Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Epilepsy

Role Of Vitamin E Supplementation in Treatment Resistant Epilepsy in Children in The Age Group of 1-12 Years

Dr. Muhammed Shabeer P, Dr. Prabha Khaire More, Dr. Prashant Srinivas Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1170-1177

A seizure is a transient occurrence of signs and or symptoms from abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. The commonly used treatment for epilepsy is antiepileptic drugs; there is an increased oxidative stress in epilepsy patients, this study was to look for effectiveness of vitamin E in children with treatment resistant epilepsy in the form of improvement in frequency, duration of seizure, number of hospitalization, and EEG change.
Subject and Methods: Randomized control trail conducted in 32 children with treatment resistant epilepsy, with supplementation of vitamin E in upper limit of RDA and placebo in addition to antiepileptic drugs after randomization and allocation for 6 months’ duration with prior recording history related to seizure prior to 6 months of trail. Patient kept on follow up with number of seizures, number hospitalization, duration each seizure occurred, changes in antiepileptic drugs made, an EEG after 6 months of intervention.
Result: Reduction in seizure frequency, number of hospitalization and duration of seizures occurred in both group, significant difference was observed in number of Impending status seizure episode (p=0.037), there is no significant positive changes in observed.
Conclusion: Supplementation of vitamin E as per the upper limit of RDA is effective in reducing the number of impending status seizure, hence the severity of epilepsy in treatment-resistant epileptic patients of the pediatric age group.

Encephalopathy, Fever and Complicated Febrile Seizures in Children

Rakesh Kumar, Nand Kishor Singh, Prem Kumar, Shailendra Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1369-1375

Children frequently have neurological issues such febrile encephalopathy and fever-related seizures. The majority of cases are caused by infections of the neurological system. The trifecta of encephalopathy, fever, and seizures is also associated with a range of inflammatory and infectious diseases. In addition to complex febrile seizures and febrile status epilepticus, age-related clinical phenotypes of fever-related epilepsy and encephalopathy include reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES), infantile hemi convulsion hemiplegia epilepsy syndrome (IHHE), fever infection related epilepsy syndrome of childhood (FIRES), acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANE), acute encephalopathy with delayed diffusion restriction (AESD).  For an accurate diagnosis and the quick application of immunomodulatory/ immunosuppressive therapy, awareness of these entities is crucial. We examine the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and therapeutic strategies of these fever-related encephalopathy and seizure disorders in this review

A study on detrimental effect of antiepileptic drugs dose in pediatric children

Sumit Sukaldas Kamble, Kamlesh Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6008-6017

Introduction: Adversity of epileptic drugs is still unwanted and inseparable along with advantages of epileptic medication, despite much progress has been made in the area of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of AED under BNF guidelines and regular practice for different oral antiepileptic medications in enhancing and controlling the patient’s disease state and tolerability.
Material and Methods: All the patients (70) were randomly divided into two groups; group I patients were on regular practice medication While, group II patients followed British National Formulary (BNF) guideline. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was used to assess the adverse effects in epileptic patients. 
Results: Results revealed that 23.5% patients of Group II patients followed BNF had seizures whereas, 53.1 % patients of group I who followed regular practice had convulsion after 6 months follow up. Patients on levetiracetammonotherapy were experiencing poor seizure control with a number of seizure incidence in group I patients (n=10) compared to patients (n=4) who followed the BNF guidelines. Adverse effects were more in 65.6% patients of group I following regular practice medicines (n=21) compare to 23.5% patients (n=8) of group II followed BNF guidelines.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that unbiased individualization of patients for the selection AEDs and its doses according to BNF guidelines has been found significantly effective in reducing the adverse effects as well as improved seizure control in pediatric population.


Muslima Mambetkarimova; Dilfuza Ashurova; Yakutkhon Madjidova; Nadira Zakirova; Sherali Ergashev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2375-2381

This article details the condition of newborn babies from mothers with epilepsy.
The frequency and nature of epilepsy in children born to mothers with epilepsy are
described. Risk factors for the development of epilepsy in children born to mothers with
epilepsy were determined.

Assessment of Levetiracetam for the Treatment of Epilepsy

Ms. Samera Ali Siddique

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 889-896

Epilepsy is a disease related to central nervous system disorder where brain activity become unusual, thereby a patient experience a seizures or periods of strange behaviour, vibrations, and sometimes loss of consciousness. It might be due to genetic disorder or some sort of brain injury, such as shock or stroke. It requires a long duration treatment of drug therapy for getting cured. As per various researches half of patients do not pass the initial antiepileptic treatment and around 35 per cent are highly resistant to medical treatment, demonstrating the rising requirement for more effectual and improved tolerated medicines. Levetiracetam is an adjunctive management of seizures in victims with epilepsy, the fourth most general neurological chaos distressing individuals of different age groups. Its pharmacokinetic compensation comprise fast and approximately full absorption, limited irrelevant binding with plasma protein, no activation of enzymes, no connections with other products, and unfair metabolism external the liver.Yet another advantage is the provision of an intravenous injection. This has been shown to be efficient as adjunctive treatment for partial-onset refractory seizures, primary widespread tonic-conic seizures, and juvenile myoclonic seizure. In addition, controlled release of carbamazepine was found to be similar to first-line treatment for partial-onset seizure, together in effectiveness and acceptability.

Cytogenetic Evaluation of an Indian Boy with Ring Chromosome 14 Mosaicism: A Case Study and Literature Review

Neelam Thakur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4451-4454

The ring 14 chromosome is a rare chromosomal aberration characterized by a distinct
phenotype consisting of dysmorphic features including mental retardation, epileptic
seizures, ocular anomalies, microcephaly, pre-mature birth, late birth cry, skin
pigmentation, short neck and low set ears. Cytogenetic evaluation was done on 17 years
boy who was discovered to have previously undescribed chromosomal abnormality 42, XY,
14(r), -14 +Marker/ 44, XY. The parents had the normal karyotypes that indicate de novo
origin of this abnormality. Stanford - Binet test was performed to assess the degree of
severity of mental retardation and was found to be mild (IQ: 50-55 to 70). To our
knowledge this is the first report evaluated with ring (14) mosaicism. Literature of
published cases is reviewed in this article but none of these reports pertain mosaicism of
this type.


K. Sree Kala Priyadharsini; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 376-382

Accurate localization of the seizure onset zone is important for better seizure outcomes and preventing
deficits following epilepsy surgery. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have increased our
understanding of the underlying etiology and improved our ability to noninvasively identify the seizure
onset zone. Using epilepsy-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols, structural MRI allows
better detection of the seizure onset zone, particularly when it is interpreted by experienced
neuroradiologists. Ultra-high-field imaging and postprocessing analysis with automated machine learning
algorithms can detect subtle structural abnormalities in MRI-negative patients. Tractography derived from
diffusion tensor imaging can delineate white matter connections associated with epilepsy or eloquent
function, thus, preventing deficits after epilepsy surgery. Arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI,
simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG)-functional MRI (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography
(MEG) are noninvasive imaging modalities that can be used to localize the epileptogenic foci and assist in
planning epilepsy surgery with positron emission tomography, ictal single-photon emission computed
tomography, and intracranial EEG monitoring. These advanced structural and functional imaging
modalities can be combined with postprocessing methods to better understand the epileptic network and
obtain valuable clinical information for predicting long-term outcomes in pediatric epilepsy.


Hani Ahmed Alhazmi, Anas Mohammed Alodhaibee, Fatima Gayeb Aldajani, Emad Omar Dahlawi, Najwa Shaker Allhyani, ShikhahGayeb Aldajani Majed Mohammad Mousa Mokhtar, Salman AbdulrahimDakhilallah Almalki, MatooqHasan Noah, Rania Oudah alobairi, Abdulmohsenmusleh alsokheri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 448-456

Background: Epilepsy is the most prevalent neurological condition and is one of the most prevalent non-infectious diseases in the world. It has been reported that epilepsy is the commonest disorder encountered in most pediatric neurology clinics in the developing world.Epilepsy is a neurological disease characterized by two or more unprovoked seizures. It is an abnormal electrical firing of neurons. The morbid fear of having an unpredictable seizure not only affects the patients' physical function, but also emotional well-being, cognitive function, and social function, Epilepsy is a category of progressive and complicated neurological diseases characterized by epileptic seizures of an intermittent and crippling nature . It is the most prevalent non-infectious, neurological condition in the world. It has been reported that epilepsy is encountered in most pediatric neurology clinics, especially in the developing world. It is characterized by various neurological abnormalities, one of them is epilepsy. Epilepsy is difficult to control, as it is able to aggravate motor disorders and disrupt cognitive function, ultimately worsening the long-term outcome.
 Aim of the study: To Assessment of the traits of Epilepsy in Cerebral Palsy Children in the in the outpatient neurology clinics in Makkah, at Saudi Arabia 2019.
 Method:A cross-sectional study has be conducted using snowball sampling strategy. A self-administered questionnaire was designed and will be sending to the study participants through social media platforms and email. Study participants will be recruited across in the outpatient neurology clinics in Makkah in Saudi Arabia about awareness of the epilepsy in Cerebral Palsy Children and association with socioeconomic status in KSA. Our total participants were (120).
Results: In our study showed that the only (44.00%)of the participated were(25-35)years while (33.00%)were(<25)years, regarding the Education the majority of the participated school were (47.50%), the majority of the participant were Saudi  (65.00%) while non-Saudi were(35.00%) . The majority of the participated the family monthly income < 5000 SAR were (68.33%), followed by 5000 to 10000 SAR were(16.00%). 
Conclusion:the geographic variables were significantly associated with the risk of epilepsy in children with CP. Patients with epileptic CP had a higher odds ratio of several neuropsychiatric diseases, including mental retardation, ophthalmologic problems, hearing impairment, and hydrocephalus.