Keywords : Chest and Abdominal Injuries
Analysis Of Death In Major Trauma: An Autopsy Based Retrospective Study
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1862-1867
Background: In India, Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) due to road traffic accidents (RTA) are most common. The most vulnerable part of the body, which is affected by road traffic accidents, is the head. The various injuries were broadly classified apart from head into, Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic etc. Head related injuries were grouped into Mild, Moderate and Severe Head injury. Autopsy is the final opportunity to find out the exact cause of death. The aim of the present study is to find the most common autopsy findings. Most deaths take place within 24 hours of injury, before reaching the tertiary hospital most of the times. Clinical and radiological examination may not reveal the full extent of injuries, among RTA cases in head injuries and correlation of findings with time of survival. However, 20 to 50 million people sustain various forms of RTA injuries.
Materials and Methods: The present study was done on medicolegal autopsies conducted at the mortuary house of District Hospital Shahjahanpur, UP, from 1st July 2021 to 30stJune 2022 to study the pattern of major trauma in fatal road traffic accidents. This study was done on 650 deceased of all ages had a history of RTA and death occurred due to head injury, site of injury and other organs involved, were also observed. The age, sex, time of death, history and type of the accident were noted.
Results: Out of total 1214 autopsy done at mortuary of District Hospital Shahjahanpur, UP, 650 cases were of fatal RTA out of which 53% had head injury, 28% had chest injury, 17 % had abdominal injury, 3.6% had cervical spine injury and the other had combined injuries. Three hundred forty-four (52.88%) victims were between 21-40 years of age; but only 85 (13.09%) victims were below 20 years of age. Males constituted 82.98% of the total victims, and light vehicles were involved in 60.30%. Five hundred and forty-three (55.97%) RTA occurred during the daytime, between 9 AM to 8 PM. Majority of victims were died within 24 hrs (60.37%) followed by death on spot (32.60%) and only (7.03%) victims were died after 24 hrs.
Conclusions: Proper education for the people, importance of speed limits and following the traffic regulation. The majority of deaths in this group of patients are due to the combined effects of multiple injuries in various body structures. Rapid management of patients with abdominal injuries is essential and particular consideration must be placed on those injuries involving other body parts.