Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Cobalamin


A Hospital Based Prospective Study to Estimate the Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Vegetarian Outpatients Between 18-60 Years of Age Presenting at a Tertiary Care Centre

Devendra Dadhich, Darshan Kumar Bhargava, Mukesh Verma, Rajesh Meena, Ummed Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10954-10962

Background: Vegetarianism has been well known and commonly found in India since
ancient times. Animal products provide the only dietary source of vitamin B12. Vegetarianism
is a well-known risk factor for vitamin B12 deficiency. The aim of this study to determine the
prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among vegetarian outpatients, between the age groups
of 18 and 60 years, visiting the internal medicine outpatient department of a tertiary level
teaching hospital.
Materials& Methods: A hospital based prospective study in department of medicine at
government S.K. Medical College, Sikar, Rajasthan, India during one year period. A
prevalence study for any factor is best done in the community – in a lot of situations that
would reduce the bias of a hospital study. This being a hospital study has its own limitations.
However as far as possible we wanted to choose a population in our hospital survey that
would most closely reflect the community or the general population at largeVegetarian
patients were defined as patients that had been consuming a diet devoid of any form of meat,
at least for three completed years prior to the date of recruitment. At the point of contact with
the subject in the outpatient department he or she also underwent certain biochemical and
haematological tests that included serum vitamin B12 and folate levels, and basic
haemograms.
Results: In our study population, 61.25% had levels below 200, 22.5% had levels
between200and300and16.25%hadlevelsabove300 pmol/L. The mean vitamin B12 levels in
the three groupsrespectively were 144.8, 269.2 and 233.4. There was no statistically
significant differencebetweenthe groupsbyANOVA. At various laboratory parameters among
the three varieties of dietconsumers – however the numbers were too small for any statistical
analysis betweenthem. Mean corpuscular values of less than or equal to 100fl were
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
ISSN 2515-8260 Volume 9, Issue 3, Winter 2022
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categorised asnormocytic category and anything higher than that was considered as
qualifying formacrocytosis. A folate level cut-off at 9.5 was also taken to look for prediction
ofvitaminB12 deficiency.
Conclusion: The vegetarian diet can be sustainable at all stages of life and in all
physiological conditions, including infancy, pregnancy, lactation, senescence and sports.
However, underestimating the correct supplementation of cobalamin (Cbl) can nullify these
benefits. It is also necessary that the diet be balanced and nutritionally adequate to reduce the
risks of other deficiencies which could indirectly affect the absorption of Cbl.

Clinical Depression; Are Biochemicals the Culprit Behind?

Garima Baradia .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11674-11692

Background:Depression is a medical condition, illness of the brain in which an individual is conquered by the feeling of sadness, hopelessness, guilt and so on. Depression is one of the commonest human blight, mental illness causing more ‘years lost to disability’ (YLD) than any other illness and the sufferer learns to live with it, adapts it both mentally and physically. WHO fact sheets states that depression affects nearly 350 million people; yet, difficult to recognise initially, then diagnose and ultimately treat. Since the disease creates disinterest in day-to-day activities, it also affects dietary pattern of the person, leading to inadequate, imbalanced diet essential for maintaining mental health. B Complex vitamins; pyridoxal phosphate, folate and cobalamin plays an important role in maintaining good physical and mental health as these act as co-enzymes and co-factors in metabolic processes. Biosynthesis of GABA, the inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain requires PLP. Aim and Objective: Estimateserum levels of vitamin B6, B9, B12along with GABA, TSH and total cholesterol in controls and the cases. To evaluate the association of study biochemical variables with disease severity.
Materials and Methods: Present study is an experimental case control study performedon 204 people (102 controls and 102 patients) including both males and females between 18-65 years of age. Participants demoFigureic factors were recorded and biochemical variables were assayed. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items(HDRS) was used to rate the severity of depression.
Results: Most patients 47.1% enrolled in the study had mild form of depression. Females, married individuals, less educated and those belonging to middle income group of individuals of the study were more depressed. Serum levels of vitamin B6, B9, B12 were much lower in depressed subjects. Whereas, GABA levels were elevated in depressive patients.
Conclusion: Findings of the resultant study shows low levels of pyridoxal phosphate, folate, cobalamin and total cholesterol and higher GABA levels in newly diagnosed depression patients.