Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Active surveillance

Monkeypox: A comprehensive review on transmission, clinical features and management of human monkeypox

Shaik Firoz; Ramu Samineni; Y. Ratna Sindhu; C. Radhika; M.S. Srikanth; Penumala Prudhvi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 103-119

An Orthopoxvirus-based zoonotic illness known as monkeypox causes a small pox-like illness in humans was discovered in 1970. New outbreaks in Sudan and the United States of America have sparked new study revealing environmental variables leading to the extended geographical distribution of the human monkeypox virus ((MPXV), which was formerly restricted to West Africa (WA) and the Congo basin (CB). The current 2022 multi-nation monkeypox outbreak is the biggest outside of Africa in recorded history. An example of a developing zoonotic disease that has been considered to have high pandemic potential for decades because to the recent rise in the number of human outbreaks. Healthcare practitioners worldwide are attempting to get familiar with the varied clinical manifestations and therapy of this virus as public health organizations seek to limit the current outbreak. In light of the current outbreaks worldwide, we provide updated information on monkeypox for healthcare professionals in this review. Despite the fact that the smallpox vaccine protects against MPXV, the prevalence is rising due to new non-immune generations. The likelihood of animal-to-human transmission is growing as a result of environmental conditions increasing the frequency of interaction with prospective hosts. Greater potential for transmission through globalization, and environmental factors all increase the threat of MPXV to previously unaffected nations. The frequency of human monkeypox has substantially increased in rural DRC thirty years after widespread smallpox immunization efforts stopped. It is becoming more and more important to provide health workers with appropriate diagnostic testing, vaccines, and antiviral medication. In order to more accurately quantify the public health burden and create measures for lowering the risk of infection spreading farther, monitoring and epidemiological analysis must be improved.