Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Makkah


Abdullah Ahmad Alzahrani, Abid Ahmad Masi AlMalki, Marwan Lafy Aljabri, Mamdouh Lafi Aljabri, Yehya Ahmed Almalki, Hassan Owysh Alsolami, Mohammad Lafy Aljabri, Suliman khairat Al Ansari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3979-3991

     Overcoming the scourge of malaria infection is possible when healthcare workers have good levels of understanding and attitudes towards the disease, which will influence their treatment practices. Saudi Arabia and Yemen are the only two countries in the Arabian Peninsula that are yet to achieve malaria elimination. This study assessed Knowledge of Malaria fever causes and symptoms among health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah City at Saudi Arabia. Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria.
 Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the knowledge about Malaria fever causes, signs and symptoms among health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah City at Saudi Arabia.
Methods: Across sectional descriptive study conducted among including health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city, during the October to December, 2020, the Sample size of medical practitioners. Our total participants were (350).
Results: shows the
Total knowledge of the malaria fever results show the majority of participant had weak information were(62.6%) while average of the Knowledge about participants  signs of the malaria fever were(33.4%) the data ranged from(1-24) by mean ±SD(11.094±4.503) and a statistical significant relation While Chi-square X2 180.109  and P=value 0.001and  that is a significant positive correlation between Knowledge about causes and signs were r= 0.70) and p-value =0.001
 Conclusion: Malaria remains a public health problem in most governorates of KSA region. Health professionals have suboptimal knowledge and practice levels regarding causes, signs, symptoms, standard precautions of infection control, while most of them have positive attitude. The identification and monitoring of malaria transmission hotspots and predictors would enable control efforts to be intensified and focused on specific areas and therefore expedite the elimination of residual malaria from the whole region
 Therefore, it is recommended to enforce their training


Fareed Bogari, Saud Nasser Alsahly, Hanan Mubarak Al-Hadrami, Ismaeel Mohammed Serdar, Taha Mohammed Bakhsh, Sami Abduallrahman Iraqi, Fahad Talal Nakhal Saleh Mohmmed Alsadi, MohmmedAbullmajeed Alsulimani, Ahmed Ali Alzahrani, Saeed Abduallrhaman Alzahrani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 162-169

Background:Domestic violence (DV) is both a public health concern and a deprivation of a basic human right in Saudi Arabia.DV has a variety of short- and long-term physical and mental health repercussions
Objectives:To study the prevalence and types of domestic violence in Makkah.
Methods:A community-basedstudy among different age groups from 1 year to older than 20 years.The data were collected from health care facilities during the time from January 2019 – June 2019.
Results:The prevalence of domestic violence in Makkah was high specially among kids, younger ages groups and women. The majority of aggressors were known and reported by mothers more than any other family members. The most common types of violence were physical abuse (33.6%) followed by sexual (23.7%) and multiple types (20.6%) then neglecting abuse (17.6%). The types of violence were correlated with younger age and the mother being the reporter for abuse.
Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic abuse during the study period was high specially among children and women. Further studies should be conducted to assess the prevalence of DV around KSA.


Waleed Ibrahim Sindi, Abdulrahman Ahmed Alzhrani, Abdullah Marzooq Al Harbi, Fuad Shaker Rashad Zainy, Adnan Rubayan Obaid Alotaibi, Saleh Mousa Alzahrani Amna Adam Bakur Hawsawi, Sabah Saeed Abdallah AL-yateem, Majed Saad Siraj Alharthi, Safran Ibraheem Alharthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 205-215

Wet cupping is a traditional and alternative treatment that is still used to reduce patients’ pain in several Eastern and European countries. It has been proven effective and has an essential role in reducing pain and as a treatment for many diseases in past studies. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This discipline includes a diverse set of approaches used for prevention and treatment of many diseases. Several benefits of CAM have been proven, and it may be considered an effective modality for disease prevention, treatment of non-communicable diseases and for improving the quality of life of individuals with chronic medical conditions.2 Many patients who may not be satisfied with the outcomes of modern medicine, particularly those with chronic diseases, may be satisfied with the outcomes of CAM. Pain is the most common reason for seeking therapeutic alternatives of conventional medicine. Cupping, wet or dry, is an ancient treatment, which was broadly utilized in several communities, and it was recommended by the Islamic society.
Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the effect of wet cupping use among patients complaining of pain attended in the Hijama clinic in Makkah City at Saudi Arabia.
Method: A retrospective records review study was conducted using medical records of patients who attended in the Hijama clinic at Makkah, KSA from January 2019 to December 2019. Our total, 200 patients attended the clinic during the year 2019. Out of those patients, 120 were complaining of pain and were included in the study. The Chi-square test and Multivariate logistic regression were used to measure the association between the various socio-determinants and the wet cupping use.
 Results: A chi-square test of independence was performed to determine the association between the frequency of WCT use and the main complaint, independence was performed to determine the association between the frequency of WCT use and the main complaint. There was a statistically significant association between them, Chi-square X2 =86.663, p=0.001.
 Conclusion: Wet cupping has positive effects on reducing pain. There are promising effects in favor of using wet cupping for improving quality of life of patients with chronic conditions, cupping is recommended as a complementary treatment modality for chronic medical conditions, especially pain .


Abdulrahman Saleh Alaql, khalid Nassir Ahmed Balbaid, Ahmad Sami Alnajjar, Ahmed Muslem Almehmadi, Ahmed Awadh Salem Alghamdi, FaizHamed Althobaiti Mazen Muslim Muhammad AlMatrafi, Ammar Abdulhaq Ahmed Alshaikh, HamdanKallabAabdan Alqurashi, Mohammed JaberJobaier Al Omairi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 256-267

Adequate nutrition is essential for maintaining health and well-being. Apart from nutrition intake through diet, supplement use is prevalent worldwide, supplements are commonly used to replenish the body with essential nutrients that are important in regulating the body’s metabolic processes, The use of supplements, which may be defined as multi-vitamins, single vitamins, single minerals, herbal supplements, oil supplements and any other dietary supplementation, the economic boom in Saudi Arabia indirectly, prompted the use of dietary supplements in the last two decades. Must to investigate the prevalence of dietary supplement use and its association with socio demographic. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a fast growing economic country that has affected its general population in various ways including a transition in daily lifestyle patterns and dietary intake habits.
Aim of thestudy: to Assessment of the prevalence of Using Dietary Supplements Among Physically Active Adults in Makkah ALMukarramah 2019.
 Method:Cross-sectional study design. The current study was conducted at   Sports and Physiotherapy Center and fitness time centers at Holy Capital of Makkah, during the October to December, 2019,Our total participants were (400).
 Results: that a significant difference between age and using supplements in the study while Chi-square 24.413& p-value= 0.001. Most age of participants use supplements from 23-35years were constitute (30.0 %), the gender that no significant difference between using supplements and gender in the study while Chi-square 1.437& p-value 0.911 less than 0.05 , regarding education show that significant difference between education status and using supplements in the study while Chi-square 14.827& p-value more than P=0.022.
.Conclusion: Supplements were commonly used among female students, The prevalence of dietary supplement use was high and was significantly associated with socio demographic and lifestyle factors.A substantial proportion of populations take supplements. Further investigation into the social, psychological and economic determinants that motivate the use of supplements is required, to ensure appropriate use of supplements among adults and the most commonly used supplements.

Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life among Patients Smoking attitudes attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia (2019)

Saud Abdulhai Gari, Muhammed Musa Yahya Sufyani, Hisham Ali Abdo Ali, Amna Mahmoud Ibrahim Altakroni, Ahmed Abdul Rhman Ahmed ALQarni, Mazin Ibrahim Rasheedy, Ahmed Suwailem Saleem Almehmadi, Fatma Saleh Alharbi, Waleed Mohammed Omar Almahaily, Abdulrahman Saad Alsaedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 274-287

Smoking is now well established as a recognized cause of cancer, lung disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke; it is considered the single most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. Additionally, epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between smoking and psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found high rates of smoking among selected populations of persons with mental illness, whereas general population surveys have demonstrated a significant association between current smoking and psychiatric symptoms.
     The World Health Organization has reported that more than 4 million annual deaths are attributed to tobacco consumption; this is projected to be10 million annually in 2030. Conversely, smoking cessation reduces health risks and improves quality of life. In particular, the cumulative risk of dying of cancer, cardiovascular and lung diseases can be drastically reduced if smokers quit, even at an advanced age.Objective: To assessment the health-related quality of life (HRQL) among Patients Smoking attitudes attending smoking clinics Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah. Aim of the study Aim of the study: The study aimed at assessing the health related quality of life among Patients smoking attitudes attending smoking clinics Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive stud conducted from January, 2019 to December, 2019 in four Primary Healthcare Centers (PHC)in Makkah, the Sample size of Patients Smoking Attitudes attending PHC. Our total participants were (80). Results: the specific medical diseases significantly associated with smoking were Musculoskeletal disorders and  Central nervous system diseases  were (P < 0.001 and=0.033 ) and X2 25.481and 3.554 with the Negative in age (25-35) of the patients was (66.67% and 11.11% ) while in Positive age patients was (33.33% and 83.33%) while all anther medical diseases no significantly associated with smoking .Conclusion . the health related quality of life among Patients smoking attitudes  attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah smokers with smoking history show significant impairment in the physical and mental domains of HRQL in comparison to never-smokers. Postgraduate studies, workshops and training are indeed necessary to help PHCPs' to understand the significance of the role they play in implementing SCC for patients, individuals, family and the community effectively.


Fayza Ramadan Hawsawi, Ahmad Zuhair Mashat, Hajer Gali Alharbi, Salwa Ali Hassan, Eman Hamed Allogmani, Adnan Abdulqader Qeder, Rushdi Hisun Alhakami Laila Abdo Barnawi,Kefah Mohammed Algamdi, Ahmad awadh Alkhdedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 427-436

background: Most health care providers are aware of e-cigarettes, but the information is scarce regarding the magnitude of this newly emerged habit in Saudi Arabia, since introduction in the early 2000s, e-cigarette use has rapidly increased among adolescents worldwide. then adult  However, little is known about e-cigarette uptake among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, and there is a need to reduce the resultant health burden via patient-oriented smoking cessation interventions. Primary care physicians (PCPs) have a significant role in providing counseling and advice to quit smoking.
World Health Organization (WHO) reported tobacco use as one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, mentioned that in 2015, over one billion people smoked tobacco. This study aimed to assess Prevalence of Electronic Cigarettes Use Among health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah, Although it is declining worldwide in many countries, the prevalence of tobacco smoking appears to be increasing in the Eastern Mediterranean Region
.Aim of the study
This study aimed to assess Prevalence of Electronic Cigarettes Use Among health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah 2019.
methods:Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, including a random representative sample of health care providersin the Primary Health Care in Makkah.A self-administered validated questionnaire was adopted and modified. The Sample size of medical practitioners . Our total participants were (500)
Results: showed that the majority of the participant were (52.0%) smoker regarding smoking period the majority while <5 were (35.0%), Current use of e-cigarettes were(72.0%) and (30.0%) of the participant knew that the electronic cigarettes contain nicotine whereas 56.15% did not know if e-cigarettes contain nicotine or not. Most of the students (75.0%) thought that the electronic cigarette is harmful to health.
Conclusion:The prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking among health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah. was found relatively high and most common reasons to smoke e-cigarettes were similar taste to conventional cigarettes, adequate nicotine, helping in control of smoking behavior, perceived less harmful effects than conventional cigarettes, and low cost. E-cigarettes have been tried and currently used by a considerable proportion of health care providers. Some associated factors were identified.


Fouad Saeed Masoud Al Sharif, Ahmed Emera Salem Alsobhi, Mohammed shaker, Hussain Abdullah Alsharif, Hattan Omar Ibraheem Almanjaf Hanaa Mohammed Shabain, Abdallah Abdulrahman Basheikh, Faisal khaled Albrkati, Mazen Mubarak Awad Baqazi, ArwaYahya H Zakri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 471-482

Background: Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring. It primarily a Acne vulgaris is one of the commonest skin disorders which dermatologists have to treat, mainly affect adolescents, though it may present at any age. Acne is definite as multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous skin diseases are common, especially in the developing countries. Mental health disorders are prevalent among those with skin diseases and affect their life and their treatment. Anxiety is one of the psychiatric disorders, and its symptoms were found among the patients with skin diseases. effects areas of the skin with a relatively high number of oil glands, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back. The resulting appearance can lead to anxiety, reduced self-esteem and, in extreme cases, depression or thoughts of suicide.Acne vulgaris is a common condition extremely prevalent among teenagers and young adults under the age of 24 years. Nearly 85% of adolescents in this age group experience some degree of acneAcne vulgaris is a skin disease of chronic inflammatory nature. Although acne is not a life threatening, it has a deleterious impact on patients' social and psychological health.
Aim of the study:to assessment of Knowledge regarding acne vulgaris among secondary school students in Makkah.
Method:A cross-sectional study design. The current study was conducted Male and female secondary school students from selected governmental schools in Makkah. The total the sample size calculation will be 200 students. Female and male.
Results:Conclusion:Patients with dermatological diseases have a high level of anxiety and worry, especially with acne and skin disease affecting visible areas like the face. Further studies are required in Saudi Arabia to explore the true estimates of this problem.


AmalsaeedAmer saleh, Sana Ali barnawi, Funoon Omer Alansari, Nadeentalal khayame, ‏Afnan Adnan Abdullah Bukhari‏, ‏Ohoud Mohammed Alzahrani, ‏Ghadamohammad fallata Hanan Faisal Rashed Alharbi, ‏Maha Abdullah Alsharif, AishahAeyd Albarqi, Hadeel Khalid Hamed Alshanbari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 513-522

     Contraception is an effective mean of Family Planning (FP) and fertility control, promotes maternal and child health. It is interesting to explore the perception and use of contraceptives among Saudi women. The usage of contraceptive has  a significant part in reducing fertility and control of population, which in turn is important for the development of the nation. Despite the advancements in current methods of contraception, unintended pregnancies are still widespread in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which adversely impacts the well-being and health of women and their families. Unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge to the reproductive health of young adults in developing countries. students are an important high-risk group in any society and emergency contraceptives can prevent unintended pregnancies and its consequences in this high risk group, contraception is unique among medical interventions in the breadth of its positive outcomes. An effective means of Family Planning (FP) and fertility control promotes maternal and child health.
Aim of the study: The study aimed to assessment the level of knowledge of emergency contraception among married women attending antenatal clinics, Makkah (2019).
Methods: cross sectional descriptive study has be conducted using saudi women who fulfilling the inclusion criteria, used to randomly select women from Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Makkah in Saudi Arabia . using a well-structured pretested questionnaire composed of four main parts to collect the data. Our total participants were (200).
Results: the majority of the participants answer the correct timing of emergency contraceptive pill (Within 5 days) were (86.0%)while IUD (Within 5 days) were (77.0%) while Total Knowledge regarding emergency contraceptive the majority of participants answer yes were (88.0%), regarding the ever using emergency contraception the majority of participants answer no were (75.0%).
Conclusion: In the light of the above results, there is an urgent need to improve the knowledge of Saudi women in age of fertility towards the use of modern contraceptives, low utilization was notices mainly due to religious concerns. Awareness programmers should be organized by the management on emergency contraception and other modern contraceptive methods.

Assessment Of The Knowledge Diabetic Retinopathy Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes At Makkah, Saudi Arabia 2019. Cross-Sectional Study

Adel Saeed Ali Alzahrani, Nawaf Suhaim Al-Atiani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 543-556

1. Background
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and a major cause of
vision loss. Increased knowledge of DR is crucial for the prevention and early diagnosis of the disease and
preservation of vision, diabetes mellitus is a disorder, characterized by an imbalance in blood glucose
levels. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing globally.The global diabetes prevalence in 2019 is
estimated to be 9.3% (463 million people), rising to 10.2% (578 million) by 2030 and 10.9% (700 million)
by 2045. Long term, continuous hyperglycemia leads to vasculature-related disorders, including those
affecting the eyes, such as retinopathy, diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease with chronic elevation in
blood glucose levels. If not managed, it can lead to multi-organ damage also diabetes mellitus is a
metabolic disease that is characterized by distortion in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and
proteins and involves hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus has different types. Several complications are
associated with diabetes including diabetic retinopathy.
This study aimed: This study aims to assess the knowledge of diabetic retinopathy and compliance with
diabetic retinopathy patients in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: cross-sectional study was conducted among the diabetic population from May to September 2019
in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The patients were selected randomly from the general population visiting the
Makkah diabetic center and primary healthcare clinics in Makkah. A self-administered questionnaire was
distributed to assess the knowledge of diabetes and its complication diabetic retinopathy. Our total
participants were (300)
Results: Conclusion: The level of knowledge regarding diabetic retinopathy among participants with
diabetes type 2 in Makkah is relatively high. However, participants’ motivation to attend an ophthalmology
clinic for an eye assessment was poor in the study, thus delay early diagnosis and management.