Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : immune system



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 332-337

Background: The immune system defends the host against many harmful microorganisms. The immune system has developed to contain various specialized cell types, signaling molecules, and functional responses to deal with this wide range of threats. In Covid-19 infections immune system is the key component for prevention of the disease. Hospital admission and duration of stay due to covid 19 infection have a considerable physical, financial, and psychological burden for the individual, family, and country. Diet has been shown to have a vital role in boosting one's immunity. Non vegetarian diet is traditionally considered to be immunity boosting as it is rich in protein, vitamins, and micronutrients.      
Aims and objective: To study the effect of dietary pattern on duration of hospital stay in patients with respiratory Covid illness
Material and Methods: This was a double blind retrospective cohort study comprising of 113 patients tested positive in RTPCR for SARS-CoV-2 and admitted at DCH located at super specialty hospital of Jayarogya Group of Hospitals, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, was studied retrospectively between July 2020 to October 2020. Patients were divided based on diet pattern into Group A (patients following a vegetarian diet; n=70) and Group B (patients following a non-vegetarian diet; n=43). The outcome was measured as the duration of hospital stay and comparison of diet type, age, and gender of patients. All these patients were discharge stable and case files of deaths were excluded. Non vegetarian diet was defined as inclusion of eggs, meet, fish in the routine diet whereas a vegetarian diet was exclusion of these items.   
Result: Out of 113 patients, most (61.94%) had a vegetarian diet, whereas 43 (38.06%) had a non-vegetarian diet. Duration of hospital stay was more in patients in Group A (10.71±5.5 days) than Group B (8.4± 4.7 days), p=0.0302. Hospital stay was longer (11.05 days) in older patients (>50 years) compared to younger patients (≤50 years) (9.2 days) (table 3).  In Group A, hospital stay was longer in those with age >50 years (11.4 days) compared to those with age ≤50 (9.2 days). On the contrary, older patients had shorter hospital lengths (9.9 days) than younger patients (10.09 days) in Group B (p value =     ).
Conclusion: A significantly shorter hospital stay was observed in patients of respiratory covid infection following a  non-vegetarian diet with Covid-19 infection.

Clinical and immunological parallels of acute polymorphic psychotic disorders

Gulchekhra Farukhtdinovna Gopurova; Sultanov Shokhrukh Khabibullaevich; Shakhnoza Farukhtdinovna Usmanova; Shakhnoza Farukkhtdinovna Usmanova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 508-512

This scientific article describes the changes in immune parameters in the blood caused by acute polymorphic psychotic disorders and measures to optimize the treatment algorithm by treating them with immunomodulators.

Immunomodulation and anti-viral effect of Herbal compounds: A review on coupled strategy for COVID-19

Satish Kumar Sharma; Ashok Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1007-1015

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an infectious pathogen rapidly spreading throughout the world. The disease has become a global pandemic having approximately thirty four million disease cases with one million reported deaths, worldwide. The immuno compromised and/or old age people are most susceptible to severe form of the disease. The pathogenic virus enters the human body causing numerous changes in the immune system regulation. Several studies report that coronavirus causes ‘cytokine storm’ leading to adverse effects of host immune response. Thus, it becomes necessary to prevent the pathogen from hijacking the host’s immune system. The present study elaborately describes the scope of immunomodulation in COVID-19 along with ayurvedic herbs as potential immunomodulating drugs to curtail the effects of the pathogenic virus. Briefly, the study provides dual strategy of immunomodulation and antiviral herbal compounds as a measure to control the pandemic at current stage.

Features Of Distribution And Density Of Lymphoid Cells Of The Mucosa Of The Larynx As A Manifestation Of Local Immunity In Chronic Laringitis (Analysis Of Sectional Material)

Samieva G. U; Hamidova F.М .; Ismailov J.M .; Toirova S .B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2516-2522

Introduction: Local immunological manifestations of chronic hyperplastic laryngitis were investigated on the basis of quantitative determination of epithelial-stromal interactions in the mucous membrane of the larynx of subjects having no respiratory problems. Autopsy examination showed that lymphoid cells were nonuniformly distributed in the laryngeal mucous membrane the pattern of distribution depending on the type of epithelium and its integrity, state of the basal membrane, stroma collagen content, and vascularization. The distribution can be viewed as a characteristic of the adaptive potential of the laryngeal mucosa.
Methods: The object of the study was 21 larynx (16 male, 5 female) of people aged 20-65 who died suddenly from causes not associated with the pathology of the respiratory system (acute heart failure, car accident, etc.). The larynx was fixed in 10% neutral formalin, dissected in the longitudinal direction; for histological examination, preparations were left that did not contain macroscopic signs of pathology. The material, after additional fixation in formalin and embedded in paraffin, was stained with hematoxylin and eosin according to Van Gieson, and a PIC reaction was performed. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using the Student's t-test.
Results: The presence of small lymphocytes in the epithelial layer, and in the stroma under the epithelium of immunocompetent cells at different stages of maturation may indicate that a full-fledged immunological reaction is possible in the laryngeal mucosa.


Amirtha Varshini; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 390-396

Foods contain various substances which control the physiological functions of the body, modulating
immune responses which is one among the important functions of foods. Immune functions are
indispensable for defending the body against attack by pathogens or cancer cells and plays a pivotal role
in the maintenance of health. The immune system is supported by the fragile balance that comes with a
healthy lifestyle. Adequate sleep, exercise, and, of course, a healthful diet all contribute to maintaining the
body’s system of defense against illnesses.The immune system acts to guard the host from infectious
agents that exist within the environment and from other noxious insults. Nutritional deficiencies seem to
weaken the immune system leading to increased disease and mortality. Extrinsic factors can adversely
affect immune responses producing states of secondary immunodeficiency and a consequent increased risk
of infections. After all, a healthy body and sane mind is all we would like to survive the challenges of this
fast paced world. So it is important to take care of a healthy immune system. In addition to knowledge of
foods which boosts immunity, it is also important to know the foods that should be avoided to maintain a
healthy immune system. This study reviews the foods that can be avoided to maintain immunity and thus
promote the immune system.