated, evaluated using statistical analysis. The data was interpreted for any structural variations between right and left sides.
Results: Right diameter of hook of hamate was greater than the left, right diagonal length was greater than left diagonal of hook of hamate and right width greater than left width of hook of hamate bone. All the three pairs were statistically significant indicating p value less than 0.05.
Conclusion: Morphometric knowledge of the hook of hamate is utmost important for surgical approach on those regions. Apart from that it will also help in other fields such as orthopaedic surgery, evolutionary studies etc.

Study of the acromion process of scapula and its clinical importance

Dr Mrs.Swapna.A.Shedge, Dr Sandeep.S.Mohite, Dr Manoj.P.Ambali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5466-5469

Aim: Study of the acromion process of scapula and its clinical importance.
Materials and methods: The present study used 180 dry adult scapulae (100 right, 80 left) of unknown age and sex at the anatomy department. Broken and wounded scapulae, as well as those with unique and complete features, were excluded from the study. Each scapula was morphologically examined, and the following acromion process parameters were measured and reported in millimetres using a Vernier calliper (mm).
Results: In the current research, the mean values of acromion length were 43.57±4.66 mm in total samples, 43.58±4.58 mm in right side, and 43.56±4.74 mm in left side. (Table 1) The mean values of acromion width were 27.66±3.51 mm in total samples, 27.78±3.58 mm in right side, and 27.54±3.44 mm in left side. (Table 2) The average distance from the tip of the acromion process to the tip of the coracoid process in the overall sample was 34.53± 2.91 mm, 34.17±2.96 mm on the right side, and 34.89±2.87 mm on the left side. (Table 3) The mean acromio-glenoid distance observed in the overall sample was 30.55±3.62, 30.11±3.69 mm on the right side, and 30.98±3.55 mm in the left side.
Conclusion: The acromion process is vital in shoulder joint development and provides stability. The morphometric study of the acromion may be utilised as an adjunct to encourage a better understanding of the illness that manifests itself in the shoulder area

Morphometry of deltoid ligament

Dr. Mubeena Shaikh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1335-1338

The medial collateral ligament also called as the deltoid ligament is a strong, triangular band, attached to the apex and to the anterior and posterior borders of the medial malleolus. Of its superficial fibres, the anterior also called the tibionavicular, passes forward to the navicular tuberosity, behind they blend with the medial margin of the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament. Intermediate also called the tibiocalcaneal fibres descend almost vertically to the entire length of the sustentaculum tali. Posterior fibres also called the posterior tibiotalar, passes posterolaterally to the medial side of the talus and its medial tubercle. The deep fibres (anterior tibiotalar) pass from the tip of the medial malleolus to the non-articular part of the medial talar surface.
Aims and Objectives: To study the morphometry of Deltoid Ligament.
Materials and Methods: Ten ankle joints were dissected and the measurements were taken.
Results: There is no statistical variation when compared in the sides and sexes.
Conclusion: Further large scale study is needed


S. Santhosh Bala; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Vivek Narayan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 843-849

Determination or identification of sex of an unknown individual is the most important step in forensic science and archeology. The morphometrical analysis of the human pelvic bone is considered to be the hallmark for sex determination. Morphometrical analysis is the study and measurement of shape, size and structure of the pelvic bone in this case. In the present study a total of 24 dry human pelvic bones of known sex (12 male and 12 female) and without any gross abnormality were collected from the department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India for evaluation. Sliding vernier calipers were used for measuring the iliac crest length and depth. All the data obtained were statistically tabulated using SPSS and represented graphically. The average value of the right sided male pelvic bone was 41.47mm and the left sided average value for males was 40.92mm. The average value of the left side and right side of the iliac crest was 42.97mm and 43.63mm. Respectively for the females With clear varying mean values of the male and female pelvic bones it is clear that the sex can determined using iliac crest of pelvic bone and serves as a reliable criteria