Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Exercise


Effect of Acute Bout of Moderate Exercise on P300 Component of Event-Related Potential in Young Women During Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle: An Institutional Based Study

Shalini Gandhi, Abhay Raina, Urvashi Miglani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3453-3457

Background: The effect of physical activity on the brain and cognition has attracted the interest of many researchers. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of acute bout of moderate exercise in cognitive processing in young women during different phases of menstrual cycle.
Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional observational study conducted on 45 young, normally menstruating women with normal auditory capability. Each participant attended two laboratory sessions, one of which was in the early follicular phase and the other was in mid-luteal phase. The data collection pro forma was used to record information pertaining to anthropometric measurements following which physiological parameters. Basal brachial artery systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP) values were recorded. Central BP and HR, basal P300 was recorded.
Results: A total of 45 subjects participated in the present study. There were significant changes in all cardiovascular parameters in post-exercise session in comparison to pre-exercise session in both phases of menstrual cycle. The P300 latency showed significant decrease in postexercise session when recorded at Cz as well as Pz position in both phases of menstrual cycle. However, P300 latency recorded at Fz position displayed no significant change at post-exercise session in comparison to pre-exercise session during both phases of menstrual cycle.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that an acute bout of moderate exercise caused significant decrease in latency of P300 ERP in the participants during both phases of menstrual cycle. That means even acute bout of moderate exercise enhances cognitive functioning of the individual.

Oxidative Stress And Enzymatic Antioxidant Defense Systems With Special Reference To Vitamin E Supplementation To The Sedentary Exercising Females.

Chandana Bera, Dr. Manila Jain, Subarna Ghosh, Bijay Kumar Mahaseth

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 501-507

Background: Exercise increases the production of free radicals, while vitamin E acts as a
scavenger of free radicals, while vitamin E acts as a scavenger of free- radicals. Thus exogenous
vitamin E supplementation has been shown to be effective against exercise- induced oxidative
stress.The study aims to investigate the effect of vitamin E (400mg) supplementation on the
endogenous antioxidant systems of the body viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione
peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) of hundred healthy sedentary females of 18-21 years age
group and comparable height and weight. Material & Methodology: Endurance capacity of
each subject was determined by exercising them on Magnetic Break Bicycle Ergometer at a fixed
workload of 600KgM/ min till exhaustion. SOD, GPX and CAT levels were analyzed at pre and
post exercise levels. The subjects were divided into two groups --- control group (n=50) and the
group receiving 400 mg of vitamin E (Evion 400) (VE) supplementation for 15 days. The same
experimental procedure was repeated after the supplementation tenure. Results :Results
indicates that exercise caused a significant decrease in the CAT level (P<0.05) and an increase in
SOD level (P<0.001) and GPX level (P< 0.05). However, these changes in the level of SOD, GPX
and CAT were minimized after exogenous vitamin E supplementation.Conclusion: The entire
result signifies that vitamin E is highly effective in combating exercise- induced oxidative stress
in sedentary females.

Original research article: Study of Effect of exercise on left ventricle systolic function in person without any heart disease

Dr Ekta Khurana .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 540-544

Background: Regular training, in particular endurance exercise, induces structural myocardial adaptation, so-called "athlete's heart". In addition to the 2D standard echo parameters, assessment of myocardial function is currently possible by deformation parameters
Objective: To determine the impact of measures of cardiac function assessed by echocardiography on exercise capacity and to determine if these associations are modified by sex or advancing age.
Methodology: The Study was conducted on 100 subjects at Haldiram and Moolchand Heart Centre, PBM Hospital, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner. First a resting echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiovascular diastolic function. After echocardiography the subjects were underwent Bruce protocol treadmill test.
Result & Conclusion:: There was no correlation between exercise capacity and end systolic volume index (p=0.089), between exercise capacity and ejection fraction(p=0.459), between exercise capacity and fractional shortening(p=0.467), between exercise capacity and stroke volume index(p=0.361), between exercise capacity and  cardiac index(p=0.475).
 

Contemporary directions in fatty liver disease in light of low-carbohydrate approach: a review by public health India

Abhinav V Pathare, Anup B Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 808-817

This study aims to equip health professionals with essential directions for their practice and
research in fatty liver disease. In fatty liver disease, excess fat is accumulated in the liver
cells, and it mainly has two types: Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (AFLD) and Non-Alcoholic
Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). AFLD is widely accepted to be associated with excessive
alcohol consumption. However, in NAFLD's case, although the name acknowledges that it is
not associated with excessive alcohol consumption, the exact cause of NAFLD remains
ambiguous. Furthermore, for almost four decades, without specialised treatments and
prevention strategies, NAFLD has constantly increased, affecting more than a quarter of the
world's population. Meanwhile, although the current dietary recommendations for NAFLD
patients orbit around the conventional High-Carbohydrate Low-Fat diets, mounting evidence
advocates the broader benefits of Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat (LCHF) diets in this regard.
Therefore, focusing on the databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google
Scholar, the authors have carried out an advanced literature search reporting on the efficacy
of LCHF diets on NAFLD. After a comprehensive search—using appropriate "keywords and
Boolean operators" and "inclusion & exclusion criteria"—the authors selected a potentially
relevant set of existing peer-reviewed articles for this narrative review. After critically
investigating the LCHF-NAFLD theme, the authors found that LCHF diets may significantly
decrease liver fat and may even reverse the disease by targeting the key causes of hepatic fat
storage, i.e., high insulin levels, excessive calorie consumption (mainly from carbohydrates),
and excessive consumption of refined carbohydrates. Additionally, LCHF diets may provide
a comprehensive health benefit beyond liver health. The authors conclude that the LCHFNAFLD
theme represents a rich vein of research opportunities. The authors encourage and
call researchers, doctors, nutritionists, dieticians, and related-health professionals to engage
more with the LCHF-NAFLD theme.

Study of Effect of exercise on left ventricle diastolic function in normal subjects

Dr Ekta Khurana .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1520-1524

Background: Determining the factors affecting exercise capacity is extremely significant because it can improve the life span and the quality of life of subject as exercise capacity is related to prognosis in healthy people and in heart disease patients.
Objective: To determine the effectof cardiac diastolic function assessed by echocardiography on exercise capacity
Methodology: The Study was conducted on 100 subjects at Haldiram and Moolchand Heart Centre, PBM Hospital, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner. First a resting echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac diastolic function. After echocardiography the subjects were underwent Bruce protocol treadmill test.
Result & Conclusion:: There exists a strong association among VO2max and diastolic function as observed by E/A and A’s positive correlation with VO2max and negative correlation of diastolic function indices E,E/E’, LAVI with VO2max

Effect of single bout of exercise on heart rate variability in young healthy adults and its correlations with anthropometric parameters

Dr. Anindya Roy, Dr. Paramita Nag, Dr. Gargi Barat, Dr. Deepayan Sarkar, Dr. Enakshi Ghosh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 944-958

Heart rate variability (HRV) as a measurement of autonomic function assumes great clinical
importance. It is well known that particular patterns of body fat distribution increase coronary
heart disease risk both in adults & children. While frank obesity is associated with reduced
HRV, indicative of poorer autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, the association
between body mass index (BMI) and HRV is less clear. The dynamic autonomic responses
during exercise can be measured to give actionable information for training by analysis of the
ECG to determine heart rate variability. While application of HRV has been applied to
predict sudden cardiac death and diabetic neuropathy in assessing disease progression. The
study revealed the changes in HRV in resting condition and also after a single bout of sub
maximal treadmill exercise (50% of VO2 max.) among males and females in the age group of
17-25 years at rest and the correlations between the HRV parameters at rest and after the
exercise with BMI and WHR in the subjects. An observational cross sectional study was
conducted in the Physiology Department of R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata, India on 60
subjects (n=60) of both sexes (30 males and 30 females) in the 17-25 years age, participated
in this study. Their WHR and BMI were measured and HRV was recorded during rest and
immediately after exercise by digital Polyrite. Result showed that the HRV of male were
more than in female in resting condition. After submaximal exercise the HRV value of males
were more than their respective resting HRV values though it was not significant and in the
females, post-exercise HRV was significantly more than their respective resting HRV. This
study shows that females have higher parasympathetic activity than males. There is an
association between WHR and BMI and HRV in healthy female persons, which shows that
there is an increase in LF/HF(low frequency & high frequency) of values among males and
females after a single bout of sub-maximal exercise though not significant in case of males
but significant in case of females.

Impact of Beta carotene and antioxidant minerals supplementation in combination on the exercise induced oxidative stress in sedentary females.

Subarna Ghosh, Chandana Bera, Dr. Manila Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5216-5222

Background: Physical exercise may be associated with a 10-20 fold increase in whole body oxygen
uptake. Oxygen flux in the active peripheral skeletal muscle fibers may increase by as such 100 to 200
fold during exercise. Studies during the past 2 decades suggest that during strenuous exercise, generation
of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is elevated to a level that overwhelms tissue antioxidant defense
systems. The result is oxidative stress. The present study aims to investigate the effect of supplementation
of beta carotene, minerals and antioxidants in combination on the endogenous antioxidant system of the
body (viz., glutathione peroxidase GPX, super oxide dismutase SOD and catalase CAT) of hundred
females of 18-21 years age, and comparable height, and weight. Methods: Endurance capacity (min) of
each subject was determined through exercise on a Magnetic Break Bicycle Ergometer at a fixed
workload of 600 kgM/min till exhaustion. GPX, SOD and CAT levels were analyzed at pre and post
exercise levels. The subjects (N=100) were divided into two groups – control group (n=50) receiving
placebo supplementation and the experimental group (VM+Se) receiving supplementation of beta carotene
and antioxidant minerals combinedly in capsular form (n=50) for 15 days. The same experimental
procedure was repeated after supplementation. Results: Results indicate that significant increase in
endurance capacity (P<0.001) and post exercise significant decrease in GPX (P<0.05) and SOD (P<0.001)
and no significant changes in CAT (P>0.05) after beta carotene and antioxidant minerals combinedly
supplementation. Conclusion: Beta carotene and antioxidant minerals seem to be beneficial to control
oxidative stress and enhances endurance capacity.

GENERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS

Utepbergenov Amangeldi Kutlimurotovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2366-2371

The specificity principle of the exercise effect when choosing exercises to train, when it comes to achieving high sports results and high savings in the exercise performance, which depends more on the movement skills improvement (its performance techniques) should play a leading role. The greatest effect of exercise on movement skills (sports technique) is achieved by performing the exercises that are considered to be the main training.

Changes of perceived self-esteem dimension using archery as a weekly exercise regime in sedentary youth

MOHD AZRUL ANUAR ZOLKAFI; NORSHAM JULIANA; NOOR AIEN MON SARIP; SAHAR AZMANI; ABD RAHMAN HAYATI

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5928-5935

the study aimed to evaluate self-esteem following 12 weeks of intervention and detraining from an archery activity among sedentary youth.
The study sample consisted of 34 male youth who were chosen randomly, and allocated into archery and control group. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Score was used, consisting 10 items to measure merely on self-esteem. The measurement was taken three times; baseline, week 12 and week 24 along the intervention course.  
The results shown that the self-esteem among the archery group was significantly higher following 12 weeks of intervention compared to baseline. However, at week 24 (after detraining), the score was reduced compared to week 12. The level of self-esteem among control group was similar at baseline, post-intervention and detraining.
Archery intervention provides good improvement on self-esteem especially among sedentary youth. Withdrawal from archery intervention leads to reduction of self-esteem score. 

Electrolyte Physiology In Physical Exercise

Siti Kaidah; Huldani .; Fauziah .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4656-4663

Physical activity causes various changes in the body's regulatory system, these changes are
influenced by the type, frequency, duration, and intensity of the exercise. One of the
changes is sweating to regulate body temperature. The fluid that comes out through sweat
contains water and electrolytes such as sodium and potassium which are important for
body metabolism. Electrolyte balance affects fluid balance and cell function. When
exercise, increased sodium can occur due to a deficit in body fluids due to water excretion
that far exceeds sodium excretion and insufficient water intake. The increase in serum
potassium levels occurs due to the transfer of potassium from the intracellular fluid (CIS)
to the extracellular fluid (CES), which is then excreted together with sweat as a result of
increased body heat. The increase in serum calcium levels after physical activity is caused
by the activation of the body's homeostasis mechanism to maintain normal serum calcium
levels as an essential substance in the process of muscle contraction. There is also a
temporary transfer of magnesium from the extracellular fluid to the skeletal muscle tissue
so that the amount of magnesium contained in the skeletal muscle increases while the
plasma magnesium concentration decreases. Changes in electrolyte levels due to physical
exercise are influenced by the type, duration, and intensity of exercise performed. so that
the amount of magnesium contained in skeletal muscle becomes more while the plasma
magnesium concentration decreases. Changes in electrolyte levels due to physical exercise
are influenced by the type, duration, and intensity of exercise performed. so that the
amount of magnesium contained in skeletal muscle becomes more while the plasma
magnesium concentration decreases. Changes in electrolyte levels due to physical exercise
are influenced by the type, duration, and intensity of exercise.

AWARENESS OF SELF-QUARANTINE- A SURVEY

John Francis; Jothi priya; Lavanya prathap; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2236-2247

Everyone gets separated after a few days when they get bored due to that depression. Self quarantine reduces the economic development of the country. Everyone working has many responsibilities but due to this self quarantine in this lockdown shortage of money leads the country to drop in economic status. Due to self quarantine many are affected mentally, they usually get depressed and lose their peace. Cannot concentrate in what they are doing and change in their mood swings. Self quarantine Self quarantine is most useful during the time of spreading disease. This study is done with the help of an online survey. Many are used to this self quarantine. Many ill effects are there in self quarantine like obesity, due to obesity leads to myocardial infarction but other than these many useful things are occurring due to self quarantine like reducing usage of vehicles which reduces global warming. This study created awareness about the self quarantine and told how to spend free time properly

Knowledge, Awareness And Risk Factors Of Childhood Obesity Among Adolescent Population In Chennai - A Survey Based Analysis

Jagadheeswari Ramamoorthy; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Geo Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3156-3174

IntroductionChildhood obesity is termed as excess body fat accumulation which negatively affects a child's health or well-being. As methods to work out body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is usually supported by BMI. A Body mass Index of 30 or more is considered as obesity. Children are considered to be obese if they are above the normal weight for their height in relation to their age. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle income countries. The rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects it's being recognized as a significant public health concern. AimThe aim of this study is to assess the Knowledge, awareness and risk factors of childhood obesity among the adolescent population.
Materials and MethodThis is a survey based study and was conducted on an online forum, Survey Planet with a sample of 100 participants .Adolescents of age group between 10-21 participated in the study. A questionnaire with 10 questions was circulated among the Chennai population. The responses were collected. The data was summarised as the number and percentage and analysed using SPSS.Chi square test was done and a P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
ResultsIn this survey, we observed that 29% of them consider their current weight to be harmful for their health. 40% of them check their weight regularly. Half of the population were aware that chronic stress can lead to weight gain. Only 41% of the participants have the habit of exercising regularly. 67% of the participants were aware of the complications of obesity. Among all the respondents 28% of them had a family history of obesity.
ConclusionWithin the limits of this survey, we can conclude that awareness on childhood obesity is present among the adolescent population. Females were more aware of Childhood obesity than males. However regular exercise and healthy diet is essential to maintain a healthy weight and prevent obesity.

AWARENESS ABOUT EFFECT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CONTROLLING SYSTEMIC DISEASE AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS: A SURVEY

Sneha Kannan; Venkatesh K; Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 591-599

The aim of this study is to get awareness about the benefits of physical activity and its effect on dental students. Recently, it has been recognized that lack of physical activity , especially regular stretching of arms and legs, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus and low birth weight. The purpose of this study is to get awareness about the importance of physical activities and their benefits during the busy schedule of dental students. Dentistry is a field of challenges, especially the health of a budding dentist must be on top priority . A well maintained body is equal to a peaceful mind and it can be attained only through exercise. A cross sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. A total of 104 people of Saveetha Dental College were made to answer all the questions. The result will be analyzed using statistical analysis.
In this study, it was found that 90% are aware of the effect of physical activity to control systemic disease and only 14% are not aware of the statement. It has been proven that physically active individuals gain less weight over time and maintain good health. Thus infrastructure improvements such as sports activity in colleges among faculties, combined with regular exercise provide additional physical activity that would help to reduce obesity and non-communicable diseases in the future.