Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : nausea

Comparison of efficacy of subhypnotic dose of midazolam and propofol in decreasing nausea and vomiting in caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia

Dr. Ramyashree MH, Dr. Nisarga R, Dr. Gayatri CK, Dr. Ajith Kumar Shetty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 497-503

Background: Midazolam and propofol by virtue of their antiemetic effect were found
individually to reduce the incidence of intraoperative nausea and vomiting. This study
compares the effects of midazolam and propofol in decreasing the incidence of nausea and
vomiting in pregnant women undergoing lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) under
spinal anaesthesia. It also assesses maternal sedation, neonatal outcome and other side effects.
Aim: To compare the effects of subhypnotic dose of midazolam and propofol in prevention
of intraoperative nausea and vomiting in lower segment caesarean section under subarachnoid
Methods: With ethical committee permission the 60 pregnant women were randomly
allocated into 2 groups after taking informed consent. Group M received 0.03mg/kg
midazolam immediately after cord is clamped, Group P received 10 mg propofol immediately
after cord is clamped. Incidence of nausea and vomiting was not according to Bellville
scoring system (0-novomiting, 1-Nausea, 2-Retching, 3_vomiting). The degree of sedation,
hemodynamic changes were noted baseline, after induction, after drug administration, 30
mins after drug administration, 60 mins after drug administration, neonatal out come and side
effects were recorded.
Results: Statistically significant decrease in intraoperative nausea and vomiting in patients
undergoing LSCS under spinal anaesthesia with 10 mg propofol compared to 0.03 mg
midazolam is observed. Degree of sedation, respiratory rate, mean mephentermine
consumption were comparable between two groups and no difference found.
Conclusion: Propofol significantly decreases incidence of intraoperative nausea and
vomiting inches are in section under spinal anaesthesia as compared to midazolam.

Study of relative frequency, causes and clinical presentation of pathological swellings of epigastric region

Dr. Abhishek Vats, Dr. Abhishek Yadav, Dr. Ajay Bahadur Singh, Dr. Parkar Zainuddin Liyakat, Dr. Radhika Sahni, Dr. Prakhar Verma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 12044-12052

Introduction: Swelling in the epigastrium is caused by those organs anatomically present in the region as well as by other organs in the other regions. This study was done with an interest to know the clinical presentation of the various cause of the epigastric swelling.
Methods: Fifty-two cases with a pathological swelling in the epigastrium, who were admitted to tertiary care center, were randomly selected those cases were studied during their stay in the hospital. In this study, the swelling from stomach and pancreas were included aged more than 12 years and the rest excluded. Relevant investigations were made and the diagnosis confirmed.
Results: There were 16 cases of pancreatic swellings and 11 cases of stomach swellings. Carcinoma stomach and pseudocyst each 21%, secondaries 17%, carcinoma pancreas 9.6%. Symptoms were Nausea (61.53%), pain (55.76%), vomiting (51.95%), weight loss (40.38%), fever (34.61%), anorexia (32.69%).
Conclusion: In this study, the most common swelling was the carcinoma stomach and pseudocyst of pancreas. Most common symptom was nausea, followed by pain, weight loss. The least common symptom was gastrointestinal bleeding


Dr.Rashmi Ravindranathan, Dr.Padmanabha Kaimar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1608-1613

Background: The physiological changes of pregnancy deem nausea and vomiting infallible complications associated with obstetric anaesthesia, resulting in significant morbidity and longer recovery time. The aim of our randomised control trial was to investigate the efficacy of propofol in addition to the currently accepted regimen of ranitidine and metoclopramide in the prevention of nausea and vomiting in this high risk group undergoing spinal anesthesia during caesarean section.
Methods: Eighty fasted term pregnant women scheduled for elective caesarean section were given ranitidine 150mg and metoclopramide 10mg orally 2 hours prior to spinal anaesthesia following which they received either propofol 200µg /kg IV or placebo as a single bolus dose. Intraoperative and post-delivery emetic episodes experienced were recorded at intervals and the intensity of nausea was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS).
Results: The incidence of nausea during the intraoperative period in propofol group was 5 % as compared with placebo group in which it was 32.5%, while that of vomiting in propofol group was 5% as compared with placebo group in which it was 22.5%. Both were found to be statistically significant (p= 0.002, p= 0.023 respectively). The incidence of nausea and vomiting during the entire postoperative period of 0-24 hours between the two groups was found to be statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: The prophylactic administration of a subhypnotic dose of propofol with ranitidine and metoclopramide was effective in the prevention of nausea and vomiting after neuraxial blockade during the intraoperative period but not during the postoperative period.