Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : cancer


IMPACT OF CANCER THERAPY ON FEMALE FERTILITY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

C Ndjapa-Ndamkou, Langanani Mbodi, Logie Govender, Lawrence Chauke

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 186-217

Background: Cancer has become highly prevalent in developing countries, and Africa is not far from it. The treatment of these cancers increases the risk of infertility in women. This review aims to understand the effects of different types of cancer treatments on the fertility in women.
Method: PRISMA guidelines were followed for scrutinizing the articles. Original research articles were searched and obtained from online databases including Pub Med, Pub Med Central, Springer, Nature, Web of Sciences, Semantic Scholar, Medline, Science Direct, Directory of Open Access Journals, Google Scholar, Research Gate, EMBASE, National Center for Biotechnological Information etc. After removing irrelevant, duplicated, and less correlated articles from the total of 1671 obtained articles, 19 studies were included in the systematic analysis.
Results: Among The 19 Studies Included, 14 Were Retrospective. Based On The Systematic Analysis Performed, Overall Fertility Deficits Were Observed In Female Survivors Of Cancers. Sex, Age At Diagnosis, Pre-Diagnosis Parenthood, And Diagnostic Period All Had An Effect On Fertility After Cancer Treatment. Treatment with alkylating agents, second line therapy, and age>35 years also influence the chances of pregnancy. Pre-term delivery was also found to be linked to cancer-related therapy. The probability of having a first live birth among cancer survivors was low. The site of cancer and age at the onset of cancer were independent predictors of a reduced probability of giving birth after diagnosis. Pelvic radiation was found to be more damaging than abdominal or supradiaphragmatic radiation.
Conclusion: The present review suggests that future measures should be taken to include an assessment of women’s desire for future fertility and also provide fertility preservation options. Fertility preservation strategies for cancer-affected women in their reproductive years. Long-term fertility data on cancer survivors in South Africa are needed. Counseling tools and guidelines for referral to onco-fertility specialists should be developed for newly diagnosed young patients.

TO STUDY AND COMPARE THE VARIOUS MODALITIES OF EVALUATION OF PRIMARY BREAST CANCER SIZE

Dr. Brajesh Pathak, Dr. Vibhor Mahendru

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2700-2707

The ensuing driving force behind death from breast cancer in women is legitimacy. It occurs when cells in the breast become confined and attack the supporting tissue or spread throughout the body. Mammography is a truly unprecedented and remarkable modality used to distinguish and find breast cancer in a short time frame.
Mammography is a two-stage picture and depends on the unambiguous confirmation of dangerous morphological deviations for breast cancer. These manifestations combine areas of mass, all calcification, gap and required curvature. A standard screening mammogram combines the mean diagonal and craniocaudal approach on each breast. Screening tests are facilitated only to find unsafe disclosures after which the woman will return for a more conclusive method. Positive mammographic approaches can likewise incorporate spot pressure, enlargement, rolling, extended view, and upright view to delineate and bind features.

Role of preoperative red cell distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and CA 125 in differential diagnosis of epithelial ovarian tumors

Malathi Verabelly, Swapnarani Seedipally, Darshana Shinde .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5322-5329

Background:The discovery of early ovarian cancer indicators is critical for improving the patient diagnosis, therapy effectiveness, and prognosis of the ovarian tumors
Objective: To study the role of preoperative red cell distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and CA125 in the differential diagnosis of epithelial ovarian tumors
Methods:We carried out a cross-sectional study in 90 patients diagnosed withthe ovarian pathology. They were assessed clinically and later admitted. Routine investigations along with cancer biomarkers like CA 125, RDW, MPV, and NLR were tested. Patients were posted for Laparotomy with hysterectomy/Ovarian cystectomy and specimen sent for histopathology. They were followed post operatively.
Results:60% of the cases were benign and 7.8% were malignant. All the benign cases were <45 years. Malignancy was slightly more in nulliparous women compared to multiparous women. Biomarkers like CA 125, MPV and NLR were significantly elevated in malignant cases compared to benign cases. All the cases having RMI <25 were benign. All the biomarkers were significantly increased in borderline and malignant cases compared to the benign cases.
Conclusion:There was significant association observed between CA125, MPV, NLR and ovarian tumours. CA125, NLR are positively correlated whereas MPV was negatively correlated. The combination of these biomarkers or at least 2 or 3 biomarkers are suggested for early stage diagnosis of pelvic mass with high sensitivity and specificity. The hematological parameters such as MPV, NLR along with CA125 are useful in the detection of the malignant ovarian tumours.

Assessment of usefulness of AFP as a tumor marker in cases of HCC

A SATYA SAI VENKATA LAKSHMI D RAGASRI MEGHANA Dr Zaid Munir Amro Musa Mohamed Elamin Alam Alhouda ALI ABDALLA ALI OSMAN Juan Carlos Batlle Nargis Tabasom Mateen Dr.Ayush Neupane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1835-1839

Background:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related
death worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess usefulness of AFP as a tumor
marker in cases of HCC.
Materials & Methods:72 hepatocellular carcinoma patients of both genders were enrolled. 5
ml of venous blood was taken and level of AFP was measured.
Results: Out of 72, males were 42 and females were 30. There were 30 HBV, 12 HCV, 10
HBV and HCV positive, 7 HBV and HCV negative, 5 AFB1 positive and 8 HBV and AFB1
positive. AFP positivity was seen in 18, 3, 8, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The mean AFP titre
level (ng/ml) was 504.2, 482.6, 572.4, 461.2, 476.2 and 224.7 respectively. The difference
was significant (P< 0.05).

Assessment of the nutrition using Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in 60 patients of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Carcinoma patients (LAHNC) treated with concomitant chemo-radiation

Dr Ashutosh Sharma, Dr Karun Kamboj, Dr Anbu C, Dr Tarun Kumar, Dr Anoop Goel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 882-889

Background: The present study aimed to assess the frequency of components of Scored Patient-
Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma
patients (LAHNC) treated with concomitant chemo-radiation. Materials & methods: The present study
was conducted on 60 previously untreated, histopathologically proven patients of locally advanced head
and neck carcinoma who received conventional radical external beam radiation therapy (66Gy / 33
fractions over 6.3 weeks / 2 Gy per fraction) concomitant with Inj. Cisplatin 75mg/m2, 3 weekly. The
frequency of components of the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) was
assessed at the time of presentation, at the end of treatment and three months after completion of
treatment. Results: The percentage of patients complaining of loss of appetite at the end of CCRT are
significantly (p =0.01) higher than the percentage of patients having loss of appetite before CCRT. A
decrease in throat pain at the 3rd month of follow up is significant (p = 0.008). At the end of CCRT,
significantly (p ≤ 0.001) higher patients were taking less than usual food and this food intake increased
(P≤ 0.001) in the 3rd month after completing CCRT. The number of patients with normal activities
significantly (P ≤ 0.001) decreases at the end of CCRT and then increases significantly (p = 0.028) at 3rd
month of follow up. At the end of CCRT, the percentage of patients with fairly normal activities
decreased significantly (p = 0.016). There is a significant (p =0.017) increase of patients with a moderate
deficit and there is also a significant (p=0.001) decrease of patients without deficit at the end of CCRT.
Loss of body weight ≥ 5% at the end of CCRT is significant (p = 0.001) then this ≥ 5% weight loss
significantly decreases at the 3rd month of follow up. The gain in weight at the 3rd month of follow up is
significant ( p =0.0004). Conclusion: The outcomes of this study provide a unique patient viewpoint of
using the PG-SGA valuable input for the use of assessing nutrition in the patients receiving concomitant
chemoradiation.

NEED OF VITAMIN D BEYOND BONE: A CONSISE REVIEW.

Roshan Kumar Jha; Deepika Kanyal; Dr. Archana Dhok; Lata Kanyal Butola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1096-1109

Vitamin D is also known as calciferol because of its role in calcium metabolism and antirachitic factor because it prevents rickets. It is a modified steroid, synthesised in the skin under the influence of sunlight and is necessary for metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Its RDA is 400 IU or 10 mg, it binds to the receptor of target cells and regulate through gene expression. Vitamin D undergoes hydroxylation in the liver to form 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D]. The two main forms are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). The main source of vitamin D in humans is in the form of vitamin D3, which is derived from synthesis in the skin via exposure of 7- dehydrocholesterol, concentrated in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum, to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. Vitamin D2 is obtained from the diet, and is derived from ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, found in fungi. Both metabolites are transported in the blood bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). These inactive vitamin D metabolites must undergo a two-step hydroxylation process to become biologically active. Initially, vitamin D2 and D3 undergo hydroxylation in the maternal liver, via the action of vitamin D 25-hydroxylase enzyme (CYP27A1), to form the inactive steroid precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). 25[OH]D is the major circulating and stored form of vitamin D. In this present review we have focused on need of vitamin D beyond bone.

EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOXICITY STUDY, AND STANDARDIZATION OF RV FORTE CAPSULE

Dr. Vidhyadhar Vaidya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2852-2863

diabetes, metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. The incidence of such diseases is growing day by day around the globe and causes various complications. The disease not only affects the quality of life but also the mortality rate with this disease is too high. Considering these factors, it is important to come up with a simple yet potential solution for reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, RV New Visions Health Care Pvt. Ltd has developed an RV forte capsule as a potential treatment for reducing oxidative stress and help to fight against cancer.
Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of RV forte capsule was evaluated In-vitro by using DPPH scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging assay, and Reducing power assay. Further, toxicity testing in animal models and the standardization using the HPTLC method was done.
Results: The formulation RV forte capsule showed significant anti-oxidant action when compared with standard ascorbic acid. The percentage scavenging activity of RV forte capsule was found to be 14.2 - 60.05 % at 50 - 500 ug/ml by DPPH scavenging assay,17.57 – 55.27 % by hydrogen radical scavenging assay, and the reducing power was found to be increasing with increased absorbance at 50-500 ug/ml concentrations. In toxicity testing, no toxicity was found at the dose of 100mg/kg.
Conclusion: The study thus proves, RV forte capsule has significant antioxidant activity

A STUDY ON MOLECULAR TARGETED APPROACHES TO CANCER THERAPY AND THE ROLE OF CHALCONES IN CHEMOPREVENTION

Dr. Priyanka Das, Dr. Alok Kumar Srivastav, Dr. M. Rammohan Muthukannan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3254-3267

Cancer is a widely spreading disease all over the world and the second most leading cause of
mortality worldwide. In the broader sense cancer refers to more than 277 different types of
diseases. Scientists have identified different stages of cancers, indicating several gene
mutations which are involved in cancer pathogenesis. These gene mutations lead to abnormal
cell proliferation. Genetic disorders caused byinheritance or inheritance factors have a
pivotal role in the increase of cell growth.With the assistance of technological advances in
molecular techniques and bioinformatics extra information can be obtained which can be
useful for early diagnosis and proper treatment. In recent years, carcinogenesis mechanisms
have been detected by molecular genetic studies. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, spices,
cereals and pulses has been associated with lower incidence of cancer and other chronic
diseases, but how these dietary agents and their active ingredients minimize these diseases, is
not fully understood. Whether it is oranges, hops, water-lily, locorice, wax apple or
mulberry, they are all connected by a group of aromatic ketones, called chalcones (1,3-
diaryl-2-propen-1-ones). Chalcones are a group of polyphenolic compounds derived from
plants which belong to the flavonoids family and owna wide variety of modulatory and
cytoprotective functions. They have been linked with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiinflammatory,
anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic activities. Immunoblot assay
showed that chalcone decreased the expression of cyclin B1, cyclin A and Cdc 2 protein, as
well as increased the expression of p21 and p27.The current review, however, deals with the
role of various chalcones in biologically, pharmacologically, and medicinally important
entities.

Study of Diagnostic Efficacy of Risk of Malignancy Index(RMI-II), Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio(NLR) and Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio( PLR) in Preoperative Assessment of Adnexal Masses in Females and Its Histopathological Correlation

Dr. Shikha Seth, MD; Dr. Shipra Saxena MD; Dr.Vandana Verma; Dr. Vaibhav Kanti; Dr. Umesh Kumar Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1757-1769

Inflammatory cells may reach significant levels in blood in different type of cancers.Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio(NLR) and Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio(PLR) arecosteffective and universally available.So this study was planned to assesthe efficacy of NLR and PLR along with Risk of malignancy Index(RMI- II) in differentiating benign and malignant adnexal masses preoperatively

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN YOUNGER POPULATION: A SYSTEMIC REVIEW AND META ANALYSIS

Dr. Swati Chaturvedi; Dr. Dilber Pareed K; Dr. Pranoti Hiralkar; Dr. Sai Subramanian; Dr. I Nalini Sailaja; Dr. Vikesh Kumar R Shah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7300-7307

Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)s specifically of the tongue usually is seen in the senile population with a long standing tobacco habit. But recently the trend has changed to incidence of TSCC in younger adults with no risk factors. Hence we aim to conduct a systemic review and metanalyse to assess the prevalence and risk factors of tongue carcinoma in the younger group of patients. Materials and methods: We conducted the search for the data from the online sources like the “EMBASE”, “Pubmed”, “Scopus” and other sources. Only human studies were collected. Terms searched were CBCT, microtomography, permanent teeth, and root canal morphology. The data extraction and meta-analysis were based on the PRISMA guidelines. Out of the 109 articles, only 23 were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For the assessment of the risk factors and the variables the statistical analysi s was done keeping p<0.05 as significant. Results: we observed that most of the subjects were at ages 30-50 years. The majority of reports were <40 years of age. Almost equal gender distribution was seen. No association between the habits was seen in the younger adults.

Lived Experience Of Rural Indian Women With Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds Who Have Undergone Mastectomies For Breast Cancer

Saranya Sundarraju; Veenavani Nallepalli; Ragunathan S; Karthikeyan Perumal; Sankar R; Prasanna G; Balamurugan G; Krishnakumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4761-4772

Back ground / Purpose
Breast cancer is now the most common cancer among women in most urban areas in India and the second most common in the rural areas. The aim of the study was to examine the lived experiences of rural women with low socioeconomic backgrounds who have undergone mastectomies for breast cancer.
Method: Using a phenomenological method, semi-structured interviews were conducted that asked about knowledge, challenges, coping and spirituality with 23 rural women from low socio-economic status and agricultural backgrounds. The interviews were analyzed for themes that described their experiences. Several themes emerged from the data. These included ignorance about the disease, feelings of guilt, financial crisis, fear of change in intimate relationships, importance of spirituality, poor support systems and financial hard-ship.
Conclusion: In India, there are very few cancer studies on rural populations yet the incidence of cancer in this population is increasing. Future studies need to focus on the rural population in order to educate them about the disease and to assist access to treatment, and psychological support. Emotional distress and lack of knowledge could be addressed by psychosocial education. Community based approaches are needed to develop culturally appropriate interventions empowering the women and enhancing their self –efficacy.

Type of Article: Review TITLE: ROLE OF CATHEPSIN IN ORAL DISEASE – A review

Dr. Lalli Dharmarajan; Dr. E.P. Sridevi Anjuga; Dr. Pradeep P Elango; Dr. N. Aravindha Babu MDS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1479-1485

Cathepsins are a class of globular lysosomal proteases that are known to be responsible for protein degradation. They have many biological roles besides proteolysis, such as apoptosis wound healing angiogenesis, proenzymatic activation, bone remodeling, and resorption. The role of cathepsins in pathogenesizing systemic diseases such as cancer, bronchial asthma, atherosclerosis, neurological disorders, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis has been involved. This review emphasizes the role of cathepsins in multiple oral diseases such as periodontitis, odontogenic cysts, ameloblastoma, tumors of the salivary glands and malignant melanoma

Profiles and types of social support among Cancer Patient Caregivers

Dr. Fatimah Zailly Ahmad Ramli; Dr Rajwani Md Zain; Assoc. Prof. Dr Zakiyah Jamaluddin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3856-3874

Cancer not only impacts patients but their caregivers too. The objective of this study was to examine the types of social support needed by cancer patient caregivers and to analyse their perception of the importance of social support based on selected demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity education level, duration of care and income).The data were collected through a survey method, questionnaires were distributed among primary caregivers of cancer patients from the northern states of Malaysia.The findings showed that social support such as emotional, physical and spirituality necessary to help improve the well-being and quality of life of cancer patient caregivers

Systematic Review On Role Of Drosophila Melanogasterto Address Thecancer Problem

Dr.VikramC. M; Dr.Maunika M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5487-5498

Inceptions
Toward the start of the twentieth century, the entomologist Charles W. Woodworth extended the utilization of Drosophila melanogaster as a hereditary model creature (Sturtevant, 1959). A few years after the fact, Thomas Hunt Morgan detached a fly strain bearing a transformation that changed the eye tone from red to white; in doing as such, he set up the connection between qualities, chromosomes and aggregates (Morgan, 1910). From that point, the idea of quality legacy began to appear by the commitments of Morgan's generally eminent understudies, all around licensed in science history. Alfred Henry Sturtevant proposed that qualities should be masterminded in a direct request also, assembled the principal hereditary guide (Morgan et al., 1920; Sturtevant, 1913), Calvin Bridges set up that chromosomes should be the transporters of qualities (Bridges, 1916b), and Hermann Joseph Muller shown the relationship between quality transformation rate and X-beam presentation (Muller, 1928). However, in the shadows of these unmistakable men, a lady was utilizing flies to address an alternate inquiry: do chromosomes convey the reason for malignant growth? She was an individual from Morgan's celebrated Fly Room and the lone lady that moved with him from Columbia to Caltech in 1928. Her name, Mary Bertha Distinct, may have been failed to remember, however her heritage isn't.

Bioactive Peptides: Emerging Tool To Fight Diseases

Harjot Kaur; Mohammed Afsar; Inderpal Devgon; Minhaj Ahmad Khan; Surender Jangra; Lakhdeep Kaur; Arvind Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4277-4293

Bioactive peptides are chemical functional substances which are linked by covalent bond and are formed by amino acid residues. The essential requirement of food derived bioactive peptide increases day by day due its important property, for example high affinity, efficiency specificity which play vital role in human health by promoting digestive, endocrine, cardiovascular, immune system. They also known as future biological active regulators which help to reduce the chances of oxidation and microbial degradation in food stuff. The biological active substance having different considerable activities which includes antiproliferative, antioxidant, antimicrotubular, these activities are identified from the marine animal sources, specifically algae and cyanobacteria, which act as a secondary metabolite. Milk also contain rich amount of soluble and insoluble protein that is whey and casein protein. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH) and germinated soya bean protein are bioceutical and play role in anti -obesity as well as anti-diabetes. The different presumed biological activities found in glutellin which carry at least 21 peptides with~53% of the nut storage protein. These activities are anti-hypertensives, antioxidants, immunomodulators, antimicrobial, anti-thrombotic, anti-cancer, hypocholesterolemic, anti-obesity and protease inhibitors that inhibits the cell cycle progression in cancer cells. These peptides have many advantages than the synthetic drugs. There is need to establish favourable condition to develop bioactive peptides for the human welfare in terms of treating many diseases as well as food beverages.

In-Vitro Anti-Proliferative Effect Of Flavonoid Extract Of Amaranthus Viridis (Kolitis) Leaves Against MCF-7 Breast Adenocarcinoma Cell Line

Allysa Camille M. Malicdem; Michkaella Lorena O. Aducal; Jireh C. Cuasay; Denise Ansherina A. Dalisay; Alexander I. Mendoza; Glenda Marie E. Napiza; Carina R. Magbojos; Oliver Shane R. Dumaoal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4129-4140

Cancer is one of the major concerns in health and medicine. Studies have been done by previous researches on the medicinal value of flavonoids present in Amaranthus viridis. However, limited claims were available in terms of their anti-proliferative ability against cancer cells. Flavonoid extracts were prepared by semi-purification using ethanol and ethyl acetate. Phytochemical screening using UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to verify the presence of flavonoids. MTT cytotoxicity assay using MCF-7 breast cancer cells was employed to determine the cytotoxic effect of the plant extract. Four concentrations of the extract of A. viridis leaves were used as treatment to cultured cells. Doxorubicin and DMSO were used as the positive and negative control, respectively. An inhibition concentration (IC50) of 18.33 ug/mL of the extract was reported after the assay, indicating that the administration of the treatment caused the death of the cells as seen when the yellow dye was not reduced into a purple formazan. Statistical analysis on the IC50 of doxorubicin and the A. viridis extract showed significant relationship, which indicated that doxorubicin has a more potent cytotoxic activity, though the extract had promising effects as seen in its IC50 being less than 30 ug/mL. These results can be attributed to the presence of the flavonoid quercetin which has been found out to possess cytotoxic effects against cancer cells. With these findings, a more natural, less toxic, cost-efficient and more readily available treatment regimen can be utilized for the management of cancer.

ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL VARIANTS OF LEUKOPLAKIA WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOBACCO - AN INSTITUTION BASED RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Gayathri Karthikeyan; Hannah R; Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1440-1448

The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of leukoplakia in different types of tobacco users. Tobacco utilization in India is increasing but there are considerable changes in the types and methods by which it is used. Oral cancer affects as many as 274,000 people worldwide annually 20. In this study The data collection was carried out during the period between July 2019 to march 2020. After searching through 86,000 patient records the Sample size for the study was taken as 93 patients diagnosed with leukoplakia. The data that was collected was tabulated in excel and then imported into SPSS software. Smoking form of tobacco was found to be used by 72.92% of patients. Smokeless form of tobacco use was noticed among 25% of the patients and a combination of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco used was noticed among 2.083% of the patients . Homogenous types of leukoplakia were found among 76.04% of the patients followed by the non-homogenous form which included about 23.96% of the patients. Males were the most common gender comprising about 96.88% of the patients and females comprised about 3.13% . It was also noted that the most common type of tobacco used was cigarettes. Chi- square test was done to associate the type of tobacco used and clinical variants of leukoplakia, it was not statistical significant (p=0.596). Within the limitations of the present study we were able to conclude that there was no association between the habit of tobacco use and the clinical variant of leukoplakia . Multicentric study with a larger sample size will give a more definitive outcome.

KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON RECENT ADVANCES IN THE TREATMENT OF HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA - A SURVEY

Aksha sharen Arul Edwin; Jothi Priya; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2173-2184

Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) is a cancerous disease that affects the lymph nodes within the human body. The location of the disease is how it is classified and diagnosed. The majority of the patients can be potentially cured with the use of radiotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy, a proportion of them will relapse or develop resistant disease for which treatment options are limited. The aim of the study Is to determine the knowledge awareness about recent advances in the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The objective is to study the level of awareness and knowledge about advanced treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma and associated risk factors among the Indian population. A survey was conducted from April to May among 100 people in the state of Tamil Nadu, India by preparing a set of standard questionnaires and answers were collected through online survey methods such as google forms. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS software and chi square analysis was done for correlation. The results clearly indicate that 57% percent of the population is aware about the recent advances in the treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma and 42% percent of the population not aware about the treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The conclusion of this study is that the above statistical analysis about knowledge awareness on recent advances in the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma has provided a clear view of current advanced treatment procedure and technique for the betterment of patients in future.