Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Cardiovascular risk

A Research Comparing The Lipid Profiles Of Those With Type 2 Diabetes Without Complications Versus Those With The Condition Having Nephropathy

Dharmendra Prasad, Vijay Shankar, Rishi Kishore .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 818-824

Introduction: One of the most serious complications of diabetes is diabetic nephropathy, which is also known to increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with diabetic nephropathy have abnormal lipid levels, which raises their risk of cardiovascular problems. In this study, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without nephropathy had their levels of dyslipidemia compared, and the causes of nephropathy were examined.
Method: Patients with T2DM who had overt nephropathy were included in the study group and those without nephropathy were included in the control group in this retrospective analysis. Age and diabetes duration were matched between the two groups. The case sheets were used to gather information on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), urea, and creatinine. Equations were used to compute the TG/HDL-C ratio, a proxy for small, dense LDL particles (sdLDL), and the estimated glomerular filtrationrate (eGFR). The variables linked to eGFR were identified using multivariate analysis.
Result: 56.51% of control individuals and 75.28% of nephropathy subjects both had dyslipidemia (P=0.011). In comparison to controls, people with nephropathy had a higher percentage of subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia (high TG+low HDL-C+sdLDL) at 14.60 than controls did at 14.12. Despite there being no discernible differences in serum creatinine, patients with nephropathy had significantly lower mean eGFR values (P=0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that TC (P=0.007) and HDL-C (P=0.05) were linked to eGFR among the participants in our study.
Conclusion: According to our findings, dyslipidemia was very common in nephropathy patients. Regular testing for dyslipidemia may help diabetic nephropathy patients reduce their risk of adverse outcomes.

Association of autonomic imbalance with cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients of a tertiary care setting: An observational study

K Amrutha, Dr. JM Harsoda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3624-3627

Background and Aims: The significant and rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and the associated vascular complications have been a growing concern. Cardiovascular complications are neglected and are the leading causes of deaths in the diabetic population. Autonomic Imbalance (AI) is a bother complication of the diabetes mellitus, related to aggravated risk of morbidity as well as mortality. Nevertheless, there are not many studies assessing this relationship and there are no studies especially of rural setting, hence we have undertaken this study for assessing the need of this association from an Indian rural setting.
Methods: A detailed questionnaire including the socio-demographic details, anthropometric data, history, clinical examination, investigations performed, and treatment undergoing was gathered from each patient. Special attention was extended for identifying the cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension, alcohol intake or smoking, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), Heart rate, etc.
Results: Autonomic Imbalance have been studied among the 158 diabetic patients, of which the mean age was 58 years, with male preponderance of around 58%. Good Glycaemic control was observed in one-fourth (40 patients) and 102 out of 158 of the study participants (type 2 diabetics) were hypertensives.The prevalence of autonomic imbalance identified using tests for autonomic function ranges from 50-70%, where the diagnosis of autonomic imbalance is achieved based on the outcomes of multiple autonomic tests with various components instead of a single test. The prevalence of autonomic neuropathy was on the rise as people got older.
Conclusions: Screening for autonomic function and the patient education could be the key factors among the patients with autonomic imbalance in order to prevent devastating events further.

Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome have different levels of abdominal fat distribution, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profiles

Mousumi Acharya, Subasis Mishra, subhra Samantroy, Anamika Mishra .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3199-3203

Aim: The goal of this study was to see if there were any links between abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Methods: 350 women were included in a cross-sectional study that comprised a complete clinical examination, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk scores. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were all tested biochemically. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk score were the primary outcomes of interest.
Results: The mean age of the subjects was 25.77 years. Oligoovulation was present in 99% of the women. Eighty-two (23.43%, 95% CI: 19.21%, 28.08%) women were obese and 100 (28.57%, 95% CI: 24.02%, 33.47%) women had android obesity. Insulin resistance waspresent in 136 (38.86%, 95% CI: 33.85%, 44.05%) women and 107 (30.57%, 95% CI: 25.91%, 35.55%) women had a cardiovascular risk >1. Women with a waist-hip ratio >0.85 were more likely to have insulin resistance (OR 2.70, 95% CI: 1.68, 4.35, p < 0.001) and at increased risk for cardiovascular events (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.97, p = 0.02). Obese women were more likely to have insulin resistance (OR 2.53, 95% CI: 1.53, 4.19, p < 0.001) and at increased risk for cardiovascular events (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.30, 3.63, p = 0.003).
Conclusion: The long-term health risks of PCOS must be recognised, as they can be mitigated to some extent by early detection and therapies, such as modifying the individual's lifestyle